Waste Management Essay
Having a clean and healthy environment is one of the key requisites for a nation’s development - Waste Management Essay introduction. However, it’s quite ironic that as development continues to grow, lifestyles also adjust to this and if this change happens further, exploitation of the planet’s resources in turn accelerates. With the fast paced life we are living in today, there have been many developments in different areas most specifically technology given that with any resource that is being used to produce something will result to production of wastes and deploring public health conditions.
Furthermore, as development progresses, population also grows; and apparently population growth directly affects generation of wastes, be it solid or liquid. As a result, some of the offensive wastes during the first half of this century were hazardous. Indeed, rapid urbanization, population growth and changes in lifestyles in low- and middle-income countries contribute to increasing the per capita domestic waste generation. In fact, millions of metric tons of waste are being generated worldwide. Metro manila, having a population of 11,099,800 and an annual growth rate of 5. % has 5500 tons of wastes generated per day . In the table below, urban city waste generation per capita in the Philippines constitute to 40% for low income group and 50% for middle income group. Meanwhile, daily waste generation of a city ranges from 40-50 tons per day. 50% of wastes generated are compostable, 15% are residual, 30% are factory returnable and 5% are special wastes. Thus, to alleviate this rising dilemma, proper waste management is necessary. This requires an assessment of many complex interaction systems, land use patterns, urban growth and development, and public health considerations.
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Given that waste disposal is one of the nation’s most serious problems, the government has not developed an optimal solution to this. According to the World Resources Institute (1996) one to two thirds of the municipal solid waste generated in the developing world is dumped indiscriminately on streets or in drains, thus causing floods, insect and rodent breeding grounds and the spread of diseases. As more and more wastes is produced and collected, dumpsites and landfills will require huge spaces and large budgets. The collected waste is generally dumped on land in a more or less uncontrolled manner.
Such uncontrolled waste disposal eventually creates serious environmental problems; cause serious financial and socio-economic losses; and affect human and animal health in the long run. Though there have been laws like R. A. 90003 to address to such problem, this is not enough to lessen such dilemma since waste management practices have been misguided by two notions. First is that, sustained waste production is inevitable; and second is that, disposal oriented technology is a solution for waste problems and therefore should be the focus of legal and scientific attention.
Unfortunately, without up-to-date research and development on urban solid waste management, this problem will remain to be without in depth attention; and effectiveness of certain polices will impede. For that reason, this paper attempts to shed light on formulation of policies, programs and laws regarding proper waste management that will be of great help in pursuance of economic development. Furthermore, this research has two concerns: concern for public sector reform and sustainable development in the urban context.
Waste Management Essay
Waste management is crucial to the health care and hospital industry and is necessary in ensuring a sustainable future - Waste Management Essay introduction. Waste management and waste minimisation practices serve to protect and enhance public health, minimise the environmental implications of disposing of health care waste and where possible ensure that waste is reduced, reused and recycled. There are various waste streams generated within healthcare and hospital facilities, below are three types of waste generated and the specific requirements and procedures that need to be followed when disposing of such wastes.
General Waste includes any waste that is not capable of being composted, recycled, reprocessed or re-used and is free of any apparent or actual pathological, infectious, radioactive or hazardous chemical contamination. General waste may include but not be limited to sanitary waste, urinary catheters, medical instrument packaging, incontinence pads, disposable nappies, intravenous tubing (non- infectious patients only), drained dialysis waste, paper towel and stoma bags. General healthcare waste is usually placed into black or green bags and can be disposed of in landfill.
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Clinical Waste is defined as any waste that has the potential to cause disease, infection, injury or public offence. Clinical waste includes human tissue waste (body tissue, organs, limbs, blood and other bodily fluids), sharps (any object capable of causing a penetrating injury to humans) and laboratory waste. It is necessary when handling clinical waste that the correct personal protective equipment (PPE) be worn. Clinical waste is disposed of in a yellow bag marked with a bio-hazard symbol, it is then placed in a lockable yellow wheelie bin for transportation to a waste management facility where it is incinerated.
Cytotoxic Waste is the by-product of cytotoxic drug therapy. Handling of all cytotoxic waste requires PPE as Cytotoxic drugs are toxic compounds known to have carcinogenic, mutagenic, and or teratogenic potential . All cytotoxic waste, including administrative equipment and tools such as sharps, medical instruments, gowns, gloves and bodily fluid waste must be packed directly into a purple colour coded, secure, leak proof container displaying the telophase symbol in white and clearly marked ‘Cytotoxic Waste’.
Cytotoxic waste is then incinerated. Waste management can have a major impact on public health and safety so it is imperative that there are established protocols for the management of the various waste streams. It is necessary for health care professionals to be aware of the environmental and health implications if waste is disposed of inappropriately. Effective segregation of waste material will reduce costs, promote recycling, and will assist to protect the health and safety of the all.