Karl Marx (1818-1883) was the German philosopher who wrote The Communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engels. He was a key figure in the development of socialism and communism.
Marx developed his theory of socialism and communism in response to the capitalist system that dominated Europe from the Industrial Revolution through the end of the 19th century. Many people were poor because they worked 12-hour days for little pay, and children as young as five years old worked in factories. The rich got richer while more and more people struggled just to survive.
Philosopher believed that workers should own all industries instead of making profits for capitalists (owners). He believed that this would provide better working conditions, higher wages and better lives for everyone. He also believed that private ownership of land should be shared among all citizens so no one person could hoard large amounts of it for their own use.
Summary, Marx believed that economic forces determine the history of humanity. In particular, he argued that capitalism would eventually lead to revolution because it would create its own internal contradictions. He believed that the poor working class would eventually rise up against their capitalist oppressors and establish a new society based on common ownership of property and production for use rather than profit.
His ideas inspired many workers who organized themselves into unions to fight for better wages and living conditions. In 1917, a revolution led by Vladimir Lenin took control of Russia and established a communist government based on Marx’s ideas.