1. At which stage of life is the percentage of fluid in the human body highest? Infancy 2. In elderly individuals, 75% of body weight is made up of fluid.
3. When comparing two individuals of the same body weight, the one with more muscle and less fat will have a higher percentage of fluid in their body. 4. When comparing a lean adult female to a lean adult male, which will most likely have a higher percentage of body fluid? The Male 5. Fluid imbalances are more common in individuals with a _________ percentage of body fluid. Low 6. Elderly individuals generally have a _______ percentage of body fluid and are therefore _______ prone to fluid imbalances. Low/more 7. A comparison of the two major body fluid compartments reveals that: two-thirds of the total fluid is within our cells and one-third is outside our cells. 8. Most of the fluid in our body is contained within our cells. 9. The plasma of our blood constitutes ______ than half of the fluid in our body; plasma is part of the _____________ fluid. Less/extracellular 10. Interstitial fluid composes about ________ of the body’s extracellular fluid. 2/3 11. Interstitial fluid has a relatively _______ concentration of sodium and chloride; the concentrations of ions within the interstitial fluid and blood plasma are very ______. High/different 12. Which statement accurately describes the permeability to water of the cell membrane and the capillary wall? Both the plasma membrane and the capillary wall are permeable to water. 13. Drinking a liter of water will cause the osmolarity of blood plasma to: decreases
14. If someone runs a marathon through a desert while eating pretzels and not drinking water, their plasma osmolarity: rises and becomes hypertonic to the interstitial and intracellular fluid compartments. 15. As an individual becomes dehydrated, the net movement of fluid in their body is from cells toward plasma. 16. When fluid intake equals fluid output, and there is a normal distribution of solvent and solutes in the body’s fluid compartments, fluid ________ exists. Balance 17. Which type of intake accounts for most of our daily fluid intake? Preformed water 18. Water lost through feces is considered ___________ water loss. sensible, obligatory 19. Facultative water loss is loss that: is controlled by hormone effects on the kidney 20. In the condition of volume excess, fluid gain involves: no change in the osmolarity of body fluid. 21. If someone in an accident suffered severe burns as well as hemorrhage, they would be at high risk for: volume depletion. 22. Renal failure would likely lead to: volume excess
23. Diabetes mellitus, profuse sweating, and hyposecretion of ADH can each lead to: dehydration 24. If a runner drinks too much water before a marathon, they run a risk of water intoxication, also known as: hypotonic hydration 25. Extreme hypotonic hydration can cause brain cells to swell. 26. Edema is an example of: fluid sequestration
27. Blockage of lymphatic vessels or surgical removal of lymphatic vessels increases the likelihood of: edema, which is a an example of fluid sequestration 28. Feelings of thirstiness are brought on by: decreases in salivary secretions and increases in blood osmolarity. 29. Decreases in blood pressure turn _____ the thirst center of the brain. ON 30. Fluid intake causes blood volume to increase.
31. The thirst center of the brain is located in the: hypothalamus 32. Researchers have inflated balloons inside the stomachs of experimental subjects and have found that distention of the stomach causes thirst to: decrease 33. Which of the following does not turn off the thirst center of the brain? Decreased salivary secretions 34. When compared with the effects of blood pressure and osmolarity on fluid intake, the effects of saliva and stomach distention are more immediate but less accurate 35. Angiotensin II, aldosterone, and ADH each help decrease urine output. 36. The hormone ANP: increases urine output and decreases blood volume. 37. Fixed acids are generally regulated by physiological buffering provided by the: kidneys 38. Most nonelectrolytes are covalently bonded organic molecules 39. The molecule HCl is an example of a(n): electrolyte.
40. To account for their effects on osmotic pressure, the concentration o
electrolytes is often expressed in: milliequivalents per liter. 41. When NaCl is added to body fluids it results in the addition of: two solute particles per NaCl molecule and exerts twice the osmotic pressure of the same number of nonelectrolyte molecules 42. The most abundant cation within cells is: potassium
43. The most abundant anion in the extracellular fluid is: chloride 44. Which ion is the principal solute of the ECF and is crucial for neuromuscular and renal function? Sodium 45. How are sodium levels and blood pressure related? Increased plasma sodium levels increase water retention, blood volume, and blood pressure. 46. Most potassium loss from the body occurs through: urine
47. When the pH of the ECF decreases, K+ starts to move from the: ICF to the ECF.
48. Insulin causes blood plasma levels of potassium to ________ by _______ activity of the Na+/K+ pumps. decrease, stimulating
49. An elevated level of potassium in the blood is referred to as __________. -Hyperkalemia
50. How does the hormone aldosterone influence potassium levels? It increases potassium secretion by the kidneys and decreases potassium blood concentration. 51. Calcium hardens bone and teeth, but its levels are carefully controlled throughout the body. Low levels of calcium within cells are maintained by: pumps that move calcium out of cells or into the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
52. Angiotensin II triggers: vasoconstriction and decreased urine output from the kidneys.
53. Angiotensin II causes a(n): stimulation of the thirst center and increased release of ADH.
54. Angiotensin II stimulates the adrenal cortex to release aldosterone.
55. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is synthesized in the _________ and released from the _________. hypothalamus, posterior pituitary
56. Changes in blood osmolarity within capillaries of the hypothalamus are a signal for ADH release. The neurons that are sensitive to these changes in osmolarity are? Chemorecptors 57. High levels of ADH cause: vasoconstriction and therefore increases in blood pressure 58. The adrenal gland releases aldosterone in response to: angiotensin II and decreased blood plasma sodium levels. 59. Aldosterone exerts effects on principal cells of the kidney by causing: increased numbers of Na+/K+ pumps. 60. Aldosterone causes kidney tubules to: reabsorb more sodium and water, and secrete more potassium. 61. The stimulus that directly triggers release of ANP is: increased stretch of the heart atria 62. The hormone ANP causes systemic blood vessels to: dilate, which lowers blood pressure. 63. Atrial natriuretic peptide causes __________ of afferent arterioles and _________ of mesangial cells. dilation, relaxation 64. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits the release of aldosterone, ADH, and renin. 65. In the brain ADH _______ the thirst center, and in the kidneys ADH causes an increase in water __________. Stimulates/reabsorbtion
66. Carbonic acid is referred to as _________ acid since it is produced from a gas that evaporates quickly. Volitile 67. Most of the fixed acid in our body comes from: acid absorbed from the GI tract. 68. Severe diarrhea leads to a decrease in the pH of the blood 69. When blood starts to become more alkaline than normal the renal tubules begin to: secrete bicarbonate while reabsorbing H+ in exchange through type B cells. 70. The process by which the kidneys eliminate excess acid or base is relatively: slow (takes hours to days) but powerful 71. If someone begins to hyperventilate due to anxiety, the CO2 concentration in their blood decreases; this causes __________ in blood pH. An increase 72. The amine groups contained within amino acids of proteins can act as weak: bases 73. Both intracellular proteins (such as hemoglobin) and extracellular proteins (such as plasma proteins) can act as chemical buffers. 74. If a strong acid were to add H+ to the intracellular fluid, the effect would most likely be buffered, as : HPO42- would act as a weak base and accept an H+ to become H2PO4-.
75. The bicarbonate buffering system is the most important buffering system in the extracellular fluid. 76. When bicarbonate acts as a weak base and accepts a proton, the molecule ________ acid is formed: carbonic 77. Water occupies two main fluid compartments within the body, the intracellular fluid compartment and the extracellular fluid compartment. Which of the following statements is true concerning the volume of intracellular fluid? Approximately two-thirds of the water is in the intracellular fluid compartment 78. Individuals with a lower percentage of body fluid are more susceptible to a fluid imbalance 79. When the body cells are hypotonic to the blood plasma, water will move from intracellular fluid to extracellular fluid. 80. On a hot day where fluid output exceeds fluid intake, the body is in danger of a fluid imbalance. Drinking alcohol increases the production of dilute urine, dehydrating the body. In this example, decreasing preformed water intake will help rehydrate the body.
81. Which stimulus for increasing thirst and water intake is monitored by the thirst center directly? Increased blood osmolarity 82. A decrease in blood pressure: results in the release of renin from the kidneys 83. When blood osmolarity drops,: ADH release is decreased.
84. Carbonic acid dissociates into a bicarbonate ion and hydrogen ion, therefore it is a(n): electrolyte 85. The magnesium ion is a major electrolyte in the body 86. Ingesting too much sodium may lead to: a hypertonic extracellular fluid 87. Sodium is an important electrolyte because: it contributes significantly to blood plasma osmolarity 88. The most abundant anion in the extracellular fluid is the: chloride ion 89. Antiduretic hormone release results in: increased water reabsorption in the kidneys. 90. Since aldosterone increases retention of sodium, blood osmolarity is increased as a result.
91. A patient who secretes too much atrial natriuretic peptide may be in danger of ________ blood pressure. Low 92. Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates the kidneys to retain sodium, whereas aldosterone stimulates the kidneys to eliminate more sodium in the urine.
93. Lactic acid is an example of a ____________ acid. Fixed 94. A diabetic patient has high levels of ketoacids in his blood. What organ system will help regulate this acid? Urinary 95. As blood pH becomes too high, the kidneys: reabsorb H+.
96. When carbon dioxide levels are low in the blood plasma, pH may be too high. The respiratory system _____________ ventilation, resulting in more plasma carbon dioxide and a lowered pH: decreases 97. In the phosphate buffering system, a strong acid is buffered to produce a weak base.
98. A patient has a PCO2 of 50 mm Hg. In other words, this patient has: respiratory acidosis 99. Metabolic acid-base disturbances occur when changes in respiratory function results in particularly high or low levels of plasma carbon dioxide.
100. When arterial blood levels of bicarbonate exceed 26 mEq/L, this is known as: metabolic alkalosis