Identify and differentiate among four models of psychological skill development.

Psychological skill development uses four models. The four models used are self-regulation model, resonance performance model, athlete-centered sport model, and mindfulness-acceptance-commitment approach. Self-regulation deals with the behaviors and thoughts created by executing and reviewing one’s performance. The model is broken into three phases: first is the forethought phase has to do with goal setting and planning choice. Second phase is the performance phase that focuses on learning, monitoring one performance’s and imagining success. Finally, is the self-reflective phase that uses self-evaluation and how one feels about the result. At each phase of the model, more successful athletes exhibit superior regulations skill.

Resonance performance model is a model that explains how an athlete becomes elite athletes (Newberg, Kimiecik, Durand-Bush, & Doell, 2002). Resonance connects preparation, emotions, and overcoming obstacles. Peak performance is one example of resonance performance. It is a dream or goal associated with positive feelings and emotions. To reach that goal, there must be preparation done. A person must prepare and develop themselves mentally and physically. Athletes will need to overcome challenges to achieve and reach their goals. Athletes need to make sure not to get stuck in a cycle of the obstacle and preparation.

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Athlete-centered sport model proposes that sport must contribute to the overall development of the athlete physically, psychologically, and socially (Miller & Kerr, 2002). Personal excellence is seen as important as performance excellence. Performance excellence is observable, measurable athletic outcomes. Personal excellence can include performance excellence along with all the factors that make an athlete better over a period. In the athlete-centered sport model, there is now a need to bring attention to an athlete’s spiritual well-being. Some researchers have pointed out that spirituality should be included in the athlete-centered sport model. Research from Watson & Nesti (2005) found that 1) mental skill training should include psychology and spirituality training, 2) spirituality should be acknowledge for how it can bring together an athlete’s performance/help with the flow experience, and 3) included spirituality into consultancy work.

Mindfulness-acceptance-commitment model (MAC) is an approach to psychological self-regulation that recognizes a nonjudgmental focus of one’s attention on the here and the now (Moore & Gardner). It was thought that giving athletes the tools needs to control emotions and other sensations would help with high performance from that person. This was known as psychological skill training or PST for short. The MAC model believes that the athlete accepts their feelings, whether good or bad for what the feeling is. There is no overreacting from their emotions or trying to decrease/reduce the feelings. Eventually, the athlete’s emotions/feeling can be used in a positive way once gotten under control.

When discussing team cohesion, why it is so critical to differentiate between task and cohesion.

Sports psychologist, Albert Carron, defined group cohesion as a “dynamic process which is reflected in the tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of goals and objectives (Carron, 1982). Members of a group or team working together to reach a goal is known as team cohesion. Cohesion brings individual athletes/ players together to form one team. Group dynamics needs to be looked further into when studying cohesion.

There are two concepts that are needed to be known in cohesion and team behavior. First of the two is task and social cohesion. Task cohesion is the extent that a team works together to reach a certain goal. Social cohesion is when the members of a team have enjoyment and satisfaction from being a member of the group. These are two ideas are independent of each other. Failure to discriminate between the two can result and has resulted in hopelessly confusing results relative to the relationship between athletic performance and team cohesion (Cox, 2012).

Cohesion can be seen indirect and direct measurements. Indirect measurement approach according to Cox (2012) are team cohesion measurement that assesses team cohesion by asking each team member how they feel about every other member of the team on some basic question. A tally of the responses given would be the measurement of cohesion. Direct measurement approach pertains to the players being asked individual attraction and group integration questions. Examples of these question include how much they like playing for their team and how well they think the team works as a unit.

Task and cohesion should be treated as two separate items. Confusion can occur when the mistaken for one another. Cohesion is about forming a whole or unity. With task, there is a goal that is being reached. In the book, task deals more with the individual while cohesion deals with the group. Since the two are paired together as with task cohesion, it seems that they are connected to one another. Team cohesion brings the two ideas together as one thought. Both ideas can stand alone but when combined can help a team achieve success.

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