Cloning Dolly the Sheep

The Cloning of Dolly the Sheep

Focusing on the Case A major scientific achievement was done at the Roslin Institute because the cloning of a sheep was successful. The sheep was named Dolly. Dolly, lived a pampered existence at the Roslin Institute. She mated and produced normal offspring in the normal way, showing that such cloned animals can reproduce. Born on 5 July 1996, she was euthanized on 14 February 2003, aged six and a half. Sheep can live to age 11 or 12, but Dolly suffered from arthritis in a hind leg joint. There are many processes that have been through before Dolly was created. Animal cloning from an adult cell is obviously much more complex and difficult than growing a plant from a cutting.

So when scientists working at the Roslin Institute in Scotland produced Dolly, the only lamb born from 277 attempts, it was a major news story around the world to produce Dolly, the scientists used the nucleus of an udder cell from a six-year-old Finn Dorset white sheep. The nucleus contains nearly all the cell’s genes. They had to find a way to ‘reprogram’ the udder cells – to keep them alive but stop them growing – which they achieved by altering the growth medium (the ‘soup’ in which the cells were kept alive). Then they njected the cell into an unfertilized egg cell which had had its nucleus removed, and made the cells fuse by using electrical pulses.

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The unfertilized egg cell came from a Scottish Blackface ewe. When the research team had managed to fuse the nucleus from the adult white sheep cell with the egg cell from the black-faced sheep, they needed to make sure that the resulting cell would develop into an embryo. They cultured it for six or seven days to see if it divided and developed normally, before implanting it into a surrogate mother, another Scottish Blackface ewe. Dolly had a white face.

From 277 cell fusions, 29 early embryos developed and were implanted into 13 surrogate mothers. But only one pregnancy went to full term, and the 6. 6kg Finn Dorset lamb 6LLS (alias Dolly) was born after 148 days. Dolly the sheep, was produced at the Roslin Institute as part of research into producing medicines in the milk of farm animals. Researchers have managed to transfer human genes that produce useful proteins into sheep and cows, so that they can produce, for instance, the blood clotting agent factor IX to treat hemophilia or alpha-1-antitrypsin to treat cystic fibrosis and other lung conditions. The development of cloning technology has led to new ways to produce medicines and is improving our understanding of development and genetics.

The Human Cloning

In genetic engineering, one gene or most commonly, a set of a few genes is taken out of the DNA of one organism and inserted into the DNA of another organism. This we call the “insertion package. “This insertion package is inserted into the DNA of the recipient organism. In genetic engineering, a set of foreign genes, is inserted haphazardly in the midst of the sequence of DNA “code words”(in this case in the DNA inherited from the mother).

The insertion disrupts the ordinary command code sequence in the DNA. This disruption may disturb the functioning of the cell in unpredictable and potentially hazardous ways. The insertion may make the chromosome unstable in an unpredictable way. The key assumption of genetic engineering is that you can “tailor “organisms by adding genes with desirable properties. But science has found that genes don’t work as isolated carriers of properties. Instead the effects of every gene are the outcome of interaction with its environment.

Genetic engineering works because there is one language of life: human genes work in bacteria, monkey genes work in mice and earthworms. Tree genes work in bananas and frog genes work in rice. There is no limit in theory to the potential of genetic engineering. Disease could be prevented by detecting people/plants/animals that are genetically prone to certain hereditary diseases through genetic engineering. Animals and plants can be ‘tailor made’ to show desirable characteristics. Genes could also be manipulated in trees.

Genetic engineering has been impossible until recent times due to the complex and microscopic nature of DNA and its component nucleotides. Through progressive studies, more and more in this area is being made possible. Genetic engineering may be one of the greatest inventions in recent history along with the discovery of the atom and space flight, however, governments have produced legislation to control what sort of experiments are done involving genetic engineering. In the UK there are strict laws prohibiting any experiments involving the cloning of humans.

However, over the years here are some of the experimental ‘breakthroughs’ made possible by genetic engineering. At the Roslin Institute in Scotland, scientists successfully cloned an exact copy of a sheep, named ‘Dolly’. This was the first successful cloning of an animal, and most likely the first occurrence of two organisms being genetically identical. Note : Recently the sheep’s health has deteriorated detrimentally * Scientists successfully manipulated the genetic sequence of a rat to grow a human ear on its back. Unusual, but for the purpose of reproducing human organs for medical purposes)

Most controversially, and maybe due to more liberal laws, an American scientist is currently conducting tests to clone himself. Human cloning is a type of genetic engineering. Its aim is to duplicate the genes of an existing person so that an identical set is inside a human egg. The result is intended to be a cloned twin, perhaps of a dead child. Genetic engineering in its fullest form would result in the child produced having unique genes as a result of laboratory interference, and therefore the child ill not be an identical twin.

The most common cloning method, known as “somatic cell nuclear transfer” or simply “nuclear transfer,” requires two kinds of cell. One is a somatic cell, which is collected from the animal that is to be cloned known as the “genetic donor”. A somatic cell is any cell other than a sperm cell or egg cell, and contains the complete DNA, or genetic blueprint, of the animal it came from. The other kind of cell required for cloning is an egg cell, which is collected from a female of the same species known as the “egg donor”.

  • In the lab, a scientist extracts and discards the nucleus of the egg cell, which is the part of the cell that contains the egg donor’s genes.
  • The scientist then inserts the somatic cell from the genetic donor into the egg and “fuses “the two with electricity.
  • The resulting fused egg contains the genetic donor’s DNA. The scientist stimulates the fused egg, which “activates “the egg and causes it to divide just as an egg would if it had been fertilized by a sperm cell in conventional reproduction.
  • The activated egg is then placed in a culture medium. As cellular division continues over the course of several days, a blastocyst or an early-stage embryo forms.
  • After about a week, an embryo transfer specialist transfers the blastocyst to a recipient female (sometimes referred to as “surrogate mother”) where it continues to develop.
  • After a full-term pregnancy, the recipient gives birth to an animal that is essentially the identical twin of the genetic donor.

Of course the subject of cloning does bring up ethical questions such as the quality and longevity of life. Sheep can normally live up to eleven or twelve years of age. In Dolly’s case, she had to be euthanized at the age of six due to advanced lung disease and arthritis. Some scientists totally agree on the cloning of Dolly. This individuals claim that their opinions were much more influenced by their education than by their ethical views. But some equally consider their ethical framework in giving their opinions. They are more likely to welcome the views and opinions of the clergy and of the theologians.

In general, the scientists are more comfortable with the ossibility of human cloning to cure diseases rather than to make people immortal or reverse the aging process and to repair tissue injury. More men than women scientists were comfortable with these less medicinal applications of cloning. Central/South and North American scientists expressed a greater degree of acceptance of anti-aging therapies than did Australasian/Pacific and European scientists. And in a touchingly human foible, scientists over the age of 60 years were nearly twice as open minded about anti-aging therapies than scientists half their age.

While scientists are relatively untroubled with the idea of using therapeutic cloning for creating tissues and organs for transplantation, they are worried that human cloning might be used to create embryos that would serve as sources of organs for transplantation. Also, reproducing humans through human cloning is extremely not acceptable to them. When questioned about the types of cloning that did not involve reproducing human, some scientists agreed because it could help in expanding the number of the endangered species.

Church says “No” to Human Cloning

The Church claims that human cloning is an act of “playing God”. In addition to their assertion, any method of non-sexual reproduction is a grave offence to human dignity, therefore cloning human embryos is prohibited by the church. In 2002, Pope John Paul II has commented on this issue, “Human Cloning is morally unacceptable… every medical procedure performed on the human person is subject to limits: not just the limits of what is technically possible, but also limits determined by respect for human nature itself. Meanwhile, Pope Benedict XVI said that human cloning is wrong because it involves the destruction of human life and they should not ignore the moral values of human beings.

What Does the Bible say about Cloning?

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. John 1:1-4 It clearly says that God made us and only He can create life out of nothing.

We should not imitate any of his creations especially with life. For you formed my inward parts; you knitted me together in my mother’s womb. I praise you, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made. Wonderful are your works; my soul knows it very well. My frame was not hidden from you, when I was being made in secret, intricately woven in the depths of the earth. Psalm 139:13-15 It states here that we are all naturally created and given a normal birth. Consequently, artificial breeding does not have a birth mother.

And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth. And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children built. Genesis 11: 4-5 The narrative of Tower of Babel (Genesis 11. 1-9) – in this chapter, people were trying to build a tower to reach the heavens and to attain the power suchlike with God, which is similar also to cloning. We attempt to create what God is doing. We are trying to create life which is not our priority.

The Bible says nothing directly or specifically about cloning, however it is still known as the Book of The Law teaching us the moral values and the right ways to live life. Wisdom bids us to stop cloning experimentation before it ends us all. Anything unacceptable by God is a sin. Let’s just appreciate the fact that God created us in his likeness. We should use our knowledge and technology in getting closer to Him.

Conclusion

It is the main teaching related and connected to the issue of Human Cloning. It emphasizes the word ‘life’ that is created by God and not by artificial cause or scientific process. It is the teaching of the Catholic Church regarding to this issue and why they did not allow human cloning. We have dignity from the very start and all people have this. Dignity is part of our life, part of ourselves, if it is taken away from us it may affect our life, it can damage ourselves. Besides that, we are created by God with uniqueness to each others, no one have an authority to do the human cloning or creating replica of ourselves.

The church is right in the way that they value the sacredness of human life but they must also consider that we are created with intelligence and this intelligence is the one who created science and science is the one responsible on why we can sustain our daily lives in this world and survive. Even though the church is right in the way they have value the life of everyone they must also open that there’s a possibility that science can also value the human life by saving it. But on the issue of human cloning, as of now, it cannot help to save life; in fact, it can worsen the life of the human.

By default, there’s nothing to do with this teaching because all of us are given a gift to live in this world, all of us, from the very start, when were in the wombs of our mothers we are given a right to live and this right is always with the respect to life. We are in this world because this is the plan of God.

Cloning is Dolly the Sheep, after this cloning, scientist envision that there’s a possibility that Human can be cloned also. But this vision brings and busts the issue of giving respect to human life. First of all, before Dolly was made, there are many process and experiment conducted. The cell used is come from another organism and it will replace to other organism. It is wrong to use the life of others even though the organ or parts of an organism. Even though it is an animal, it is created by God and our only responsibility is to take care of it. Besides that, it takes a long time before they create Dolly and there are more than 200 attempts that is equal to more than 200 embryos failed and discharged because of ineffectiveness.

The reproductive cloning of Dolly is not successful because he died at young age and scientist taught that Dolly will last until 12 years. Besides that, they take a lot of time to identify what is the true cause of its death. It is immoral to use others life for experiments or use as an instrument to have and find answer that God only knows it. But the most controversial on it and aggravating is the application of cloning to humans or the Human Cloning. Church allows scientific methods and processes if it is to prevent, cure and save life.

But on the science of human cloning, it is not created to save life but it is proposed to create a replica of human. Scientists told that cloning has different benefits on our lives. Human cloning from its act is wrong, in the process of human cloning, it shows disrespect to the life of a human.. Besides that, the circumstances and the purpose is also wrong. The act itself is wrong, the process where human cloning is being conducted is wrong because it only shows that life is used as an instrument to experiment.

It is immoral to use other life for an experiment, it only shows that they are playing the lives of many people and why, they make many attempts and researches on the life of human, it shows that they are manipulating others and it wrong because we are not only manipulating others but they used the life that is sacred for everyone. If we relate the creation of Dolly to a creation of human clone, there will be a lot of attempt in order to produce a human clone and these attempts can destroy a lot of embryos which is the start of human life.

Besides from that, they not only use life of others but them manipulating it in the way they can produce clones until they want. It also shows that they want to have authority to others because they can use their replicas in their own interests. Even though the purpose is clearly stated for the solutions of many health problems and operations they said that human cloning is the answer for treating cancer, Alzheimer’s and solutions for transplant of organs. But if we look deeper, it can be the cause of immortality which is not given by God to us.

It is one way of advancing of mankind and it is not true that it can be the way of producing more life which is stated in the Bible because the only way to produce life is by having an intercourse between man and woman that undergoes marriage and not by using artificial methods. That is true that the human life is sacred because Almighty God is the one who create us and it is by His own image.

Every human in this world, from the very start is created by God and not by artificial methods or scientific process. It teaches that human life is sacred because, from its beginning, it involves “the creative action of God; no one can, under any circumstances, claim for himself the right directly to destroy a human being” (catholicinsight. com)

“Life is far too important a thing ever to talk seriously about. ” Oscar Wilde (Lady Windermere’s Fan, Act I. ) This quote is quite related to the issue of human cloning. It emphasizes that life is a thing that is very valuable to everyone and it always been a center of issue that everyone always talk about.

We are human, the highest being in this world, God gave us power to reason, rationality, will, intelligence, freedom, conscience and dignity and because of that things, we have responsibility to this world. One of our responsibilities is to take care of ourselves and caring of ourselves is the same in taking care of our lives. One of the hottest issues in talking the human life is the Human Cloning. On the issue of Human Cloning, the teaching about respect to human life and the dignity of human person is the first thing to consider.

The respect to human life includes the respect to its origin and the right to live but the human cloning attacks these teaching. We are living in this world because God plans it but the concept of human cloning is contra to this. If we have a replica, it is not the plan of God but the plan of the scientist and us who created our replica for our own purposes. Life is sacred in the way we are created by the image of God. It is true that our replica is our own image and our own image is image of God so it is possible that our replica is image also of God.

But think deeper, if our replica is not from the image of God because it is not the plan of God and it is not the product of God’s will, it is the plan of ourselves and the product of science. If I have a clone, it will help me cure my sickness, to save my life and to extend my life. It also helps me to my work faster, to work better and to work easier. My life is almost perfect; my life is on my hands and not in the hands of God. This situation shows only that I didn’t respect the God who created my life, I take the authority to Him to handle the limitation of my in this world.

It is possible that I will depend on my clone in order to have advantage in my existence in this world. I have limitations in this world and that is the existence of me in this world but because of cloning, it will break the limitations and also my relationship to God. It shows that cloning is a product of being not content in the life given by God to us. It shows that they are not content on what God give to us, God have the only authority on our life and our only responsibility is to take care of it. A respect to life means that we respect an individual as a human because he has life and he came from the image of God, the creator. Lastly the respect to life is respect to the Creator.

References

  1. Gerdes, Louise. Cloning. Thomas Gale, 2006
  2. Leone, Bruno. Cloning. Greenhaven Press, 2003
  3. “Process Cloning” Clone Safety. orgvirtual pressroom http://www. clonesafety. org/cloning/facts/process/
  4. “Genetic Engineering Advantages and Disadvantages” Biology online http://www. biology-online. org/2/13_genetic_engineering. htm
  5. Jackson, Janis Maysk “Dolly the Cloned Sheep”Suite 101. Com http://www. suite101. com/content /dolly-the-cloned-sheep-a279176, August 28, 2010
  6. “Arguments Against Cloning” All About Popular Issues http://www. llaboutpopularissues. org/arguments-against-cloning-faq. htm
  7. “Bible Verses About Cloning” Open Bible Info http://www. openbible. info/topics/human_cloning
  8. Roberts, Mark “What Does the Bible Say About Cloning” Westside church of Christ http://static. justchristians. com/bibleStudy/articles/cloning. html
  9. “Church Leaders say ‘No Human Cloning’ “ AD2000 http://www. ad2000. com. au/articles/2001/decjan2001p6_885. html
  10. “Beyond Dolly: Human Cloning Religion reveal little consensus on Cloning” http://www. msnbc. msn. com/id/3076930/ns/health-special_reports/

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Cloning Dolly the Sheep. (2019, May 01). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/cloning-dolly-the-sheep/