BIOL 318 Test 1

Table of Content
The lacrimal apparatus produces a watery solution known as _______.
The suspensory ligament (ciliary zonule) holds this structure in front of the pupil.
is a transparent neural layer
The inner layer of the retina _______.
rods and cones
The photoreceptors in the retina that detect light are ________.
visual cortex
The visual pathway terminates in this cortical area.
The normal, or ______, eye accommodates properly.
results from irregular curvatures of the lens or cornea
Astigmatism ____________________.
This reflex involves extrinsic eye muscles, and is controlled by the somatic nervous system.
are absent in the fovea centralis
The rods of the retina _________.
Axons of ganglion cells form the optic tract. These fibers synapse in the ______.
the near point of accommodation becomes further away
Many older individuals develop presbyopia, a condition in which ______________________.
provides three- dimensional vision, provides an accurate means of locating objects in space, and is present in primates, felines, and raptors.
Binocular vision __________________
middle ear
The pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube connects the ________ to the nasopharynx.
Both require the movement of fluid.
What is true of both the mechanism of hearing and the mechanism of equilibrium?
The cochlear duct (scala media) contains _____________.
The hair cells that detect sound vibrations lie on the ______ membrane.
These nervous system cells are highly specialized to transmit messages throughout the body.
astrocytes and ependymal cells
These support cells are found in the central nervous system.
schwann cells
The formation of myelin in the peripheral nervous system is accomplished by these cells.
nodes of ranvier
The gaps in the sheath that insulates axons are called ___________.
Sensory or afferent neurons are typically of this type.
it contains both afferent and efferent nerve fibers
What is true of a mixed nerve?
Groups of fibers are bound into fascicles by a coarse connective tissue called _________.
autonomic nervous system
This part of the peripheral nervous system controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.
The surface of the cerebral hemispheres consists of ridges and grooves. The shallow grooves are called _______.
frontal and parietal lobes
The central sulcus of each cerebral hemisphere separates the _________.
In which lobe of the brain is the primary visual cortex located?
fiber tracts
White matter of the CNS consists of _______.
medulla oblongata
This part of the brain stem is continuous with the spinal cord.
consists of fibers that connect the cerebral hemispheres
The corpus callosum ________________________.
pia mater
Three meninges cover the brain and spinal cord. The innermost one is called the _____________.
lateral ventricles
Which ventricle is found under the corpus callosum?
cerebral aqueduct
Which passage connects the third and fourth ventricles?
central canal
Identify the passageway found in the spinal cord that is continuous with the ventricles.
Cerebrospinal fluid is produced within the ventricles.
The ventricles are all interconnected.
olfactory nerve
Identify cranial nerve 1
optic chiasm
which area takes visual information from one side of the body and conveys it to the opposite side?
optic nerve
Which structure is not part of the central nervous system?
pituitary gland
Which gland can be observed on the ventral surface of the sheep brain?
Which structure attaches the pituitary gland to the brain?
All three regions of the brain stem can be observed on the ventral surface of the brain.
The cerebellum is present on the ventral surface of the sheep brain.
corpus callosum
What structure connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres?
Which area forms the central core of the brain?
Where is the arbor vitae located?
superior colliculus
What part of the corpora quadrigemina is clearly observed in a midsagittal section?
Which region of the brain is necessary for consciousness?
lateral ventricles
Which ventricles are divided by the septum pellucidum?
Gray matter
What type of tissue makes up the cerebral cortex?
transmits messages
What is the function of white matter?
The composition of gray matter includes neuron cell bodies.
white matter has a fatty consistency
The brain is a solid organ that lacks cavities
Name the membranous encasement surrounding the brain.
Which region cannot be observed superficially?
Which region of the brain contains gyri and sulk?
transverse fissure
Which of the following landmarks separate the cerebrum from the cerebellum?
longitudinal fissure
Which landmark divides the cerebrum in half?
The meninges consist of __ layers
dura mater
Which is the outer layer of the meninges?
How many major regions are contained within the diencephalon?
Which part of the diencephalon is connected to the pituitary gland?
Which region acts as a relay center for sensory messages ascending to the cerebrum?
Which region of the diencephalon contains the pineal body?
The pineal body secretes melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH).
The diencephalon is found in between the brain stem and the cerebrum.
How many regions make up the brain stem?
medulla oblongata
which area of the brain stem is in contact with the spinal cord?
Which region contains the corpora quadrigemina?
fourth ventricle
which ventricle is located within the brain stem?
The foramen magnum marks the border between the medulla oblongata and spinal cord
The inferior colliculi are part of the corpora quadrigemina.
Vesicles in the axon terminal contain _____.
This type of sensory neuron is quite rare.
afferent neuron
You have lost the sensation, but not movement, in one of your hands due to a problem with your neurons. Based upon these symptoms, what type of neuron was most likely affected?
is a major motor area of the brain
The percentile gyrus _________.
This diencephalic structure is involved in many functions including temperature regulation, water balance, and fat and carbohydrate metabolism.
They are reflex centers for visual and auditory stimuli
What is the function of the corpora quadrigemina?
interventricular foramen
Cerebrospinal fluid formed in the lateral ventricles travels through the ______ to reach the third ventricle.
This purely sensory cranial nerve carries signals associated with vision.
they move the eyeball
Whats true about cranial nerves 3, 4, and 5?
autonomic reflex
The pupillary light reflex is an example of an _________.
the receptor detects a stimulus
What is the first event associated with a reflex?
in the skin
Where are cutaneous receptors located?
placing both hands in room temperature water after one hand has been in an ice bath and the other in warm water
You will test for a negative afterimage by ________________________________________________.
pain perceived as arising in one area when a different area is receiving the painful stimulus
Referred pain is ______________________.
Which of the following is an example of referred pain?
Ventral roots of spinal nerves are purely or primarily _______.
What functional type of neuron is found in the dorsal root ganglion?
Which area has the smallest two- point threshold?
in the region of the heart
Where does referred pain appear when the gastric juice from the stomach refluxes into the esophagus?
the resting membrane potential became less negative
What effect did increasing the extracellular potassium have on the resting membrane potential?
only a small change occurred, because the resting neuron is not very permeable to sodium
What effect did decreasing the extracellular sodium have on the resting membrane potential?
The channels that provide for the movement of potassium in the resting neuron are _____.
sodium- potassium pump
Establishing the resting membrane potential requires energy through the use of the _________.
the receptor potential is carried by neuroglia
Which of the following statements about receptor potentials is FALSE?
medullary region
Which of the following is NOT a functional region of a neuron?
The conducting region of the neuron is the _______.
lower than potassium intracellularly
The typical concentration of sodium is _______.
a receptor potential, a synaptic potential or an action potential
Which of the following describes a change from the resting membrane potential?
the amount of neurotransmitter released and the amount of calcium that enters the axon terminal
At a chemical synapse, the intensity of the stimulus is coded by _________________.
no neurotransmitter was released
When the calcium was removed from the extracellular solution _____________________.
the amount of neurotransmitter released decreased
When magnesium was added to the extracellular solution _______________________.
divalent cations
Calcium and magnesium are both ____________.
another neuron, a gland, or a muscle cell
A synaptic cleft, or synaptic gap, can be found between a neuron and ________________________.
a postsynaptic potential
The membrane potential that occurs when neurotransmitters bind the their receptors is called ______________________.
at the axon terminal
The release of neurotransmitter occurs _________________.
an action potential arrives at the axon terminal
Which of the following occurs first?

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