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Ch. 16: Autonomic Nervous System

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    The sympathetic division of the ANS is also known as which of the following?
    thoracolumbar division
    Preganglionic fibers leave the CNS and then synapse on
    ganglionic neurons.
    The parasympathetic nervous system is especially active during which physiological state?
    digestion
    Craniosacral division is another name for the
    parasympathetic division of the ANS.
    The parasympathetic division is also called the ________ division.
    craniosacral division
    The saying “rest and digest” is the response of the ________ division of the ANS.
    parasympathetic
    Which of the following effectors is innervated by neurons that synapse in the collateral ganglia?
    intestine
    Sympathetic ganglionic neurons are found in all these locations EXCEPT __________.

    sympathetic chain ganglia
    intramural ganglia
    collateral ganglia
    adrenal medullae

    intramural ganglia
    Sympathetic preganglionic neurons are ________ and have ________ axons.
    short; myelinated
    In what ways do the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system interact?

    One division may increase function of an organ, while the other division inhibits it.

    Occasionally only one division communicates with an organ.

    Both divisions may work together for the function of an organ or a process.

    One division may counterbalance the other division.

    All of the answers are correct.

    All of the answers are correct.
    Damage to the ventral roots of the first five thoracic spinal nerves on the right side of the body would interfere with the ability to
    dilate the right pupil.
    Injury to the neurons of a collateral ganglion would affect the function of the
    digestive tract.
    Postganglionic axons usually are
    unmyelinated
    Sympathetic nerves
    contain short preganglionic fibers and longer postganglionic fibers.
    As the result of an accident, the white rami of spinal nerves T1 and T2 on the left side of Brad’s body are severed. What organ(s) would you expect to be affected by this injury?
    left pupil and heart
    A person is confronted by a dangerous dog. His heart begins to race and beat strongly, his pupils dilate, and his hairs stand up. These signs are the result of
    the “fight or flight” response.
    The sympathetic division is also called the ________ division.
    thoracolumbar
    Unpaired sympathetic ganglia are called ________ ganglia.
    collateral
    In what part of the given pathway is norepinephrine secreted?
    from the varicosities of the postganglionic fiber
    What is the effect of neurotransmitters released here (in the adrenal medullae)?
    They are released into the blood and produce long-lasting and widespread effects in the body.
    Tom suffers from hypertension (high blood pressure). Which of the following might help deal with his problem?
    a drug that blocks alpha-1 receptors in smooth muscle and blocks beta receptors in cardiac muscle tissue
    Drugs known as beta-blockers may be useful for treating
    excessive heart rate.
    Postganglionic sympathetic axons can release the neurotransmitter ________ at their effector junctions.
    Postganglionic sympathetic axons can release the neurotransmitter ________ at their effector junctions.
    ACh
    norepinephrine
    nitric oxide
    acetylcholine
    All of the answers are correct.
    All of the answers are correct.
    Stimulation of the beta receptors on heart muscle cells results in
    increased heart rate and force of contraction.
    The neurotransmitter ACH is
    always excitatory when used in the synapses of the sympathetic nervous system.
    Which of the following statements is *true*?
    The stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors can lead to….

    1. an increase in metabolic activity.
    2. stimulation of airway smooth muscle.
    3. the breakdown of triglycerides within adipocytes.

    1. an increase in metabolic activity.
    3. the breakdown of triglycerides within adipocytes.
    An inhaler used to treat airway constriction in asthma or allergy might contain a drug that
    activates β2 adrenergic receptors.
    Most sympathetic effector junctions release norepinephrine but a significant number release acetylcholine instead. Which of these is an example of an organ of the cholinergic type?

    the heart
    the salivary glands
    the liver
    a sweat gland
    a blood vessel in the skin

    a sweat gland
    A certain drug decreases heart rate by blocking a receptor on cardiac pacemaker cells. This drug probably binds to ________ receptors.
    beta-1 adrenergic
    *Drugs that stimulate alpha receptors, causing constriction of peripheral vessels, are
    sympathomimetic.
    Sympathomimetic drugs might be used to
    dilate airways.
    *If the receptor on the postsynaptic membrane binds to norepinephrine, the synapse is called
    adrenergic
    *Neurons that release norepinephrine as a neurotransmitter are called
    adrenergic
    Which of the following target organs will have its parasympathetic regulation impacted by damage to the sacral region of the spinal cord?
    urinary bladder
    Parasympathetic outflow is ABSENT in which of these?

    cervical ganglia
    pelvic nerves
    cranial nerve III
    cranial nerve X

    cervical ganglia
    Disorders involving the vagus nerve might cause

    a drop in blood pressure.

    more saliva production.

    constriction of the pupils.

    food to remain in your stomach longer.

    All of the answers are correct.

    food to remain in your stomach longer.
    Almost 75 percent of all parasympathetic outflow travels along the ________ nerve(s).
    vagus nerve
    Which of the following is *not* a parasympathetic ganglion?
    ciliary
    pterygopalatine
    otic
    celiac
    submandibular
    celiac
    Parasympathetic functions include all of the following, *except*:

    stimulation of urination.

    dilation of the airways.

    decrease in the rate of cardiac contraction.

    constriction of the pupils.

    stimulation of defecation.

    dilation of airways
    Postganglionic fibers release neurotransmitter on peripheral effectors
    at pear-like swellings called varicosities
    Parasympathetic stimulation
    increase gastric motility
    The parasympathetic nervous system releases __________ at ganglionic synapses and __________ at its neuroeffector junctions.
    acetylcholine; acetylcholine
    Nicotine, the highly addictive plant toxin, activates nicotinic receptors in the peripheral nervous system. This means it will __________.
    facilitate synaptic transmission at all autonomic ganglionic synapses
    The statement “Its postganglionic axons always use acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter” is
    true only for the parasympathetic nervous system
    Sweat glands contain ________ receptors.
    muscarinic cholinergic
    Nicotinic receptors
    open chemically-gated sodium ion channels.
    open chemically-gated sodium ion channels.
    are normally activated by acetylcholine.
    A neuron with nicotinic receptors is exposed to acetylcholine. This will lead to

    depolarization of the neuron.

    excitation of the neuron.

    entry of sodium ions into the neuron.

    activation of chemically-gated ion channels.

    All of the answers are correct.

    All of the answers are correct.
    Drugs that block nicotinic receptors would be
    autonomic blocking agents.
    Parasympathetic blocking agents can be useful in treating
    urinary incontinence.
    A doctor places drops in the eyes to dilate the pupils for an examination. The type of drug that is used is a(n) ________ drug.

    1. sympathomimetic
    2. parasympathomimetic
    3. adrenergic activating
    4. cholinergic activating

    1. sympathomimetic
    3. cholinergic activating
    *Mary accidentally ate poison mushrooms that contain muscarine. What symptoms would you expect to observe?

    very low heart rate
    salivation
    diarrhea
    sweating
    All of the answers are correct.

    All of the answers are correct
    *Which of these organs does NOT receive dual innervation?

    salivary gland
    sweat glands
    heart
    eye

    sweat glands
    Which of these is NOT an action of the sympathetic nervous system?

    to increase heart rate
    to increase sweating
    to reduce skin circulation
    to constrict the pupils

    to constrict the pupils
    Which of these is NOT a similarity between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems?

    Both use norepinephrine.

    Both affect heart rate.

    Both affect the pupils.

    Both use acetylcholine.

    Both use norepinephrine.
    Autonomic tone is an important aspect of ANS function because it
    allows ANS neurons to increase or decrease their activity, providing a range of control options.
    allows ANS neurons to increase or decrease their activity, providing a range of control options.
    autonomic tone
    *Which of the following is missing in a short reflex?
    CNS component
    Which of the following is NOT an example of a visceral reflex?

    defecation reflex
    vomiting reflex
    pupillary reflex
    tendon reflex

    tendon reflex
    Which of the following is an example of a visceral reflex?

    pupillary reflex
    vomiting reflex
    defecation reflex
    ejaculation in response to tactile stimuli
    All of the answers are correct.

    All of the answers are correct
    Which of the following would be an example of higher-level control of autonomic function?

    gagging on food that does not appeal to you

    dilation of the pupils when you enter a dark room

    a violent coughing attack in response to an irritant

    increased heart rate when you see a person you fear

    increased salivation when you smell food that appeals to you

    increases heart rate when you see a person you fear
    The integrative centers for autonomic activity are located in the
    hypothalamus
    Tim has suffered a vasovagal loss of consciousness, commonly known as fainting. Environmental triggers, including the smell of the anatomy lab and the sight of the cadaver, caused a momentary malfunction of his autonomic nervous system (ANS). How is the structural organization of the ANS different from or similar to that of the somatic nervous system (SNS)?
    They are different. In the ANS, motor neurons of the central nervous system do not directly control visceral effectors. They synapse with visceral motor neurons in ganglia, and the ganglionic neurons control the visceral effectors.

    Visceral motor neurons are known as preganglionic neurons.

    The ANS consists of two divisions: the sympathetic and the parasympathetic. Which statement best describes the organization of the sympathetic division’s preganglionic neurons?
    The preganglionic neurons are located in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord.

    The sympathetic preganglionic neurons are located in the lateral gray horns of the spinal cord between T1 and L2.

    Which statement best describes the location and organization of parasympathetic ganglia and ganglionic neurons?
    Ganglia are located in or near to their target organ, and both the pre- and postganglionic neurons use acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter.

    Preganglionic fibers are long because the ganglia are located in or near the target organs; however, the postganglionic fibers are short by comparison.

    When Tim fainted, the sympathetic division of the ANS failed him, while the parasympathetic division went into overdrive. Parasympathetic stimulation of the vagus nerve caused Tim’s heart rate to slow, the force of contractions to decrease, and his blood pressure to drop. As a result, blood flow to the brain decreased, causing the fainting episode. Which part of the brain is critical for maintaining consciousness through its interactions with the cortex?
    the reticular activating system

    Consciousness results from the interactions between the reticular formation and the cerebral cortex. The reticular activation system (RAS) is a network within the reticular formation that extends from the medulla oblongata to the midbrain. When the RAS is inactive, so is the cerebral cortex.

    One possible way to categorize nervous system disorders is to check levels of neurotransmitters. What degenerative disorder is partly identified by the progressive loss of dopamine?
    Parkinson’s disease
    *If a deficit in the auditory association area can produce retrograde amnesia regarding sounds, then a deficit in the somatosensory association area can produce retrograde amnesia regarding __________.

    the taste of an object

    the texture and shape of an object

    the appearance of an object

    the smell of an object

    the texture and shape of an object
    *Years of illegal drug use have left a patient with anterograde amnesia. Which of the following regions is probably affected?

    amygdala
    nucleus basalis
    hippocampus
    All of the listed regions are affected.

    All of the listed regions are affected.
    Which of the following is an example of a skill memory?
    playing the piano
    Mechanisms involved in memory formation and storage involve all of the following except

    anterograde amnesia.

    the formation of memory engrams.

    facilitation at synapses.

    the formation of additional synaptic connections.

    increased release of neurotransmitters.

    anterograde amnesia
    Long-term memories that are with you for a lifetime are called ________ memories.

    multilobar
    tertiary
    consolidated
    secondary
    reflexive

    tertiary
    Conversion of a short-term memory to a long-term memory is called

    memory consolidation.
    anterograde amnesia.
    memory engraving.
    memory programming.
    memory conversion.

    memory consolidation
    The conscious state is maintained by the
    reticular activating system
    The brain waves produced by normal adults while resting with their eyes closed are ________ waves.

    theta
    beta
    gamma
    delta
    alpha

    alpha
    In deep sleep,
    the EEG pattern is characterized as “slow wave.”
    The regulation of awake-asleep cycles appears to involve an interplay between brain stem nuclei that use different neurotransmitters. The one that favors alertness is ________ and the other promoting deep sleep is ________.
    norepinephrine; serotonin
    During ________ sleep, the entire body relaxes and the activity of the cerebral cortex is at a minimum.
    deep
    During ________ sleep, dreaming occurs.
    REM
    Hallucinogenic drugs, such as LSD, function by
    stimulating serotonin receptors.
    *The inherited brain disorder Huntington’s disease is caused by the destruction of basal nuclei that use different neurotransmitters. One neurotransmitter is ________ and the other is ________.
    acetylcholine; GABA
    What mental illness is often improved by drugs that block serotonin re-uptake?
    depression
    Over the past year, George has noticed an obvious negative change in his grandfather’s behavior. Now, his grandfather is diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Which of the following behavioral changes is NOT necessarily associated with Alzheimer’s disease?

    anterograde amnesia

    inability to button a shirt due to tremors

    inability to recognize close family members

    emotional disturbances

    inability to button a shirt due to tremors
    Memory loss is one of the most common characteristics associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Researchers have identified the amygdala and hippocampus as regions involved in memory consolidation, as well as the __________, which still plays an uncertain role.
    nucleus basalis
    Which anatomical description is TRUE of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?
    Choose the best answer.

    It has long preganglionic fibers and short postganglionic fibers.

    It is also known as the craniosacral division because of its origins of innervation.

    Its synapses are mainly located in intramural ganglia, within the tissues of the target organs.

    Its innervation originates mainly in the thoracic segment of the spinal cord.

    Its innervation originates mainly in the thoracic segment of the spinal cord.

    Anatomical traits for the sympathetic division include thoracolumbar origins. Try to keep in mind some other traits. Where are the ganglia? What is the neurotransmitter at the target organ? What is the basic function?

    Which of the following statements accurately reflects a difference between ganglia in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions?
    Ganglia of the sympathetic division are located near the spinal cord, but ganglia of the parasympathetic division are located in or near the target organ.

    The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions are not only different in the location of the origin of innervation but also in the location of their ganglia outside the spinal cord. Despite these differences, they share common traits such as neurotransmitter released by the preganglionic neuron, effect on the postganglionic neuron, and myelination.

    What is the correct pairing of neurotransmitters in the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?
    The preganglionic neuron releases ACh, and the postganglionic neuron releases ACh.

    The neurotransmitter distribution in the autonomic nervous system is indicative of which division you are in.

    Ch. 16: Autonomic Nervous System. (2017, Dec 28). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/ch-16-autonomic-nervous-system-essay/

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