The Sun King is a nickname for King Louis XIV of France, who reigned from 1643 until his death in 1715. The nickname refers to the way Louis XIV wanted people to think of him as a godlike figure who controlled all aspects of life in France during his reign. He used this title to inspire awe and loyalty from his subjects. The Sun King also had the belief that he was invincible and could not be defeated.
Louis XIV’s father, Louis XIII, died when he was only five years old, so his mother ruled as regent until he came of age at 14 years old. At that point, she gave up power to him and let him rule alone without interference from her or anyone else in government or society at large. This gave him an enormous amount of power over all aspects of French politics and culture, which allowed him to enforce his vision on everyone else through laws and regulations as well as through subtle manipulation behind closed doors with members of parliament or other high officials with whom he dealt regularly.
He ruled for over 60 years and he was a very unpopular ruler towards the end of his reign due to his high taxes and his involvement in several costly wars.