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Practice Questions: Chapter 14 and 15

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    What is the correct order for the parts of the spinal cord, from superior to inferior?
    Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal
    What is the thin strand of pia mater that helps to anchor the spinal cord to the coccyx?
    Filum terminale
    The tapered, conical inferior end of the spinal cord is called the conus . . .
    Medullaris
    Which statement accurately describes spinal nerves?
    Each spinal nerve is mixed in that it contains some sensory axons and some motor axons.
    True or False: The subdural space is the region between the arachnoid mater and the dura mater?
    True
    True or False: The spinal dura mater contains an outer periosteal layer and an inner meningeal layer.
    False
    Which space associated with the spinal cord meninges contains cerebrospinal fluid?
    Subarachnoid space
    In a lumbar puncture (spinal tap), fluid is extracted from the . . .
    subarachnoid space.
    The most delicate of the meninges consists of the elastic and collagen fibers and is known as the . . .
    pia mater.
    The posterior horns of the spinal cord contain . . .
    axons of sensory neurons and cell bodies of interneurons.
    The lateral horns of the spinal cord contain . . .
    cell bodies of autonomic motor neurons.
    This structure contains unmyelinated axons and serves as a communication route between the right and the left side of the gray matter in the spinal cord.
    Gray commissure
    Nuclei within the gray matter of the spinal cord that receive information from sensory receptors such as pain or pressure receptors in the skin are ________ nuclei.
    somatic sensory
    The _________ nuclei within the gray matter of the spinal cord send nerve impulses to skeletal muscles.
    somatic motor
    These nuclei are located in the lateral horns and innervate smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.
    autonomic motor nuclei
    In sum, there are _____ pairs of spinal nerves.
    31
    True or False: The white matter of the spinal cord is surrounded by its grey matter.
    False
    Which accurately describes sensory and motor pathways?
    Sensory pathways terminate in the brain, and motor pathways terminate at effectors.
    Because most pathways decussate, each side of the brain processes information from the ___________ side of the body.
    contralateral
    What is the correct order from the events that occur during a reflex?
    stimulus activates receptor, impulse travels to CNS, information is processed, transmits impulse to effector, effector responds
    A reflex arc in which both the receptor and the effector organs of the reflex are on the same side of the spinal cord is . . .
    ipsilateral.
    Late one night you are leaving the science building during a snowstorm. As you approach your car, your right foot suddenly slips on a patch of ice. Your left leg immediately stiffens as you try to regain your balance. The reflex action you relied upon is a(n) . . .
    contralateral reflex.
    Which type of reflex occurs with the smallest delay?
    monosynaptic
    The simple knee-jerk reflex is an example of a(n) ________ reflex.
    monosynaptic
    Stepping on a piece of glass would most likely invoke a _______ reflex.
    withdrawal
    For many reflexes, including the stretch reflex, the excitation of a muscle leads to . . .
    inhibition of motor neurons of its antagonist.
    The Golgi tendon reflex . . .
    prevents skeletal muscles from tensing excessively.
    A monosynaptic reflex that monitors and regulates skeletal muscle length is a _______
    stretch
    True or False: The alar plate of the embryo develops into the gray commissure of the spinal cord.
    False
    The adult spinal cord extends inferiorly from the brain through the vertebral canal and ends at the level of the _______ vertebra.
    L1
    The nerves projecting inferiorly from the spinal cord are collectively called the . . .
    cauda equina.
    The cell bodies of sensory neurons are located in the . . .
    posterior root ganglion.
    This figure shows a cross section of the spinal cord. What structure does number 1 indicate?
    Posterior horn
    Consider a basketball player whose heart is racing during the final moments of a game. With seconds on the clock, she makes a jump shot. Her excitement is a function of her _________ nervous system, and her movement are a function of her _______ nervous system.
    sympathetic; somatic
    Which of the following is correct about the autonomic nervous system (ANS)?
    ANS is involuntary, ANS motor innervate cardiac, smooth, and glands. All answers.
    We lack awareness of many of our bodies’ system for maintaining homeostasis. The sensations, movements, and secretions of organs such as the heart and intestines are governed by the . . .
    autonomic nervous system
    Which is false regarding the somatic nervous system (SNS)?
    The SNS is activated by visceral sensory neurons.
    The knee jerk reflex is directed by the . . .
    somatic nervous system
    In an autonomic motor pathway, the first cell in the two-neuron chain is the _______ neuron.
    preganglionic
    Postganglionic axons are
    unmyelinated
    Motor neurons of the ________ nervous system contain more rapidly conducting axons.
    somatic
    Motor neurons of the autonomic nervous system . . .
    can either excite or inhibit effector organs.
    Preganglionic axons of the ANS release . . .
    acetylcholine.
    Which statement accurately compare the motor systems of the somatic nervous system (SNS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS)?
    The SNS does not have ganglia for its motor neurons but the ANS does.
    The circuitry of the autonomic system allows for control in activation. The characteristic that allows a small number of preganglionic cells to stimulate a large number of postganglionic cells is . . .
    divergence.
    Many different neurons can stimulate an autonomic ganglion cell simultaneously due to . . .
    convergence.
    Which is not an effector innervated by the autonomic nervous system?
    Skeletal muscle
    The two divisions of the autonomic nervous system . . .
    contain autonomic ganglia to house ganglion neurons.
    Which division functions to converse energy and replenish the supply of nutrients?
    parasympathetic
    Which division function to increase alertness and direct bodily responses in stressful situations?
    Sympathetic
    The “fight-or-flight” system is the _________ nervous system.
    sympathetic
    Which system has more divergence of preganglionic axons?
    Sympathetic division
    Which system has long preganglionic axons and therefore ganglia that are relatively far from the central nervous system?
    Parasympathetic nervous system
    Which system contain short preganglionic axons that branch extensively?
    Sympathetic nervous system
    Nicotinic receptors bind . . .
    acetylcholine and allow sodium ions to enter the cell.
    When ACh binds to nicotinic receptors, it . . .
    always produces an excitatory response.
    Muscarinic receptors are protein that bind the neurotransmitter . . .
    acetylcholine.
    When neurotransmitter binds to muscarinic receptors on smooth muscle cells in the gastrointestinal tract, . . .
    motility increases.
    Autonomic tone refers to . . .
    the continual activity maintained by the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
    Dual innervation means that an individual effector . . .
    receives input from both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system.
    The sympathetic and parasympathetic system have _____ effects on the heart rate.
    antagonistic
    Which type of innervation causes pupil dilation?
    Sympathetic
    Which type of innervation causes reduced blood flow to the digestive tract?
    Sympathetic
    Which may be involved in an autonomic reflex?
    cardiac, smooth muscle contraction, secretion of glands, all of the choices.
    In the brain, the ______ is the integration and command center for autonomic functions.
    hypothalamus
    The centers for cardiac, digestive, and vasomotor functions are housed within the . . .
    brainstem.
    The parasympathetic autonomic responses associated with defecation and urination and processed and controlled at the level of the . . .
    spinal cord.
    Sweat gland are arrector pili muscle are controlled . . .
    only by the sympathetic nervous system.
    The diameter of many blood vessels is controlled exclusively by the _______ nervous system, and decreases in the activity of this system result in ________.
    sympathetic; vasodilation.
    The micturition reflex results in . . .
    contraction of smooth muscle in the bladder and relaxation of urinary sphincters.
    A rise in blood pressure causes a reflexive . . .
    activation of the parasympathetic system and inhibition of the sympathetic system.
    True or False: The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system are part of both the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system.
    True
    True or False: The autonomic nervous system may receive input from visceral sensory neurons.
    True
    True or False: The ANS uses pathways that include two-neuron chains to innervate its effector organs.
    True
    True or False: Neuronal divergence occurs when axons from one preganglionic cell synapse on numerous genglionic cells.
    True
    True or False: The somatic nervous system can both excite and inhibit effectors.
    False
    True or False: Both types of axons of the sympathetic branch of the ANS use norepinephrine as the neurotransmitter.
    False
    True or False: The parasympathetic division of the ANS is also called the craniosacral division.
    True
    True or False: The sympathetic division of the ANS is also called the thoracosacral division.
    False
    True or False: Sweating is a result of sympathetic stimulation.
    True
    True or False: Parasympathetic activity is responsible for increased smooth muscle motility and secretory activity in digestive tract organs.
    True

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