Human Services Essay
1 - Human Services Essay introduction. Self Actualization?
Fulfilling one’s innate tendencies and potentials.
2. Define Human Services?
Organized activities that help people in the areas of health care; mental health, including care for persons with retardation; disability and physical handicap; social welfare; child care; criminal justice; housing; recreations; and education.
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3. What are primary social supports?
The network of social relationships, including, friends and family, that provides gratification of a person’s needs.
4. What is the definition of prejudice and what groups are the largest that are affected by prejudice? Prejudice – Preconceived attitudes and feelings about certain races, religions, or ethnic groups and people of a certain gender. These attitudes reflect negative stereo types that are often nothing more than simpleminded overgeneralizations about certain groups. African Americans, Latinos and women are the most affected by prejudice.
5. Conservative vs. Liberal point of view.
Conservatives support basic needs, but do not want to weaken their initiative. The more liberal approach would be a “collective effort.”
6. Who are the major financial sponsors/providers for Human Services? The government.
7. What do we know about the incidence of reported cases of child abuse? Abusive parents tend to be young, of lover economic-class status, frustrated, unemployed, alcohol abusers and often suffer from marital discontent. The Department of Health and Human Services points out the fact that maltreatment is more likely to occur in a household with an income of less than $15,000.
8. Know the cycle of poverty?
The poverty cycle is perpetuated by the fact that the disadvantages of poverty hinder the next generation’s chances to succeed. Poor language skills and a lack of early environmental stimulation may make it difficult for children to take full advantage of educational resources.
9. Be able to describe the “Changing in American Family.” The family is no longer organized primarily around child rearing. The lower birthrate, longer life expectancy, and divorce and remarriage rates are some of the contributing factors. Women are entering the labor marketing and setting career goals for themselves.
10. What is the Health Care Crisis in the U.S.? What are some of the causes? Millions of Americans do not have access to affordable health care. And in 1999 it was reported that 43.4 million Americans were not covered under any type of healthcare. One of the major problems is healthcare cost are running out of control. Many factors play are role in rising healthcare cost such as; cost of malpractice, fear of malpractice, technological advances have led to the cost of extremely costly medical equipment, treatments available for some diseases, administrative costs for processing medical insurance claims, Americans are living longer and some with chronic diseases and AIDS.
11. Who are the poor? How are they classified?
Those with a relative lack of money, resources and possessions. These groups include worker who have been laid off, partners who have been deserted by their spouses, and persons needed at home in a family crisis.
12. What is the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975? Now called IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) States must develop and implement policies that assure a free appropriate public education to all children with disabilities.
13. What are the changes that occurred with the Welfare Act of 1996? What
were the goals? The states of the union now have primary responsibility for managing welfare programs. Increased money in the form of block grants is being sent from federal to stat levels.
14. Know something about the decades (especially 1930-1940 and 1960-1970) The great depression. FDR was president and responsible for Social Security. In the 30’s the movie industry saw a big boom. The 1960’s saw that Vietnam War and drugs, a time of change and experimental drug use.
15. Be able to describe some of the problems the elderly face. They are more susceptible to diseases such as; cancer, heart disease, diabetes and arthritis. Those that are put in homes may face abuse or neglect. Social Security may be going broke. And many elderly people have dementia.
16. What are some of the trends in mental health care?
Deinstitutionalizing mental patients, for lengthy hospitalization tends to create a dependence on the institution that hampers the patient’s reentry into the community. New drugs. Mental patients are not staying in institutions nearly as long as they were in previous decades.
17. What are the treatments available to persons with substance abuse problems? Specifically what is the most commonly use treatment for heroin addiction? Aside from imprisonment, treatment for narcotics addicts has taken three basic forms; hospitalization, methadone maintenance programs and self-help groups. Methadone is the most common means to treat a heroin addict
18. What is the incidence of persons who have alcohol addiction and why is it difficult to determine a precise number. It is difficult to determine a precise number because many people who drink do not consider themselves alcoholics and many drink in secret. You have to admit you have a problem for it to be reported.
19. Homelessness. How do you define it according to the book? “Lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate night-time residence; and….has a primary night time residency that is: (a) a supervised publicly or privately operated shelter designed to provide temporary living accommodations…,(b) an institution that provides a temporary residence for individuals intended to be institutionalized, or (c) a public or private place not designed for, or ordinarily used as, a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings.”
20. What were some of the treatment plans for persons with deviant behavior during Prehistoric? Trephining, demonology and animism.
21. What were some of the concerns during the period A.D, 200-475? Whom did people see support from during this period? Major plagues killed thousands upon thousands of people between the first and fourth centuries A.D., intense fear and anxiety spread throughout Europe and the Middle East. In this climate of fear, Christianity emerged and developed a large and zealous following. Medicine could not stop the plague, so many people turned to the comfort of Christianity, which became the prime religion of the Western world.
22. What were some changes that occurred during the Middle Ages with regards to human services provided? Human Service was provided by the rich and the church. The wealthy gave to poor, but very little, just to survive. The church stated that those who wanted help would receive help for salvation.
23. What is Elizabethan Poor Law?
Established a system that provided shelter and care for the poor. This law also specified local responsibility for the poor and disadvantaged.
24. Settlement House Movement?
It began in the period of the late 1800s to early 1900s, a reflection of early human services philosophy. Each settlement house offered a variety of human services to the disadvantaged. Newly arrived immigrants were the initial population served.
25. Be able to define Laisez Faire Economy, Social Darwinsim, and the Protestant Work Ethic. Laisez Faire Economy – a doctrine first introduced by Adam Smith in 1776 in his book, The Wealth of Nations, holding that an economic system functions best when there is no interference by government. Social Darwinism – A group of ideas first expressed by Herbert Spencer as an interpretation of Charles Darwin’s writings on evolution. Spencer applied Darwin’s theory of natural selection to human beings and supported the premise that disadvantaged people who are unfit for society should not be helped. Protestant Work Ethic – A social philosophy that supports the accumulation of wealth as a reward for hard work and condemns idleness as almost sinful.
26. Describe New Deal.
A system of social and economic legislation government aid programs designed to benefit the mass of working people; established by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in the 1930s.
27. What was the change in mental health services that occurred in the 1960’s? That mental health services should be located in the community with the government allocating funds for the creation of these comprehensive community mental health centers. Deinstitutionalizing was encouraged.
28. What is the human service model?
The theoretical view that emphasizes unfulfilled needs as major causes of human disorders. It employs a treatment approach based on satisfaction of human needs as a means of preventing and ameliorating dysfunction.
29. Difference between the three sub systems. Id, ego and superego. Id – In psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality containing the basic instincts, urges and desires. Ego – The rational part of the personality that mediates between the demands of instinctual urges, conscience and reality. Superego – The part of the personality containing the moral standards of society as interpreted by the parents to the child.
30. What are some of the major ideas of the Neo-Freudians? Highlighting social factors in the development of personality. Social aspects in human development.
Experience between juvenile and adolescence could have a profound impact on the personality.
31. Describe the humanistic approach.
That self-actualization is a primary motivating force in human behavior.
32. Describe Ivan Pavlov’s classical conditioning.
The kind of learning that takes place when a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that automatically produces a reflex response; the neutral stimulus comes to elicit the response.
33. What are the major assumptions of the Behavioristic Model? Behaviorism is primarily concerned with observable behavior. All behavior is a response to a stimulus.
34. Know the differences between Psychoanalysis, Humanistic theory, Behaviorism and the Systems approach. Psychoanalysis – A school of psychology originated by Sigmund Freud and the treatment method derived from his theories. Humanistic Theory – A school of psychology that emphasizes subjective experience and the desire of each person to realize his or her full human potential. Behaviorism – A theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Systems Approach – Systems thinking is the process of understanding how things influence one another within a whole.
35. Concept of clarifying.
Making clear what information is being conveyed by the client.
36. What are the factors that influence the use of skill? Values, professional code of ethics, physical and emotional well-being, environmental factors, multicultural awareness, prior training and crisis intervention.
37. What are the characteristics of effective helpers? Understand the concepts of Empathy, Genuineness, Acceptance and Patience. Empathy –
Conveying sensitivity and trying to understand.
Genuineness – “Being Real” avoiding role playing and feeling one way and acting another if you are genuine, free and expressive, the client may emulate these characteristics and be genuine, fee and expressive. Acceptance – seeing the client as having the right to think and act differently than the therapist. Not confusing acceptance with approval. Patience – allow client’s developmental and change to occur on their own time.
38. Voluntary and involuntary services.
Voluntary Service –The client decides that some form of help is needed. The client takes part in creating the objectives and goals of his or her own treatment. The client can discontinue or terminate the treatment if desired. The choice REMAINS with the client. Involuntary Service – An individual other than the client such as the courts or police decide that a service is necessary. An example would be placing a client on a 5150 hold. Overall, the decision to terminate services is decided by someone other than the client.
39. What are the types of crises.
Developmental Crisis – Transitions in life require role changes and introductions to new task and brings its own conflict situation. Short periods of psychological upsets that occur during a critical transition point in the normal developmental of a person that will be a major focus for the crisis worker. Situational Crisis – Situational crises do not occur with any regularity. Often times situational crises are sudden and caused by specific events. Like, losing a job, physical abuse, rape, alcohol or chemical dependency, death of a relative or close friend, divorce or experiencing a natural disaster or an act of terrorism.
40. What are the causes of mental retardation?
Environmental factors account for the majority of cases. These factors include a destructive or abusive home life, parents who are dysfunctional and poor role models, and limited learning opportunities during infancy and early childhood. Genetic disorders may cause below average functioning in learning and achievement. Chromosomal disorders take place during formation of the egg or the sperm and are not hereditary. Prenatal complications are another possible cause for retardation.