This paper will be about ISIS and how the United States can use multiple options to end it. From the book The Use of Force: Military Power and International Politics Chapter 33 page 403 written by Audrey Kurth Cronin is about The Decline and Demise of Terrorist Groups there is a focus on seven explanations as to why terrorist groups will end in the modern era. The first being to capture or killing the leader, second is the failure to transition to the next generation, the third is an achievement of the group’s aim, the fourth is the transition to a legitimate political process, the fifth is undermining a popular support, the sixth is repression, and the seventh is the transition from terrorism to other forms of violence. This project will go into detail on how this operation could affect ISIS and the United States.
Lauterbach, Toby Lee. “The Battle for Hearts and Minds: Uncovering the Wars of Ideas and Images behind the Global War on Terror; A Study of Media Performance and Influence, Propaganda, and Strategic Communication.” Air & Space Power Journal, vol. 27, no. 5, Sept. 2013, pp. 144–147.
The article reviews the book ‘The Battle for Hearts and Minds: Uncovering the Wars of Ideas and Images Behind the Global War on Terror: A Study of Media Performance and Influence, Propaganda, and Strategic Communication,’ by Timothy S. McWilliams. Lauterbach mentions how the author identifies the challenges posed by antagonistic media sources in Iraq during the insurgency. Also illustrating how partisan Arab media sources systematically presented disinformation that favored the insurgents and manipulated the American news media during the Iraq War. This review also shows how the author ignores the diversity of views in the American media and what that causes.
Ratelle, Jean-François, and Emil Aslan Souleimanov. “A Perfect Counterinsurgency? Making Sense of Moscow’s Policy of Chechenisation.” Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 68, no. 8, Oct. 2016, pp. 1287–1314.
This article assesses the successes and setbacks of Moscow’s policy of counterinsurgency. The article tracks how four key mechanisms: Chechnya’s institutional design, internal opposition to the Kadyrov clan, the tradition of blood feud among Kadyrovtsy and Chechnya’s economic dependency on Moscow. Then the article explains how the keys have enabled Moscow to maintain control over Chechnya while simultaneously allowing its elites to consolidate power within the republic.
Greene, Samuel R. “Pathological Counterinsurgency: The Failure of Imposing Legitimacy in El Salvador, Afghanistan, and Iraq.” Third World Quarterly, vol. 38, no. 3, Mar. 2017, pp. 563–579.
The article focuses on the US policy community who have suggested that El Salvador provided a model for US counterinsurgency operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The article also calls into question the ability of even a great power to impose legitimacy on a partner in order to wage counterinsurgency. The article later highlights the failure of the United States to impose legitimacy via elections in recent campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan, compared to the historical evidence of failure in El Salvador.
Griffin, Stuart. “Iraq, Afghanistan and the Future of British Military Doctrine: From Counterinsurgency to Stabilization.” International Affairs, vol. 87, no. 2, Mar. 2011, pp. 317–333.
This article examines the purpose, impact and potential value of this important innovation in British doctrine. The article studies the source of Stabilization; analyses its impact upon extant British doctrine for counterinsurgency and peace support; discusses its relationship with the most important related US doctrines. The article ends by summarizing the primary challenges Security and Stabilisation must overcome if it is to make a serious contribution.
Ehiane, Stanley O., and Bheki R. Mngomezulu. “Issues in Nigeria’s Counter-Terrorism Mechanisms: Prospects for Regional Cooperation to Fight the Scourge.” Journal of African Union Studies, vol. 7, no. 2, Aug. 2018, pp. 63–83.
This article studies the current state of Nigeria’s counter-terrorism approach and establishes why the government has struggled to eliminate Boko Haram. The article assesses the actions of the political leadership and on the possible impact of a joint regional attempt to contain the scourge, given its spill-over effects. The article argues for African agency as opposed to looking up to Western countries to provide a solution and it suggest what should be done to uproot Boko Haram.
Phillips, Brian J. “Terrorist Group Cooperation and Longevity.” International Studies Quarterly, vol. 58, no. 2, June 2014, pp. 336–347.
This study looks into, why do some terrorist groups survive considerably longer than others? This article attempts to address these two topics: the incomplete understanding of terrorist group survival and the tendency to assume that terrorist groups act independently. This study shows how a group’s number of relationships is more important than to whom the group is connected.
Butler, Chris. “Five Steps to Organisational Resilience: Being Adaptive and Flexible during Both Normal Operations and Times of Disruption.” Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning, vol. 12, no. 2, Winter 2018, pp. 103–112.
This paper outlines the importance of organisational resilience and the need for businesses to take a proactive approach in managing risks. It proposes a way of thinking about resilience that entails more than simply returning to the status quo following a disruption. This paper proposes steps that organisations can take to improve their organisational resilience, which will have benefits both for normal operational activities, and when responding in a crisis.