Critical Analysis of Contempory issues in drug addiction Armin Smith Introduction For my final project I will discuss 3 Critical Analysis of Contemporary Issues in Substance abuse Armin Smith Topics of Discussion This learner has chosen the following contemporary issues Biological ,Social and Cognitive perspectives of Substance abuse to talk about Topic One I combined the biological perspective of drug and alcohol abuse, particularly because alcohol is equally as harmful to individuals as, for example, the drug cocaine.
The assessment comes from first-hand experience as case manager working with individuals in a drug rehabilitation program.
disorders (Robins et al, 1984). Approximately 30% of American men and 8% of American women have experienced serious problems with these drugs Supporting information and examples . Alcohol challenge with sons of alcoholics: A critical review and analysis. Full Text Available Newlin, David B. ; Thomson, James B. ; Psychological Bulletin, Vol 108(3), Nov, 1990. pp. 383-402. Some gender differences in alcohol and polysubstance users. Full Text Available Lex, Barbara W. Health Psychology, Vol 10(2), 1991. Special issue: Gender and health.
pp. 121-132 The Biological perspective of drug and Alcohol Abuse runs deep in a lot of life’s as drug addiction becomes more and more common today. There are many who are being born with drug addiction by what we call psychobiological markers which is being found in many addicts. A psychobiological marker is a characteristic that may be measured using psychological or biological means, other than symptoms of the disease itself that identifies those individuals in the population who are most likely to develop a specific disorder.
In the case of alcoholism, it is a characteristic that can be measured in children or adolescents (before the development of the disorder) that can significantly predict the likelihood of alcoholism in adulthood. In other words, individuals who manifest this characteristic are more likely to develop alcoholism.. The newest National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) cross-sectional Household Survey was conducted in 1988 (NIDA, 1989). Tables 1 through 7 display findings by drug, gender, and age. With regard to alcohol, a majority of all American women (63. 3%) reported using alcohol during the previous ear (vs. 73. 3% for men) and slightly less than half (46. 7%) during the previous month (vs. 60. 6% for men). In the younger age groups (18 to 34), reported rates for lifetime use were 93. 5% for men and 90. 0% for women, and roughly 15% of women and 39% of men reported using alcohol at least once per week. The majority (61. 7%) of all young adults (18- to 34-yearolds) recalled use of some illicit drug in their lifetimes, and reported rates were 64. 4% and 60. 0% for men and women, respectively. Men were likelier to continue use, because 10% more 18- to 34-year-old men than women had used an illicit rug within the previous year and 7. 3% within the previous month. About 60% of 18- to 34-year-old men and women had ever used an illicit drug, in contrast to only 25% of 12- to 17-year-old boys and girls. Overall, cocaine use has declined since the 1985 Household Survey (NIDA, 1987), but more than 20% of 18- to 34-year-old men and women reported having used cocaine at least once. Experimentation with cocaine was highest among 18- to 25-year-olds Topic Two Cognitive perspective and patients with drug abuse. Rapid cognitive screening of patients with substance use disorders. Full Text Available Copersino, Marc L. Fals-Stewart, William; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Schretlen, David J. ; Sokoloff, Jody; Weiss, Roger D. ; Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Vol 17(5), Oct, 2009. pp. 337-344 Alcohol and cognitive control: Implications for regulation of behavior during response conflict. Full Text Available Curtin, John J. ; Fairchild, Bradley A. ; Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Vol 112(3), Aug, 2003. pp. 424-436. The Phenomenon of Drug Craving Jeffrey L. Fortuna, Dr. RH. * & David A. Smelson, Psy. D. Alcohol and drug intoxication alters our cognitive abilities and affects each person differently .
And in Each case has to be treated according to his or her drug usage treatment. The behavioral response are characterized by conflict between prepotent, but inappropriate, response tendencies and incompatible alternative responses that are more adaptive (Casbon, Many examples in which alcohol intoxication results in dysregulated Curtin, Lang, & Patrick, in press; Steele & Southwick, 1985). For instance, unprotected sexual intercourse may occur when a strong and immediate appetitive response tendency conflicts with the inclination to delay or abstain from intercourse until appropriate protection is available.
Similarly, aggressive response may result when salient instigatory cues such as physical or verbal provocation overcome competing environmental (e. g. , provoker is significantly larger than self) or internal (e. g. , associative knowledge about potential adverse consequences of aggressive response) cues that suggest an alternative non aggressive response. Recent cognitive neuroscience research has identified two components of an anterior executive attention system (evaluative and regulative cognitive control) that are essential for adaptive behavior when response conflict exists (Botvinick, Braver, Barch, Carter, & Cohen, 001; Braver, Barch, & Cohen, 1999; Carter, Botvinick, & Cohen, 1999) When drugs and alcohol affect our mind they hinder us from making the right decision as to what is right or wrong. Topic Three Social perspectives of drug addiction The social network theory, social networks are important sources of social support (Scott, 2000). Individuals who perceive that others will provide appropriate assistance are less likely to view a situation as stressful and tend to feel that they are able to meet the demands of the situation (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Health & Social Work VOLUME 34, NUMBER 3 AUGUST 2009
When a drug abuser knows that they have support someone to talk to or some where to go for help they are less likely to use again. Women who use drugs and have more social support may resort to substance abuse less often than women with less social support because they may feel less need to turn to drugs in response to stressful life events (Tucker et al. , 2005). Addicts tend to do much better when have long term support In one study, women in outpatient treatment indicated that they were satisfied with the support they received from family and friends (Salman,Joseph, Saylor, & Mann, 2000).
The family of origin, especially mothers, grandmothers,and sisters, can be the chief providers of both emotional and material support (Trulsson & Hedin, 2004). How it relates to your audience Real Life There are babies born everyday addicted to drugs because of their mothers use of drugs and alcohol . From experience working as an operating room tech at Bellevue hospital in New York City I have seen babies that were born addicted to drugs even though the mothers stopped using. And it’s a very sad thing to see a baby crying for a drug they have never used.
These baby also are born having impaired cognitive abilities which affects how they are able to think and comprehend and develop the needed skills for life. In order for a addict to recover from drugs his or her Biological ,Social and Cognitive issues must be addressed and changed in order for them to fully recover and stop using drugs conclusion in conclusion on the issues Biological ,Social and Cognitive perspectives of Substance abuse I feel that there is a huge need for help in Substance abuse in this area and if we are ever going help addicts kick the habit these are some of the main issues that needs to be addressed Reference
Alcohol challenge with sons of alcoholics: A critical review and analysis. Full Text Available Newlin, David B. ; Thomson, James B. ; Psychological Bulletin, Vol 108(3), Nov, 1990. pp. 383-402. Some gender differences in alcohol and polysubstance users. Full Text Available Lex, Barbara W. ; Health Psychology, Vol 10(2), 1991. Special issue: Gender and health. pp. 121-132 Rapid cognitive screening of patients with substance use disorders. Full Text Available Copersino, Marc L. ; Fals-Stewart, William; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Schretlen, David J. Sokoloff, Jody; Weiss, Roger D. ; Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Vol 17(5), Oct, 2009. pp. 337-344 Alcohol and cognitive control: Implications for regulation of behavior during response conflict. Full Text Available Curtin, John J. ; Fairchild, Bradley A. ; Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Vol 112(3), Aug, 2003. pp. 424-436. The Phenomenon of Drug Craving Jeffrey L. Fortuna, Dr. RH. * & David A. Smelson, Psy. D Health & Social Work VOLUME 34, NUMBER 3 AUGUST 2009
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