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The Doctrine: The Separate but Equal

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    The Separate but Equal was a doctrine that stated that services,facilities,and public places could be separated by race as long as other accommodations were equal. This doctrine soon became very controversial; many did not believe in the Separate but equal doctrine because it was not as equal as it portrayed itself to be, especially when it came to wanting to receive a quality education. Many fought to have schools desegregated so that African-Americans could attend school with whites. In the month of May 17,1954 the Supreme court deemed that all laws that established segregation in schools were unconstitutional.

    But on September 2, 1957 the town of Little Rock, Arkansas would stand against this decision that would later go down in history. Little Rock was one of the two states in the South to broadcast that they would abide by the new “law of the land”. In the year of 1949, Arkansas law school would become desegregated; and so would seven of the state universities. Which allowed African-Americans to be elected to local offices and to be chosen by the state board. With this sudden change Little Rock began to see that they were making progress by slowly transitioning into integration with the cities public transportation, services and public sitings.

    With these new deriving emotions, the city believed with a carefully well developed plan that they could break down the boundaries within their school. The school board voted for a plan to start desegregating within the high schools in 1957, and to have junior high and elementary schools to follow some time after. But the plan would soon show to become unpromising. On September 2,1957, Orval Faubus would called the state’s National Guard to surround the Little Rock Central High School to block entrance to stop any African-American from access into the school building.

    Faubus explained his reasoning for this action was to protect the citizens and the property from any violent behavior by protesters. On September 20 a federal judge approved an injunction against the governor for using the National Guard troops to prevent integration. On September 23, 1957, school continued but for Carlotta Walls, Jefferson Thomas, Gloria Ray, Ernest Green, Elizabeth Eckford, Thelma Mothershed,Terrence Roberts, Minnijean Brown and Melba Patillo would be confronted by and angry mob outside of the school giving them an unwelcoming greeting. Central High was surrounded by Little Rock police men.

    Due to the gathering that was blocking the front entrance of about 1,000 people the police escorted these nine black students to a side door were they could quietly entered the building. But once the angry crowd received knowledge that the black students were in the building they begin to charge the officers with threats. Due to this behavior the school administration began to think that the police were not going be able to handle the crowd; so they released the blacks students out of a side door before noon. Few elected officials called for help to cease the turmoil. U.

    S Congressman Brook Hayes and the Mayor of Little Rock Woodrow Mann reported to the federal government for help. First by U. S Marshals and later on September 24,1957, Mann would send a telegram to President Eisenhower asking for troops. The troops were sent immediately and the President also federalized the entire Arkansas National Guard, taking them from the governor. The following day the nine students entered the school under the protection of 1,000 101st Airborne Division of the United States Army. But there was no protection for what would go on in their lives daily when they went to school .

    The nine students were still subjected to daily taunts, verbal and physical threats by the white students. One of the girls Melba Patillo had acid thrown into her eyes. But soon things would go from being tense to loosening up. But during the following year the world was back to concentrating on America. On May 27 1958, Little Rock Central High School had gone a whole year being integrated. Now there was 601 students graduating with Ernest Green being the first black male to graduate from Little Rock Central High. The faculty and staff stayed determined to put the new law of the land into retrospect.

    For if harassment continued, amongst the white there would be an acceptance of 100 black students. Even though some of the white students weren’t two thrilled on desegregation, they still abode by the law. Soon some of the white students started to look at what was in important and that was their education. So many took upon themselves to work with the black students to help them achieve and receive the same opportunity. But on August 1958, Faubus would ask the state legislature to pass a law the would allow him to closed public schools and turn them into private school corporations.

    The following year the law was put into action, and it would soon be recognized as The Lost Years. In the year of 1959 in the month of June the federal court confirmed the state’s school closing as unconstitutional. The school soon re-opened and only two of the nine black students that entered the school in the year of 1957, re-enrolled, those students were Carlotta Walls and Jefferson Thomas. Many fought to make things equal even if it involved turmoil. When it came the schools anything that could be done to desegregate the schools it was done. Regardless of what other ignorance was going on.

    Once the were consequences being set and it was understood that the law needed to be followed Little Rock begin to learn how to live equally. In closing, The Separate but Equal doctrine was very unjust. Things were not equal at all they were separate but the services that were provided for blacks were of poor quality. Little Rock Nine has to be one of the many controversial and astonishing stories in history amongst other stories about segregation. It has become a critical part of history. Despite the intensity of the situation, the nine students still pushed forward to receive a quality education.

    This story is very monumental, not only was it the students that displayed an act of courage and tenacity; but the people that decided to stand up and help them as well. This story definitely depicts what it means to fight for fair equality and once things were put in prospective, laws changed and for people in this town stepping up for what they believed in. With these actions it helped nine black students walk into a building and receive a sense of equality because they were receiving quality; despite the odds that were against them.

    TIMELINE < The slogan Separate but Equal derived from a Louisiana Law in 1890 < On May 17, 1954 the U. S Supreme Court decided that racial segregation in the school was unconstitutional. < Five days later Little Rock School Board issued a statement stating that they will abide to the Supreme Courts decision, when the court outlined the method to be followed. < In the year of 1955, a plan was constructed by the school board to slowly gravitate towards integration, in which the high school would be desegregated starting in the year of 1957. The NAACP had registered nine black students to attend the previously all white Little Rock Central High.

    < On September 2, 1957, the night before school was to begin, the governor Orval Faubus, called for the states National Guard to surround the building and block the entrance to prevent any of the black students from walking in. < September 20, an injunction would be held against the governor use of the National Guards. < September 23, the nine students would be escorted by Little Rock police men to enter the building safely and quietly. < September 24, U. S congressman Brooke Hayes and Mayor Woodrow Mann would call the federal government for help. With Mann sending out a telegram to President Eisenhower requesting U. S troops. < September 25, the troops were sent to cease the turmoil and to protect the nine black students from harm. < May 27,1958, the tense year would soon loosen up and 601 seniors would graduate with Ernest Green being the black male to graduate from Little Rock Central High school. < During this whole school yeah staff and faculty will find away to make sure that the law was obeyed.

    The set up certain consequences. < August 1958, Faubus would ask for a special request that the state legislature pass a law that would allow the closing of public schools and turn them into private school corporations to avoid integration. This would soon be known as the lost year. < June 1959, a federal court would deem the states school closing unconstitutional. < September 1959, the school would re-open with only two of the original nine black students re-enrolling. Those students were Carlotta Walls and Jefferson Thomas.

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