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BIOL 318 Test 1

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    tears
    The lacrimal apparatus produces a watery solution known as _______.
    lens
    The suspensory ligament (ciliary zonule) holds this structure in front of the pupil.
    is a transparent neural layer
    The inner layer of the retina _______.
    rods and cones
    The photoreceptors in the retina that detect light are ________.
    visual cortex
    The visual pathway terminates in this cortical area.
    emmetropic
    The normal, or ______, eye accommodates properly.
    results from irregular curvatures of the lens or cornea
    Astigmatism ____________________.
    convergence
    This reflex involves extrinsic eye muscles, and is controlled by the somatic nervous system.
    are absent in the fovea centralis
    The rods of the retina _________.
    thalamus
    Axons of ganglion cells form the optic tract. These fibers synapse in the ______.
    the near point of accommodation becomes further away
    Many older individuals develop presbyopia, a condition in which ______________________.
    provides three- dimensional vision, provides an accurate means of locating objects in space, and is present in primates, felines, and raptors.
    Binocular vision __________________
    middle ear
    The pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube connects the ________ to the nasopharynx.
    Both require the movement of fluid.
    What is true of both the mechanism of hearing and the mechanism of equilibrium?
    endolymph
    The cochlear duct (scala media) contains _____________.
    basilar
    The hair cells that detect sound vibrations lie on the ______ membrane.
    neurons
    These nervous system cells are highly specialized to transmit messages throughout the body.
    astrocytes and ependymal cells
    These support cells are found in the central nervous system.
    schwann cells
    The formation of myelin in the peripheral nervous system is accomplished by these cells.
    nodes of ranvier
    The gaps in the sheath that insulates axons are called ___________.
    unipolar
    Sensory or afferent neurons are typically of this type.
    it contains both afferent and efferent nerve fibers
    What is true of a mixed nerve?
    perineurium
    Groups of fibers are bound into fascicles by a coarse connective tissue called _________.
    autonomic nervous system
    This part of the peripheral nervous system controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.
    sulci
    The surface of the cerebral hemispheres consists of ridges and grooves. The shallow grooves are called _______.
    frontal and parietal lobes
    The central sulcus of each cerebral hemisphere separates the _________.
    occipital
    In which lobe of the brain is the primary visual cortex located?
    fiber tracts
    White matter of the CNS consists of _______.
    medulla oblongata
    This part of the brain stem is continuous with the spinal cord.
    consists of fibers that connect the cerebral hemispheres
    The corpus callosum ________________________.
    pia mater
    Three meninges cover the brain and spinal cord. The innermost one is called the _____________.
    lateral ventricles
    Which ventricle is found under the corpus callosum?
    cerebral aqueduct
    Which passage connects the third and fourth ventricles?
    central canal
    Identify the passageway found in the spinal cord that is continuous with the ventricles.
    true
    Cerebrospinal fluid is produced within the ventricles.
    true
    The ventricles are all interconnected.
    olfactory nerve
    Identify cranial nerve 1
    optic chiasm
    which area takes visual information from one side of the body and conveys it to the opposite side?
    optic nerve
    Which structure is not part of the central nervous system?
    pituitary gland
    Which gland can be observed on the ventral surface of the sheep brain?
    infundibulum
    Which structure attaches the pituitary gland to the brain?
    true
    All three regions of the brain stem can be observed on the ventral surface of the brain.
    false
    The cerebellum is present on the ventral surface of the sheep brain.
    corpus callosum
    What structure connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres?
    thalamus
    Which area forms the central core of the brain?
    cerebellum
    Where is the arbor vitae located?
    superior colliculus
    What part of the corpora quadrigemina is clearly observed in a midsagittal section?
    cerebrum
    Which region of the brain is necessary for consciousness?
    lateral ventricles
    Which ventricles are divided by the septum pellucidum?
    Gray matter
    What type of tissue makes up the cerebral cortex?
    transmits messages
    What is the function of white matter?
    true
    The composition of gray matter includes neuron cell bodies.
    true
    white matter has a fatty consistency
    false
    The brain is a solid organ that lacks cavities
    meninges
    Name the membranous encasement surrounding the brain.
    diencephalon
    Which region cannot be observed superficially?
    cerebrum
    Which region of the brain contains gyri and sulk?
    transverse fissure
    Which of the following landmarks separate the cerebrum from the cerebellum?
    longitudinal fissure
    Which landmark divides the cerebrum in half?
    3
    The meninges consist of __ layers
    dura mater
    Which is the outer layer of the meninges?
    3
    How many major regions are contained within the diencephalon?
    hypothalamus
    Which part of the diencephalon is connected to the pituitary gland?
    thalamus
    Which region acts as a relay center for sensory messages ascending to the cerebrum?
    epithalamus
    Which region of the diencephalon contains the pineal body?
    false
    The pineal body secretes melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH).
    true
    The diencephalon is found in between the brain stem and the cerebrum.
    3
    How many regions make up the brain stem?
    medulla oblongata
    which area of the brain stem is in contact with the spinal cord?
    midbrain
    Which region contains the corpora quadrigemina?
    fourth ventricle
    which ventricle is located within the brain stem?
    true
    The foramen magnum marks the border between the medulla oblongata and spinal cord
    true
    The inferior colliculi are part of the corpora quadrigemina.
    neurotransmitters
    Vesicles in the axon terminal contain _____.
    bipolar
    This type of sensory neuron is quite rare.
    afferent neuron
    You have lost the sensation, but not movement, in one of your hands due to a problem with your neurons. Based upon these symptoms, what type of neuron was most likely affected?
    is a major motor area of the brain
    The percentile gyrus _________.
    hypothalamus
    This diencephalic structure is involved in many functions including temperature regulation, water balance, and fat and carbohydrate metabolism.
    They are reflex centers for visual and auditory stimuli
    What is the function of the corpora quadrigemina?
    interventricular foramen
    Cerebrospinal fluid formed in the lateral ventricles travels through the ______ to reach the third ventricle.
    optic
    This purely sensory cranial nerve carries signals associated with vision.
    they move the eyeball
    Whats true about cranial nerves 3, 4, and 5?
    autonomic reflex
    The pupillary light reflex is an example of an _________.
    the receptor detects a stimulus
    What is the first event associated with a reflex?
    in the skin
    Where are cutaneous receptors located?
    placing both hands in room temperature water after one hand has been in an ice bath and the other in warm water
    You will test for a negative afterimage by ________________________________________________.
    pain perceived as arising in one area when a different area is receiving the painful stimulus
    Referred pain is ______________________.
    heartburn
    Which of the following is an example of referred pain?
    motor
    Ventral roots of spinal nerves are purely or primarily _______.
    sensory
    What functional type of neuron is found in the dorsal root ganglion?
    lips
    Which area has the smallest two- point threshold?
    in the region of the heart
    Where does referred pain appear when the gastric juice from the stomach refluxes into the esophagus?
    the resting membrane potential became less negative
    What effect did increasing the extracellular potassium have on the resting membrane potential?
    only a small change occurred, because the resting neuron is not very permeable to sodium
    What effect did decreasing the extracellular sodium have on the resting membrane potential?
    leakage
    The channels that provide for the movement of potassium in the resting neuron are _____.
    sodium- potassium pump
    Establishing the resting membrane potential requires energy through the use of the _________.
    the receptor potential is carried by neuroglia
    Which of the following statements about receptor potentials is FALSE?
    medullary region
    Which of the following is NOT a functional region of a neuron?
    axon
    The conducting region of the neuron is the _______.
    lower than potassium intracellularly
    The typical concentration of sodium is _______.
    a receptor potential, a synaptic potential or an action potential
    Which of the following describes a change from the resting membrane potential?
    the amount of neurotransmitter released and the amount of calcium that enters the axon terminal
    At a chemical synapse, the intensity of the stimulus is coded by _________________.
    no neurotransmitter was released
    When the calcium was removed from the extracellular solution _____________________.
    the amount of neurotransmitter released decreased
    When magnesium was added to the extracellular solution _______________________.
    divalent cations
    Calcium and magnesium are both ____________.
    another neuron, a gland, or a muscle cell
    A synaptic cleft, or synaptic gap, can be found between a neuron and ________________________.
    a postsynaptic potential
    The membrane potential that occurs when neurotransmitters bind the their receptors is called ______________________.
    at the axon terminal
    The release of neurotransmitter occurs _________________.
    an action potential arrives at the axon terminal
    Which of the following occurs first?

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