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A & P Exam 3 Nervous System

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    CNS
    central nervous system contains brain and the spinal cord
    PNS
    PNS
    peripheral nervous system consisting of nerves and ganglia that lie outside of the brain and spinal cord
    somatic nervous system
    the division of the PNS that provides the motor innervation of skeletal muscles; voluntary nervous(skeletal muscle) system
    dermatomes
    dermatomes
    innervated skin segmented by cutaneous sensory branches of a single spinal nerve {areas of body or cell junctions composed of thickened plasma membranes joined by filaments (skin segments) supply the body and other organs with nerves}
    autonomic (visceral)
    autonomic (visceral)
    involuntary nerve neurons reflexes or activation of glands and or smooth and cardiac muscles in the PNS
    neuron (nerve cell)
    neuron (nerve cell)
    cell of the nervous system specialized to generate and transmit electrical signals actin potentials and graded potentials)
    sensory/afferent
    sensory/afferent
    nerves that contain processes of sensory neurons and carry impulses to the CNS
    motor/efferent
    motor/efferent
    nerves that carry impulses leaving the brain and spinal cord , destined for effectors (signals away from the CNS to PNS)
    ganglion/nucleus
    ganglion/nucleus
    enlargement in a nerve; collection nerve cell bodies outside the CNS
    convergent neuron
    multiple or many neurons impulses activating a single axon (sensory)
    divergent neurons
    one axon synapses or activates on many neurons (motor)
    ganglion
    located in the PNS
    nucleus
    located in the spinal cord
    sensory
    located in receptor ending; respond to stimuli
    nerve/tract
    nerve/tract
    nerve: bundle of axons in the PNS; tract is a collection of axons in the CNS with the same origin, termination, and function.
    plexus
    plexus
    junction of neurons that innervate a single or particular area, organ or place in the body, involves cranial nerve X
    action potential
    action potential
    nerve or neuron impulses; what makes things happen in the body ( long membrane of muscle cells or nerve fibers)
    neuroglia
    neuroglia
    non-excitable cells of neural tissue that support, protect, and insulate the neurons; glial cells
    myelin
    myelin
    white matter; surround axons of nerves, cell membrane that causes impulses to travel faster; fatty insulating sheath surround all the smallest nerve fibers from fluids
    oligodendeocytes
    CNS supporting cell that composes myelin sheaths (cell wraps a few/multiple axons)
    Schwann cells
    Schwann cells
    PNS supporting cell; forms myelin sheaths and is vital peripheral nerve fiber regeneration
    neurotransmitters
    neurotransmitters
    the chemical messengers released by neurons; may upon binding to receptors of neurons or effector cells, stimulate or inhibit those neurons or effector cells.
    white matter
    white matter
    myelinated tissue only on axon located in the white substance of the CNS; impulses travel much faster, myelinated nerve fibers
    gray matter
    gray matter
    unmyelinated tissue; gray area in the CNS; contains neuronal cell bodies and their dendrites; travel much slower
    meninges of CNS
    meninges of CNS
    protective coverings of CNS
    dura mater
    dura mater
    toughest thick, outermost covering of the brain and spinal cord
    arachnoid
    arachnoid
    weblike; middle layer fairly thick, holds most of the fluid
    pia mater
    pia mater
    delicate, very thin covering over the neurological (spinal) tissue (vascularily feeds spinal tissue; richly invested with tiny blood vessels; brain like cell phone wrap)
    epidural space
    epidural space
    the dura space between the meninges and bone filled with fatty tissue in the spinal cord
    cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    plasmalike fluid that fills the CNS cavities, surround CNS externally; fluid protects the brain and spinal cord
    ventricles
    ventricles
    cavities inside the brain; paired, inferiorly located chambers that function as major blood pumps (spaces inside the brain, or extend to the brain)
    ependymal cells
    ependymal cells
    compartments in the brain that produce CSF; and secrete fluid through membranes
    arachnoid villi
    arachnoid villi
    knoblike projections; absorb cerebrospinal fluid into the venous blood of the sinus( part of circulation area)
    spinal cord
    spinal cord
    bundle of nerves that run from the brain to the first and third lumbar vertabrae and provides conduction pathway to and from the brain
    dorsal root
    dorsal root
    large nerve which enters the posterior end of the spinal cord (sensory)
    dorsal root ganglion
    dorsal root ganglion
    mass of cell bodies in the sensory root neuron
    ventral root
    ventral root
    large nerve which exits/leaves the anterior the ventral surfase of the spinal cord motor root (sensation)
    conus medullaris
    conus medullaris
    central cone in the center of the spinal column and end unit of the spinal cord
    cauda equina
    cauda equina
    mass of nerves that depart at the conus medullaris (sacrom); looks like a hairy horse tail/many hairs.
    gyrus
    gyrus
    outward fold of the surface of the cerebral cortex
    sulcus
    sulcus
    a furrow on the brain; shallow grooves (less deep than fissure)
    fissure
    fissure
    deepest depression or inward folds in the brain; a groove or cleft (seperate large region of the brain)
    central sulcus
    central sulcus
    landmark, a cleft seperating the frontal lobe from the parietal lobes of the brain
    pre-central gyrus
    pre-central gyrus
    primary somatosenory cortex; function touch, body awareness (associated with motor signals/ muscle origin); bordering the central sulcus anteriorly
    post-central gyrus
    post-central gyrus
    somato sensory cortex, outside layer of brain; primary motor cortex voluntary movement control-sensory of touch; posteriorly
    basal nuclei
    basal nuclei
    involved in regulation of voluntary or rhythmic movement; gray mater at the base of the cerebral hemisphere
    limbic system
    limbic system
    intergration of sensory reception and memory; personality or life experiences (functional brain system involved in the emotional responses and memory formation)
    proprioceptors
    proprioceptors
    awareness of limbs or parts of the body (located in the tendons or base of joint, and muscle)
    function: locomotion, posture, and muscle tone
    nociceptors
    nociceptors
    pain receptors; sensitive to potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain
    mechanreceptors
    must be touched or moved for muscle to contraction to activate (physical or mechanical)
    auditory cilia
    sensory system for sense of hearing , has hairs and includes both the sensory organs (ears) and auditory parts of the sensory system
    vestibular cilia
    located in the balance organ; use mechanical or operation cause/function require body movements to stimulate hairs; inner ear, larynx, nose
    macula
    macula
    senses work in straight line sensations or up and down/longitudial (central vision; light sensative layer of tissue lining the interior of the back of the eye; small spot, where vision is the keenest in the retina)
    crista
    crista
    rotational movements
    touch receptors
    touch receptors
    mechnical receptor stimulated
    chemoreceptors
    chemoreceptors
    sense chemicals dissolve in body fluid; receptor sensitive to various chemicals in solutions
    olfactory hairs
    olfactory hairs
    modified cilia projecting from olfactory cells in the mucosa of the nasal olfactory area. (not hairs but are dendrites/receivers)
    gustatory hairs
    gustatory hairs
    a long, spindlelike protrusion of epithelial cells that responds to dissolved chemicals (salvia) or several primary tastes, sweets, salty, tastes, bitter, etc.
    photoreceptors
    photoreceptors
    specialized receptor cells that respond to light energy; and are sensitive to light located in the eye; rods and cones
    rods
    rods
    part of eye sees dim light, black and white and shades of gray in the retina
    cones
    cones
    part of eye responsible for color vision; requires bright light
    auditory ossicles
    auditory ossicles
    three bones in the middle ear
    malleus
    malleus
    a small bone in the middle ear that transmits vibrations of the eardrum to the incus. (looks like hammer)
    incus
    incus
    a small anvil-shaped bone in the middle ear, transmitting vibrations between the malleus and stapes.
    stapes
    stapes
    a small stirrup-shaped bone in the middle ear,transmitting vibrations from the incus to the inner ear. (touches the oval window)
    extrinsic eye muscles
    extrinsic eye muscles
    outside, voluntary skeletal muscle that control movement of eyeball (II, IV, VI)( The extrinsic muscles are controlled by the somatic nervous system(voluntary)
    intrinsic eye muscles
    intrinsic eye muscles
    The intrinsic muscles control the lens and pupil. The intrinsic eye muscles, (including the iris sphincter, radial pupilodilator muscles and the ciliary muscle), are under the control of the autonomic nervous system(involuntary)
    autonomic system
    autonomic system
    A part of the nervous system that regulates key involuntary functions of the body, including the activity of the heart muscle; the smooth muscles, including the muscles of the intestinal tract; and the glands.
    sympathetic autonomic system
    sympathetic autonomic system
    causes things to increase (up regulation) or increase body activity (accelerates the heart rate, constricts blood vessels, and raises blood pressure)
    parasympathetic autonomic system
    parasympathetic autonomic system
    rest/digest (system which slows the heart rate, increases intestinal and gland activity, and relaxes sphincter muscles.) decrease regulation
    preganglionic neuron (myelinated)
    autonomic motor neuron that has its own cell body in the CNS and projects its axon on a peripheral ganglion (short)
    postganglionic neuron (myelinated)
    its cell body in peripheral ganglion and projects its axon to an effector; come out cervical/lumbar(long )
    autonomic ganglion
    autonomic ganglion
    collection of sympathetic or parasymathetic postganglionic neuronal cell bodies
    dendrites
    a short motor neurons branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses received from other cells at synapses are transmitted to the cell body. (**responsible primarily for receiving signals from other neurons)
    axon hilcock
    a specialized part of the cell body (or soma) of a neuron that connects to the axon. The spot where nerves impulses generate here (trigger zone)
    nucleolous
    organize regions of chromosomes, which contain the genes for pre‐ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA), serve as the foundation for nucleolar structure.
    terminal bouton
    knoblike distal endings of the terminal branches (usually 10,000or more)
    axon
    impulse-generating and conducting region
    cell body
    biosynthetic center and receptive region
    tracts
    bundles of neuron processes in the CNS
    graded potential
    short-distance signals
    dendritic spines
    thorny appendages having bulbous or spiky ends-which represent points of close contact (synapse) with other neurtons
    chromatophilic
    substance rough with endoplasmic reticulum
    nerve fiber
    any long axon
    motor symbols
    o———————–<
    prodomindantily skeletal muscle movement
    sensory symbols
    >——–P————-< (light bulb in middle)
    perception of environment; receives various stimuli; may interpret stimuli (i.e. vision); two hemispheres; corpus callosum connects
    interneuron
    >——————-<
    ascending tract
    sensory tract; carry signal up the CNS words with “spino”
    descending tract
    motor tract; carry signal down to PNS word with “spinal”
    synapse (have to draw and label)
    synapse (have to draw and label)
    junction permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another cell (neural or otherwise).
    Reflex arc
    Reflex arc
    stimulus, receptor, sensory neuron, intergration center, motor neuron, effector, response
    brain stem
    The stem-like part of the base of the brain that is connected to the spinal cord. The brain stem controls the involuntary flow of messages between the brain and the rest of the body, and it also controls basic body functions such as breathing, swallowing, heart rate, blood pressure, consciousness, and whether one is awake or sleepy
    midbrain
    midbrain
    is located between the dicephalon and pons placing it near the center of the brain
    pons
    pons
    contains nuclei that relay signals from the forebrain to the cerebellum, along with nuclei that deal primarily with sleep, respiration, swallowing, bladder control, hearing, equilibrium, taste, eye movement, facial expressions, facial sensation, and posture.
    medulla oblongata
    medulla oblongata
    helps transfer messages to the spinal cord and the thalamus in the brain from the body and controls breathing, heart function, blood vessel function, digestion, sneezing, and swallowing.
    diencephalon
    diencephalon
    area of brain contains both thalamus and hypothalamus
    thalamus
    thalamus
    receive sensory input from body organs (sensory cop) and direct these signals to the proper areas/location in the body has 15 nuclei; a relay system
    hypothalamus
    hypothalamus
    extensively posterior of the thalamus; controls metabolic i.e. thirst, hunger, blood pressure, temp. etc.
    cerebellum
    cerebellum
    base of brain, function in coordination and muscle activities (balance, reflexes, using multiple muscles/reflexes at once)
    cerebrum
    cerebrum
    sensory association areas in cerebral cortex; responsible for intelligence; thinking, memory (gray mater of brain, interpetation of sensory input)
    association
    processing of information, interpretation and direction of activities
    sensory only (convergent)
    I olfactory-smell
    II Optic-vision
    VII Vestibularcochlear (auditory and balance)
    motor only (divergent)
    III Oculomotor- eye
    IV Trochlear -eye
    VI- Abducens- eye
    XII- hypoglossal-tongue, swallowing
    Mixed (sensory and motor)
    V Sensory for face, PTT, motor for adductor jaw muscles
    VII Facial -sensory taste, motor facial muscle
    IX Glossoparengeal sensory for mouth and motor for larynx (vocalization)
    XI Neck (Accessory)
    Vagus X- sensory and motor for internal organs; motor for larynx (most extensive cranial nerve)
    CNS exits sites
    sympathetic thoraric/lumbar
    parasymathetic brain (cranial nerves) and sacral
    Limbric system in olfactory and gustatory networks
    are more of a process than an organ; the main part in the brain and memory system or intergration of sensory and learning. (ie. the pleasant and unpleasant life experiences creates or shapes your personality)
    part of eyeball
    part of eyeball
    Vitreous humor
    Vitreous humor
    back thick part of eye can have filaments that become loose
    pupil
    pupil
    opening of the iris
    iris
    iris
    intrinsic smooth muscle, can change size, controlled by the autonomic system (antagonistic)
    ciliary muscle
    ciliary muscle
    s a ring of smooth muscle in the eye’s middle layer (vascular layer) that controls accommodation for viewing objects at varying distances and regulates the flow of aqueous humour into Schlemm’s canal.
    central artery
    central artery
    (retinal artery) branches off the ophthalmic artery, running inferior to the optic nerve within its dural sheath to the eyeball.
    optic disc
    optic disc
    blind spot
    scleral venous sinus (Schlemm canal)
    scleral venous sinus (Schlemm canal)
    the vascular structure encircling the anterior chamber of the eye and through which the aqueous humor is returned to the blood circulation.
    optic nerve tract
    optic nerve tract
    is an extension of the optic nerve located in the brain.
    cornea
    cornea
    is the transparent, dome-shaped window covering the front of the eye. It is a powerful refracting surface, providing 2/3 of the eye’s focusing power.
    parts of ear
    parts of ear
    Process of hearing
    Vibrations enter the auricle and travel to the the tympanic membrane. The vibrations continue into the middle ear through the cochlea; travel t0 basilar membrane to the auditory ossicle vessicles vibrate. The pressure is amplifes and waves created by the stapes push into the oval window and move through fluid stimulate auditory cilia activating to association area to the other side of brain to associate sound.
    Balance
    dynamic equilibrium semicircular canals monitor changes in heads rotation requires our movement for stimulation the fluid in ears as well (cranial nerve VIII)
    glands and tear ducts
    two tiny openings in the lacrimal puncture tears drain into the lacrimal sac, then into nasolacrimal duct and empties into the nasal cavity at the inferior nasal meatus

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