Addressing client racism and racial prejudice in individual psychotherapy bartoli Essay

Prejudice means pre-judging, and is defined as having a bad opinion of a group without sufficient evidence, by thinking of that group in terms of unverified stereotypes. Prejudice is a preconceived judgment or opinion. Strictly speaking, prejudice can also be favoring a group without justifiTABLE grounds or sufficient knowledge. But the most common definition of prejudice is an irrational attitude Of hostility directed against an individual, group, or race. 2.

Why are people prejudiced against others? Some factors are: ignorance, fear of someone different, low self-esteem, insecurity, a need to feel superior, r negative personal experiences with individuals from that group.

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Some people are prejudiced because they have a need to protect and maintain their self-image. Some people have the need to express their identity by excluding others. It makes them feel good to put others down through name calling, such as ‘Niger, honk, kick, chin, fagged’.

Prejudice is learned behavior and is usually passed down to people from their family or is derived from their friends.

3. Most psychologists have long believed that fear IS a prelude to hatred. 4. Some common types of prejudice: a) misogyny – Hatred of, or hostility toward women As an example of how pervasive male dominance has been in human history, the word for hatred of men (missionary) is still not a common word, in fact most dictionaries do not even include it. B) xenophobia – fear or dislike of strangers or the unknown, often used to describe nationalistic political beliefs and movements c) homophobia – fear of homosexuals, or people thought to be lesbian, gay, or bisexual. D) anti-Semitism – hatred of Jews e) racism – a form of discrimination based on race, especially the belief that one race is superior to another. Racism may be expressed individually and unconsciously, through explicit thoughts, feelings, or acts, or socially and unconsciously, through institutions that promote inequality between races. ) bigotry – the intolerance and prejudice of a bigot, that is, a prejudiced person who is intolerant of any opinions differing from their own 5. Recent experiments were conducted at Dartmouth College with the help of brain-imaging equipment and some undergraduates. They found that racial prejudice makes you stupider. According to their findings, the more biased people are, the more their brain power is taxed by contact with someone of another race, as they struggle not to say or do anything offensive.

The effect is so strong, that even a five minute conversation with a black person left some of the white subjects unTABLE to perform well on a test of cognitive ability PREJUDICE (ITS FUNCTIONS) As an attitude, prejudice can function as a schema for organizing information about members of a group Information that is consistent with our prejudices (rather than inconsistent) tends to receive more attention, is rehearsed more frequently, is more likely to be remembered Even though prejudice can be positive or negative, let’s focus on the negative

Prejudice involves negative feelings when they are in the presence of,or even think about, members of the group Prejudice often involves stereotypes, suggesting that all members of a group behave in certain ways and have certain characteristics Therefore, prejudice has both cognitive and affective components Affective component is the positive or negative attitude/feeling Cognitive component contains stereotypes Origins of Prejudice Direct interrupt conflict Social learning Social categorization: Us vs.. Hem Cognitive sources: stereotypes, illusory correlations, outgrip homogeneity Direct Interrupt Conflict This research is based on , or lead to, realistic conflict theory Idea is that real disparities or competition between groups leads to hostility (negative prejudice). Even “perceived” threats (relative deprivation) can lead to prejudice Think about strife existing between early Morons and other groups.

Can partly be explained in terms of realistic conflict theory, accounted for in terms of real deprivation or perceived deprivation. Some would argue that this theory applies to increasing prejudice (and discrimination) currently prevalent here in Utah Robber’s Cave study (Sheriff et al. , 1 961) Rattlers and Eagles in separate cabins formed close attachments to others in own group (Week 1) Groups brought into competition with one another (Week 2) Groups developed strong prejudices Subordinate goals introduced (e. G. Fixing bus) (Week 3) Conflict reduced Havilland & Sears (1940) correlation between economic conditions and racial violence Most of 4761 lynching in US between 1882 and 1930 occurred in the South, and most victims were African Americans Farm value of cotton and per-acre value of cotton each year was strongly correlated with the number of lynching in each year Again, think about realistic conflict notion in eight of current levels of prejudice (and discrimination in the U. S. ). As economic conditions worsen, prejudice and discrimination are on the rise.

Social learning as source of prejudice Children acquire negative attitudes toward various social groups through direct and vicarious learning experiences Parents, teachers, friends, the mass media all play roles in the development of prejudice Consider how minority groups or the two genders have been portrayed in the media Some even argue that we are “born” with a bias to perceive dark stimuli as more fearful than lighter stimuli (shown with babies and toddlers using “neutral” stimuli)

Social categorization as source of Prejudice: IIS vs.. Them People tend to view “us” in favorTABLE terms and “them” more negatively Ingrown-outgrip distinction affects attribution We tend to attribute desirTABLE behaviors of ingrown members to sTABLE internal causes, but tend to attribute desirTABLE behaviors of outgrip members to unsTABLE or to external causes- sometimes called adulterate attribution error How does social categorization result in prejudice?

Teasel (1982) proposes that that individuals seek to enhance their self-esteem by identifying with social groups. This is successful to the extent that persons receive their group(s) as somehow superior to other group(s) Basking in reflected glory (Brining) – Chap. 3 Even if there is an inferior “ungrouped member, this leads to considerTABLE derogation so as to preserve value of the group Cutting off reflected failure (Corning) – Chap. 3 & Forbearance’s research in Chap. This notion of social categorization bears on Teasel and Turner’s Social Identity Theory, which predicts, among other things: higher ingrown favoritism when self-esteem threatened on a situational basis heightened levels of ingrown favoritism when the group is really small (a minority) heightened levels of ingrown favoritism when one feels a marginal member of group PREJUDICE EXAMPLES Prejudice has been defined as an outlook towards a community or an individual, based solely upon a preconceived idea or preference and devoid of any objectivity and reasoning.

The examples mentioned in this article will help the reader in understanding prejudice in a better way. Prejudice is described as a preconceived notion harbored against a particular group or a person based on the nationality, race, caste, color, sex, sexual preferences, creed or other personal preferences. The concept has been debated raucously by psychologists and social researchers. Some have called it a personality trait or habit, while others have described it merely as an emotion.

Studies and experiments which have been conducted in this regard, go on to prove that more often than not, prejudice comes about due to conformity to social norms. In this regard, the words antipathy’ and discrimination are closely linked with prejudice. Though prejudice may not always be negative, over the last century, prejudice and discrimination have been spoken of in the same breath. This has led to a negative connotation of prejudice.

Examples of Prejudice # 1: If someone is walking in a secluded area in the night, and a group of senior citizens who are walking with canes in hand, come from the opposite side, the person will not feel threatened. However, if instead of senior citizens, three teenagers dressed in jeans and t-shirts with lots of metal chains around their neck are approaching from the other side, the person might feel threatened a bit, even without any kind of provocation from their # 2: It is a general perception that people with mental illnesses are prone to violence.

This perception has developed from the stereotypes portrayed in ivies or written about in books, wherein a mentally ill person becomes violent and goes on a rampage. Although, there are a few isolated cases of mentally ill people, who have a tendency towards violence, yet, if we look at the statistics, they show that mentally ill people are no more violence prone than the normal people. # 3: Human beings are categorized into a number of races, based on their geographical location, physical characteristics, culture, language and history.

It is a social concept, not biological. For example, in America, there are Caucasians, African-Americans, Asians etc who differ from each other hectically. However, being different no way makes a race superior or inferior to another. Yet, there are certain people who think, believe and act in ways that suggest that their race is superior to others. ‘Racists’ as they are referred to, are prejudiced and if you look at history, they have even resorted to violence against the races they considered inferior. 4: Gender discrimination, whether at the workplace or at home is another commonly observed prejudice that exists in today’s society. An organization which hires more male candidates and rejects women (or vice versa), due to their gender, is said to be prejudiced. One more example is of an organization where women are hired equally, but not given top jobs. Such organizations are practicing gender discrimination too. # 5: Instances of prejudices based on religion are found all over the world.

Although, most religions preach tolerance and acceptance of other religions, yet, fanatics are found everywhere. Usually, it is seen that people who believe more in following the rituals and religious practices, rather than taking religion as a means to reach God, are more likely to engage in discrimination and prejudice against people who follow a religious belief other than theirs. 6: people belonging to one nation may sometimes discriminate against those that belong to some other country. This is especially true in case of a war or other conflicts between the two countries.

In such circumstances, people belonging to the other country, with whom one is in conflict with, are considered outsiders and may even have to face hostility, especially if they happen to Stay in the your country. Looking at the various prejudice examples, it can be concluded that we are prejudiced against people, when we assume that they have certain characteristics. These assumptions develop when we do not have direct intact with them or we fear them due to they being a minority and different from us. Some might also be passed on from one generation to another such as those against women.

Since prejudices are so widespread, in order to combat them, understanding their nature is very important. By spreading the message of brotherhood, developing understanding in people, educating people, making them aware, and promoting inter-group dialog, small steps towards a more tolerant and egalitarian society can be taken. Read more at Puzzle: https://v,Mr.. Puzzle. Com/articles/prejudice-examples. HTML Prejudice derives from Prejudge, which is to judge someone or something without out all the availTABLE facts. Some times this can be good and some times not so :- Example One He was prejudiced to give her the job solely on her looks.

Great you think she got the job! But what about her qualifications? Example Two The guy suffered from racial prejudice and so didn’t let the man into his house to fix the boiler. The guy lost out just cause he didn’t like the color of his skin and is now sat in a cold house. Example Three The jury were prejudiced towards the defendant because they already knew e was guilty of other crimes, but were not pertaining to the case in hand. The mans past had nothing to do with what he was standing trail for but the jurors had already a predetermined what type Of man he was.

The word prejudice, meaning literally pre-judgment, is defined as having a preconceived opinion about something or someone. It has acquired its current popular definition, of bias against a particular group of people, during the civil rights movement of the mid-20th century. Under that latter definition, here are three examples of prejudice: * Asking to be seated (or re-seated) in a restaurant or theater, away from a roof whose ethnic or religious heritage frightens or offends you; this could be anything from Italian businessmen (“might be mobsters”) to a Middle Eastern family (“could be terrorists’). Seeking out a male auto mechanic, under the belief that a female mechanic would be less qualified; or hiring a female kindergarten teacher, thinking that a male teacher wouldn’t be as compassionate. * Denying a gay couple the right to rent an apartment. But it’s important to keep in mind that 1) everyone has prejudices, and 2) not all prejudices are negative. For example, you may decide to see a new movie cause you heard that one of your favorite actors is starring in it; this is an example of positive prejudice, or prejudice foreshortening. Prejudice Each of us is unique with our own talents and skills and experiences to offer.

There are many ways that people can be different from you: * moral or spiritual beliefs * cultural background * intellectual strengths and weaknesses (e. G. Being better at languages or math) * social skills and preferences (e. G. Being shy instead of outgoing) tastes, interests and hobbies (e. G. Liking sports or music) * physical features (e. G. Sex, size, skin color, body shape) sexual and/or gender orientation or preferences While we all benefit by being surrounded by people with different beliefs, skills and experiences, these differences can sometimes cause people to be targets of hatred and prejudice.

To understand what prejudice is, it’s important to be TABLE to define words like stereotypes and discrimination. Prejudice can have some serious effects, but there are many things you can do to recognize and reduce prejudice in your own life. If you have more questions about prejudice and discrimination, talk to a trusted adult (like a parent, relative or teacher) or call Kids Help Phone at 1-800-668-6868. Looking for something specific? Go straight there. Definitions and examples * The effects of prejudice * What you can do about prejudice Definitions and examples Stereotypes are generalizations When we assume that people of shared physical, religious, cultural or other characteristics have certain behavioral attributes, this is called a stereotype. Some examples of stereotypes are: * Men are more adventurous than women * Women are more emotional than men * Aboriginal people are all alcoholics * Gay men are all effeminate Prejudice is a belief Prejudice is often based on stereotypes.

It divides people into inferior and period groups based on what one person thinks about another person or group. Some examples of prejudice are: * Racism or Anti-Semitism – believing that race, skin color or culture makes certain people inferior (e. G. Believing that whites are superior to people of color or people who practice Judaism) * Classics – believing that certain economic classes are superior (e. G. The rich are superior to the poor) * Sexism – believing that sex and gender determine status (e. G. Boys and men are superior to girls and women) * Looking – believing that appearance and looks determine status (e. “unattractive” people are inferior to “attractive” people) * Homophobia/ Heterosexual – believing that sexual or gender orientation makes one group inferior (e. G. Heterosexual people are superior to homosexual people) Babbles – believing that physical and/or mental ability makes one group superior (e. G. that differently abele people are inferior to typically abele people) * Ageism – believing that age determines status (e. G. Adults are superior to young people and the elderly) Discrimination is an action When people act based on their prejudices, they are discriminating against there.

Some examples of discrimination include * A rich-looking person getting served before a poorer-looking person at a restaurant * A woman getting turned down for a job promotion in favor of a man * A police officer keeping a closer watch on a black teenager than a white teenager hanging out in front of a store * An woman in her ass getting treated better than a woman in her ass by a stores staff The effects of prejudice Prejudice and discrimination are harmful behaviors that limit the opportunities of certain groups of people by reducing or withholding access o people defined as inferior and by increasing or extending access to people defined as superior.

Some of the opportunities that prejudice and discrimination limit include: * approval and popularity * rights and privileges * power * knowledge * employment * promotion Prejudice and discrimination also leave people open to a variety of social risks including: * visualization (violence, abuse, theft and bullying) * suspicion (blame or assumed guilt for crimes and harmful actions) rejection, alienation and isolation (which all can lead to low self-esteem, self- hatred and self-destruction) * exploitation and oppression One of the worst things about prejudices is that over time people may come to believe what they hear and may start to believe that they are superior/ inferior. This can lead to: * emotional suffering * reduced self-esteem * sense of futility or lack of control * blaming victims * losing hope in the future * fear/mistrust of others * lack of respect for authority What you can do about prejudice There are many ways that you can help reduce prejudice and discrimination.

Here are just a few suggestions: * refuse to laugh at racist or sexist jokes * refuse to be allowed to jump ahead in a line-up and point out that people ho have been waiting longer have a right to be served first * refuse to see movies, read books, play video games or participate in actives that promote violence or discrimination against certain groups * confront your friends or peers who express prejudiced or discriminatory beliefs * support associations or organizations whose mission is to help address the roots or effects of prejudice * confront prejudice in schools by working with a diverse group of people * confront prejudge ice at work by refusing to work in an environment that supports discriminatory policies or practices If you have ore questions about prejudice or discrimination, talk to a trusted adult like a parent, relative, teacher or religious leader, or call Kids Help Phone at 1-800-668-6868 and talk to one of our professional counselors. BEYOND PREJUDICE REDUCING YOUR PREJUDICIAL Overproducing prejudices needs to be more than an organizational goal; it needs to be a personal goal for each of us.

The following list contains things we can do as individuals to help reduce prejudices within ourselves and in those around 1 . Acknowledge that you have learned prejudicial information about other people. Without this acknowledgment nothing can change. Only through an acknowledgment of the prejudicial learning can the misinformation be openly discussed and dealt with in a way which is likely to bring about change. It is clear that if we can’t talk about it, we surely can’t change it. 2. Confront without guilt or blame the stereotypes that you have learned. Guilt for having learned information is not really appropriate. It would have been difficult or nearly impossible to avoid learning this information.

You probably learned it before you were TABLE to think about the information radically. To focus on either blame or guilt distracts one from the need for change. It also focuses one’s attention from the present into the past and leaves one feeling helpless or powerless to make any changes. 3. Enter a supportive group or a supportive relationship for making the needed changes. We tend to change our interpersonal behaviors and beliefs most effectively in an Interpersonal context. Another person or other people can help us to test new learning, gain new information, hold us to our insights and our commitments. They can do all this while providing us with purport as we try new ideas, behaviors and beliefs. 4.

Make a commitment to change and make a commitment to a process of change. The commitment made to others is a stronger commitment than the one made alone or to oneself. The commitment should be to working on a change process. Simply making a commitment to change is not as likely to result in the modification of behavior as a commitment to change that includes a commitment to a process. It is most effective to make an agreement to meet regularly with someone to discuss how you are both changing. Mutual commitments are both powerful and healthy. In this way, people approach the process as equals and are more likely to adhere to the process of changing.

Keeping these commitments in a log, along With notes on the actions that one has taken, is a helpful way of sharing and supporting each other in a process of mutual prejudice reduction. 5. Become aware of your own “self-talk” about other groups of people. Becoming aware of one’s own “self-talk” is critical in the process of changing the early stereotyped beliefs that one has learned. Talk about where those messages came from and the messages’ limiting effect with a person who will be accepting and non-judgmental. Knowing what those messages are is critical to changing them and replacing them with positive messages. 6. Challenge the irrationality of the prejudicial thoughts or “self-talk” statements. Get information to disprove each prejudicial thought. Most general statements about a population of people are untrue.

One only needs to kick more closely to see that almost any Statement about “them” will fall apart under examination. Take the time to examine and challenge the thoughts that limit or devalue other people. 7. Increase your exposure to or contact with those who belong to the group(s) award which you have learned some prejudicial stereotypes. Misconceptions remain effective only when you avoid contact with those about whom you have misconceptions. It is always helpful to increase your exposure to people that belong to the group about which you have stereotyped thoughts. When you are doing this, abjures that you are not making contact in a way which will only affirm your stereotypically.

In finding people who are representative of this group, you might ask yourself, “Is this the method I would want someone to use who wanted to learn about people of my nationality, race, age, religious belief, or culture? As you enter this process, keep in mind the tremendous diversity within any group. 8. Thought-stopping is a valuTABLE process for changing one’s “self-talk” about others. It is often helpful to have a pleasant image to focus upon to use as an abrupt interruption to your thoughts whenever you discover that you have started to think stereotypical thoughts about a member of another group. If you plan what image to focus upon and shift to that image very suddenly each time you think the stereotyped thought, it weakens the stereotyped thought.

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