Chapter 9 Mastering Environmental Science

________% of Earth’s land area is currently covered by forest.
Most commercial logging today takes place in ________.
Canada, Russia, and Brazil
Most of the world’s forests are __________.
boreal forests
What is the process in which forest plants release water back into the atmosphere?
Deforestation ________.
has the greatest impacts in tropical areas and arid regions
Second-growth forests ________.
are forests that establish themselves after virgin timber has been removed from an area
With very few exceptions, what sort of forest is in the United States?
secondary forests
Currently, what sorts of forests are being lost more rapidly than others?
tropical rainforests
The arrow at the top right of the graph represents the ________.
equilibrium point where births in the population equal deaths
Fire history in an open pine woodland ecosystem would be best determined by ________.
tree ring scars
Clear-cutting ________.
removes all trees from an area
In recent years, global climate change has caused more severe droughts in the western United States. This has resulted in ________.
trees being weakened and stressed, making them more susceptible to bark beetles that feed on the trees
The National Forest Management Act ________ national forest land.
was passed in 1976 with the intent to ensure multiple use and sustainable yield of
The latest information tells us that salvage logging ________.
causes increased soil erosion
Prescribed burns would be used in forests ________.
that are subject to severe wild fires to remove fuel load and stimulate new growth
How has the “Smokey the Bear” campaign damaged forest health?
It has allowed too few fires to burn in forests.
Which of the following harvesting methods is the most cost-efficient but has the greatest ecological impacts?
Which of the following phrases best describes the goals behind the resource management strategies?
sustainable use of natural resources
Which of the following management practices attempts to minimize ecological impact by allowing some trees in a forest to grow to maturity?
ecosystem-based management
Mr. Smith has been hired to manage a swath of land owned by a private company. His goal is to manage the forest in the most sustainable way while still using the land and making a profit. At first, he manages the land using the concept of maximum sustainable yield. After a few years he realizes that ecosystem-based management is more appropriate for this particular swath of land. Mr. Smith is using __________.
adaptive management
Land trusts are ________.
private nonprofit groups
Wilderness areas ________.
are off-limits to development of any kind but are open to low-impact recreation
“Edge effects” are a particular problem when ________.
formerly large habitats are reduced to small fragments
Approximately what areal percentage of the world’s lands are designated as parks, reserves, and protected areas?
Which of the following statements is true regarding the area effect?
Large islands contain more species than do smaller islands.
What is the difference between biosphere reserves and other protected areas?
Local people are allowed to live in and harvest resources from the outer areas of the reserve.
This is the U.S. government designation that provides the most protection from human damage to a public area.
wilderness area
Within which country did the world’s first national parks open?
What challenge does the concept of SLOSS represent?
whether to make a few large reserves or many small reserves
What sorts of limitations are placed upon national wildlife refuges?
The refuges are open for hunting, fishing, education, and other public uses
What are corridors?
protected lands that allow animals to travel between islands of habitat
What percent of U.S. land area is in wilderness areas?
Causes: expansion of farming, growing demand for wood products, subsistence grazing
Consequences: soil erosion, decreased carbon sequestration, change in hydrological cycle with more surface run off
Solutions: substitution of other materials for wood products, increase tree planting, recycling of paper products
How much more timber was removed from “other private” lands versus “national forest” land?
ten times as much
Which type of land lost the largest proportion of its timber in 1996?
can’t answer
For which type of land is the total volume of forest (in cubic feet) decreasing?
forest industry
Which of the following statements is/are accurate based on the information in this graph?
all of the above
Which world region experienced the largest change in forested land between 1990 and 2000?
Which of the following statements is/are accurate based on the information in this graph?
all of the above
Which of the following does NOT have to contend with deforestation?
St. Vincent
Coastal pollution is present primarily near __________.
large cities
Which climate supports the most cropland?
tropical savanna
Why is tropical forest found primarily in the south of this region?
southern regions are warmer
Which of the following is most strongly correlated with tropical forest destruction?
development of cropland
Which three regions used the most paper overall for the entire time period represented on the graph? Select the answer that lists the top three regions in order from most to least paper use.
NA, Europe, asia
Approximately how many tons of paper and paperboard were consumed worldwide in 1970?
130 million tons
Now calculate the tons of paper and paperboard consumed worldwide in 2000. Use your answer to this question and your answer from Question 2 to calculate the approximate percentage change in consumption from 1970 to 2000.
In the year 2000, Africa had a population of 840 million people, Asia had a population of 3,766 million people, and North America had a population of 319 million people. Which region had the highest per capita paper use in 2000?
Based on current population and consumption trends, assess which region will have the highest paper consumption in the year 2010.
Asia, rising pop and consumption
Fill ins Part A
higher, lower
indp, dep, dep
Fill ins Part B
burned only, burned and logged
burned only
burned only
decreases, increases
do not support
Fill ins Part C
In an open and grassy pine savannah, fires _____.
prevent the development of a hardwood forest
Which of the following is a result of the prescribed burning of an open and grassy pine savannah?
less-intense natural wildfires
In a grassy pine savannah, a longer interval between prescribed burns typically leads to _____.
bigger woody species
What component of weather is watched most closely when determining when to conduct a prescribed burn?
relative humidity
Which one of the following statements about prescribed burns is true?
Some species of pine trees require fire to reproduce.
Which of the following areas would be affected most by the decreasing federal budget for the National Park Service?
Effigy Mounds National Monument
Velvet grass, an invasive plant, has been found in Yosemite National Park. Who is most likely to remove it?
Which of the following is true regarding giant sequoias?
They need fire and large amounts of water.
You visit Arenal Volcano National Park while on a trip to Costa Rica. Who do you have to thank for originally initiating the concept of the National Park?
Your aunt sits on the board of the most successful philanthropic group advocating for protecting public lands. What is she working to improve and protect?
Golden Gate National Recreation Area

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