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Unfair Treatment for Women in Prison

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Бегущий руководитель: НЕПРАВИЛЬНОЕ ОБРАЩЕНИЕ Существует ли несправедливое обращение с женщинами в тюрьме? LaSonja Johnson Kaplan University CM223: Эффективное письмо II для специальностей в области уголовного правосудия Профессор Винески 1 сентября 2009 г. Считается, что женщины относятся к более мягкому полу и относятся к более мягкой стороне нашей человечности. Но некоторые женщины совершают преступления, и когда они это делают, мы хотим знать, почему. Что побудило их совершить эти преступления? Был ли это жестокий муж? Это были наркотики? Зависть… страх… похоть? Поскольку все вопросы все еще остаются без ответа, а женщин сажают в тюрьму из-за еще большего количества проблем.

«Типичная» заключенная женщина – меньшинство в возрасте от 25 до 29 лет, не замужем, но имеет детей, вероятная жертва сексуального насилия в детстве, жертва физического насилия, в настоящее время имеет проблемы с алкоголем и наркотиками, подверглась множественным арестам, во-первых, арестован около 15 лет, бросил школу, получил пособие по социальному обеспечению, имеет низкую квалификацию и в основном работал на низкооплачиваемой работе. Заключенные-женщины ежедневно сталкиваются с гендерными проблемами в рамках нашей системы уголовного правосудия. Для некоторых рассмотрение юридических аспектов жизни – это несуществование. В большинстве штатов нет программы юридической помощи.

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Учитывая, что в тюрьмах очень мало опытных и опытных юристов, женщинам-заключенным трудно прибегать к средствам правовой защиты в своих собственных делах или в отношении юридических вопросов, возникающих в ходе тюремного заключения. Доступ к юридическому сообществу за пределами страны еще более затруднен из-за ограничений на телефонные звонки. Все звонки ограничены предварительно утвержденным списком телефонов. А для юридических визитов они должны быть заранее согласованы, и любые документы, которые есть у юриста, могут быть представлены только с предварительного разрешения. Заключение женщин в тюрьму оставляет целое в семье, потому что уход за ребенком и опека над ребенком должны быть решены.

Женщины обычно несут основную ответственность за своих детей. Нет никаких средств для оказания помощи или поддержки женщинам в их судебных тяжбах за сохранение целостности их семейной структуры или обеспечение прав их детей на безопасную, здоровую окружающую среду. Даже тем, чьим детям посчастливилось жить с членом семьи, трудно получить помощь семьям с детьми-иждивенцами изнутри. Если возникают другие проблемы, например, злоупотребления, получение юридической помощи практически невозможно. Помимо отсутствия юридической помощи, детям не предоставляется финансовая помощь, чтобы поехать навестить своих матерей.

Большинство женщин никогда не видят своих детей. Заключенные-женщины зависят от охранников в плане минимальных удобств тюремной жизни и, в некоторых случаях, самого их выживания. Охранники обеспечивают питание и безопасность, помогают заключенным женщинам получать надлежащую медицинскую помощь и гарантируют своевременные посещения и посылки от родственников. Охранники имеют неограниченный доступ к заключенным-женщинам и их жилой среде, в том числе к тому, где они спят и где купаются. При таком дисбалансе власти увеличивается вероятность сексуального насилия. Сексуальное насилие в тюрьме может варьироваться от насильственного изнасилования до торговли сексом за определенные привилегии.

In the United States, sexual abuse by guards in women’s prisons is so notorious and widespread that it has been described as “an institutionalized component of punishment behind prison walls. ” Women in prisons across the United States are subjected to diverse and systematic forms of sexual abuse: vaginal and anal rape; forced oral sex and forced digital penetration; quid pro quo coercion of sex for drugs, favors, or protection; abusive pat searches and strip searches; observation by male guards while naked or toileting; groping; verbal harassment; and sexual threats.

Women who survives a sexual assault and then have to navigate the health care system to receive adequate counseling and reproductive medical attention is daunting enough for those who walk freely on the outside, for women in prison, the hurdles can seem insurmountable. Unfortunately, sexual assault is a fact of like for many incarcerated women. Guards and prisoners openly joke about prisoner “girlfriends” and guard “boyfriends.

” Women prisoners become pregnant when the only men they have had contact with are guards and prison employees; often they are sent to olitary confinement—known as “the hole”—as punishment for having sexual contact with guards or for getting pregnant. 4 Such open and obvious abuses would seem relatively easy for a prison administration to detect and prevent if it chose to do so. According to Joanne Belknap, the study of women in the “crime processing” system is the study of the invisible woman. Belknap uses the term “crime processing” system rather than “criminal justice” system because she feels that there is nothing just or fair about the way women are treated in prison.

When imprisoned, women tend to become depressed or to seek solace in a personal relationship with another prisoner. Women prisoners face different circumstances during their incarceration and, thus, have different priorities and ways of challenging their conditions than their male counterparts. Mainstream ideas about prisoners are gendered masculine: the term “prisoner” usually calls forth an image of a young, black man convicted of a violent crime such as rape or murder.

Politicians seeking votes, as well as media seeking specific audiences play on this representation, whipping the public into hysteria to get tougher on crime and build more prisons. The stereotype of the male felon makes invisible the growing number of women imprisoned under the various mandatory sentencing laws passed within the past few decades. Because women do not fit the media stereotype, the public does not see them and are not then aware of the disturbing paradoxes of prisoners as mothers, as women with reproductive rights and abilities, and as women in general.

Women constitute the fastest growing segment of the United States’ prison population, but the disparity in sentencing is contributing factor. The disparity in sentencing has had a profound effect on the population as a whole. Women have been wrenched from their homes and children for 5, 10, or 15, years for mere possession. Women who refuse to “cooperate” or snitch receive very long sentences, because they are related to a man who is the main tie. Women prisoners are viewed as incapable of being good mothers and thus not automatically deserving of the same respect and treatment accorded to mothers on the outside.

While this may be the case in some instances, such a sweeping generalization ignores the fact that many inmate mothers were single heads of households, the sole provider for their children and may have been forced to rely on illegal means to support and protect their family. Prison and social service authorities rely on the notion that inmate mothers are somehow unfit and unworthy to legitimize over-reaching policies regarding the children of imprisoned parents. Women prisoners are even more overlooked by mainstream society than their male counterparts.

They have not passively accepted their conditions. Women inmates have both individually and collectively struggled to improve their health care, abolish sexual abuse, maintain contact with their children and further their education. These actions are often ignored or dismissed by those studying the prison-industrial complex, prisoner rights activists and outside feminists, making documentation and research all the more important in giving women inmates a voice in the discourse.

Women in prison are fighting to maintain a sense of self within a system that isolates and degrades; one which attempts to teach submission to authority through the constant exercising of power, in both serious and petty ways, over prisoners. What is generated is not obedience but anger, and since a prisoner risks punishment such as being sent to segregation if she directs her anger at the system that’s hurting her, that anger often gets directed inward or at other prisoners. From the beginning, prisons in the United States were designed for men, with little consideration for women and their specific needs.

Although the numbers of women in U. S. prisons continue to grow, programs and polices responsive to the needs of women prisoner has not kept pace. This lack of policy and research attention only continues the tradition of neglect and inattention that characterize the history of prisons for women. References Austin, J. , & Irwin, J. (2001) “It’s about time: America’s imprisonment binge. ” 3rd Edition, edited by Thomas Blomberg and Stanley Cohen. Aldine de Gruyter. Banks, C. Women in Prison: A reference handbook Belknap, J. (2001), The Invisible Woman: Gender, Crime, and Justice, 2nd ed. , Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, Belknap, J. 2007), The Invisible Woman: Gender, Crime, and Justice, 3rd ed. , Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, Muraskin, R. (2005) Key Correctional Issues. Pearson Prentice Hall Pollock, J. M. (2002) Women, Prison, and Crime Zaitzow, B. H. and Thomas, J. (2003) Women in Prison: Gender and Social Control UNIT 9 PROJECT RUBRIC: The Final Draft (130 Total Points) | |CONTENT |ORGANIZATION |WRITING STYLE |MECHANICS | |A |Includes a strong thesis statement, |Should be very well-ordered. Appropriate to the assignment, |Project is free of serious | |130-117pts |introduction and conclusion. Shows |Internally, each section must |fresh (interesting to read), |errors; grammar, punctuation, and| | |original thought. Supports arguments |have a strong internal |accurate (no far-fetched, |spelling help to clarify the | | |well (no logical flaws; outside sources |organization.

Transitions found |unsupported comments), precise |meaning by following accepted | | |used to support arguments). Develops |between and within sections must |(say what you mean), and concise |conventions. Sources are cited; | | |main points clearly. Skillfully refutes |be clear and effective. |(not wordy). |an attempt at APA citation was | | |counter-arguments and does not ignore | | |made. | |data contradicting its claim. Refers to | | | | | |at least five outside sources in the text| | | | | |and references page, two of which are | | | | | |academic sources.

Meets page | | | | | |requirements. | | | | |B |Includes a good thesis statement, |Should be well-ordered. |Should generally be appropriate |Contains some generally minor | |116. 99-104 pts |introduction and conclusion that need |Internally, each section must |to the assignment, accurate (no |grammatical and punctuation | | |some revision.

Shows original thought. |have a good internal |far-fetched, unsupported |errors. Few misspellings. | | |Supports most arguments concretely |organization. Transitions found |comments), precise (say what you |Sources are cited; an attempt at | | |(outside sources supporting most claims). |between and within sections are |mean), and concise (not wordy). |APA citation was made. | | |Develops the main points clearly. |mostly clear and effective. | | | |Refutes counter-arguments and does not | | | | | |ignore data contradicting its claim, | | | | | |though the refutation may need tightening| | | | | |and additional support.

Refers to a | | | | | |minimum of five outside sources both | | | | | |in-text and in the references page, two | | | | | |of which are academic sources.

Less than | | | | | |a page short of the requirement. | | | | |C |Includes a thesis statement that needs |The organization has a few |Appropriate in places, but |Numerous grammatical and | |103. 99 – 91 pts|revision. The introduction and |problems.

Sections lack |elsewhere language is vague |punctuation errors. Misspellings| | |conclusion do not set up or close the |transitions, and several |and/or inappropriate. |are more frequent, but they are | | |paper very effectively. Shows too little|sentences may be monotonous or | |the sort spell checkers do not | | |original thought. Main points are |confusing. The overall structure| |catch, such as “effect/affect. | | |adequately defined in only some areas of |of the assignment is not | |Sources are cited. | | |the paper; points may be over emphasized |effective. | | | | |or repeated. Some arguments are supported| | | | | |with outside research, but others may not| | | | | |be.

Relies too heavily on personal | | | | | |experience or one or two sources. Some | | | | | |obvious counter-arguments are ignored or | | | | | |not well-refuted.

The paper is largely | | | | | |informative with little persuasive claim. | | | | | |Contains references to 3-4 outside | | | | | |sources, only one of which is academic. | | | | |One to two pages short of the | | | | | |requirement. | | | | |D |The thesis statement identifies a topic |The organization has multiple |Inappropriate and vague writing |Many serious and minor grammar or| |78 – 90. 99 pts |but no claim and needs major revision. problems. Most sections lack |interferes with the development |punctuation errors; frequent | | |The introduction or conclusion is poorly |transitions, and sentences are |and clarity of the main points. |misspellings, including those | | |developed. The essay’s main points are |often monotonous or | |that should have been caught by | | |developed inconsistently, or |incomprehensible. The overall | |the spell-checker. All sources | | |repetitiously.

| Многие очевидные | структура присвоения | | не цитируются. | | | контраргументы игнорируются и | не действуют. | | | | | не опровергнуты. Слишком сильно полагается на | | | | | | личный опыт. Бумага не | | | | | | отвечают многим требованиям источника. | | | | | Слишком мало цитат в тексте или | | | | | | один-два источника опираются на | | | | | | исключительно; страница ссылок может быть | | | | | | отсутствует.

Бумага в основном | | | | | | информативно с малоубедительными претензиями. | | | | | | На три и более страницы не хватает | | | | | | требование. | | | | F | Он полностью или частично соответствует требованиям задания. | | 0-77. 99 баллов | Компоненты, указанные для статьи «D», не выполняются. | | | Это может быть плагиатом. |

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Unfair Treatment for Women in Prison. (2018, Feb 19). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/unfair-treatment/

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