Saturn (Latin: Cronus or Caelus) is a major deity in Roman religion and mythology, and a character in myth. He is a father of Jupiter, Neptune, Pluto (Dis Pater), Juno, Ceres (Demeter), Vesta (Hestia) and Ops (Rhea).
His reign was depicted as a Golden Age of abundance and peace. The Temple of Saturn in the Roman Forum housed the state treasury.
In December, he was celebrated at what is perhaps the most famous of the Roman festivals, the Saturnalia, a time of feasting and role reversals.
Saturn had an extensive mythology, symbolised by the sickle he wielded (see also Cronus). To some extent his name has been associated with wealth; for example on coins minted in gold (aes) and silver (argentum), he would be represented carrying either one or both of these implements into battle as opposed to Jupiter who would be shown carrying thunderbolts or Mars who would be depicted with a spear or shield.
Greek writers of antiquity have attributed to him all kinds of roles: some make him an agricultural deity; others depict him as a cruel despot who devoured his children—a father who consumes his progeny has been interpreted by modern scholars as an allegory for social structures based on paternal authority.
The historical development of the cult of Saturn can be traced through stages from its origin as an obscure divinity in Latium, to its position as one of the two most important gods at Rome during the Augustan era.