Civil liberties are rights guaranteed by the government to protect individuals from oppression. These rights are based on the principles of liberty, equality, and justice. Civil liberties include the right to life, liberty and security of person; freedom of thought, conscience and religion; and freedom of expression, association and assembly. Civil liberties are not absolute; they can be limited by laws that are necessary to protect public safety, order or morality. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is Canada’s supreme law, guaranteeing certain civil liberties. The Canadian Bill of Rights is also a federal statute protecting civil liberties; it was created in 1960. Civil liberties are protected by the courts through the principle of judicial review, which ensures that no laws or government actions will encroach upon individual rights and freedoms. International treaties and conventions have also been drafted to protect civil liberties; for example, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948. Civil liberties are important for the functioning of any democratic society because they ensure that each citizen has certain fundamental rights.