The Holocaust ended with the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945. Allied forces liberated Nazi concentration and extermination camps in the months following Germany’s defeat, bringing an end to the systematic killing of Jews and other groups that the Nazis had targeted. The last Nazi concentration camp, Majdanek in Poland, was liberated in July 1944. The last extermination camp, Auschwitz-Birkenau, was liberated in January 1945. The last ghetto, Lodz in Poland, was liquidated in May 1945.
The Holocaust also ended for individual Jews who managed to escape from the Nazis or who were hidden by non-Jews. Some Jews also survived by joining the resistance movement or by going into hiding with a non-Jewish family or friend who protected them during this time period. Some even tried to escape to Palestine (now Israel) through Hungary or Italy but were turned away at ports because they did not have valid entry visas or permits.
In addition to all these people who survived their experiences during this time period, there were also those Jews who survived by hiding indoors during World War II (1939 – 1945). They were referred to as ‘hidden children’.