In fact the foremost cause of the change in worldview was theindustrial revolution. Science was primarily a branch of theology, and itreinforced religious thought. As a matter of fact, Aristotle science asinterpreted by Christian theologians fit nearly with Christian doctrine.
Concerning the Copernican hypothesis that stated that sun rather than theearth as Aristotle though was at the center of the universe. It really hadhuge consequences especially in the religious area since earth became justa planet among many others. This theory brought sharp attacks fromreligious leaders.
This hypothesis was later proved by Kepler who came upwith a sun centered (solar) system and other famous laws. Galileo also cameup with a law called a law of inertia. Newton came up with the law ofuniversal gravitation. The causes of this scientific revolution were firstthe long-term contribution ofmedieval.Intellectualandmedievaluniversities by training lawyers, doctors… Second the renaissance alsostimulated scientific progress since powerful, wealthy business people weresupporting it. Third, the navigational problems of long sea voyagesstimulated that revolution.
Finally, Protestantism was also stimulatingthat revolution. Thus the scientific revolution of the seventh century wasfirst and foremost an intellectual revolution. For more than a hundredyears its greatest impact was on how people thought and believed.
The enlightenment:The scientific revolution was the single most important factor in thecreation of the new worldview of the eighteenth century enlightenment.
Enlightenment thinkers believed it was at least possible for human beingsto create better societies and better people. In fact, the outbreak of theAmerican Revolution in 1775, a large portion of Western Europe educatedelite had embraced many of the new ideas through the influence ofphilosophers, who like fontenel and other workers were bringing scienceinto conflict with religion. Science mixed the globalization of science andreason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. UnlikeMontesquieu Voltaire pessimist Ely concluded that the best one would hopefor the way of government was a good monarch since human beings are veryrarely worthy to govern themselves. Like other enlightenment thinkers,Rousseau waspassionatelycommittedtoindividualfreedom.Thiscontribution to political theory was the social contact (1762) in which thegeneral wall and popular sovereignty. In addition to this, the writing andpres complains of the philosophers are parts of a profound culturaltransformation: the EuropeanMarket for books grew dramatically in the 18th century. Another new conceptwas salon of the th in which educated members of the intellectual,economic and social. Where people can discuss and debate issues and formtheir own ideas and their public opinion.
The enlightenment and Absolutism:The French philosophers and linked spirits in most European countrieswere primarily interested in converting people to critical scientificthinkers and were not particularly concerned with politics. On the otherhand, such thinking naturally led to political criticism.
And interest in political reform as both possible and desirable. In fact,it was necessary only for educate and enlighten who could then make goodlaws and promote human happiness. Among those leaders we have firstFrederick the great of Prussia (1740-1786), who tolerantly allowed hissubject to believe as they wished in religious and philosophical matters.
Secondly, we have Catherine the great Russia (1762-1796) first she workedhard to brig the sophisticated culture of western Europe to Russia, then itinsisted on domestic reform through better laws, finally she focused onterritorial expansion with a lot of success. Thirdly, the leaders ofAustria, the Austrian Hapsburgs, the first one was Maria Theresa who wasdetermined to introduce reforms that would make the state stronger and moreefficient. The second one was Joseph who abolished seldom in 1718 withoutsuccess because both nobility and peasants violently rejected it. Finally,concerning absolutism in France in 1715 the duke restored the parlement andits right to evaluate royal degree publicly thereafter, the parlement ofParis protested and challenged the basis of royal authority claiming thatthe king’s power has to be limited. The judicial opposition asserted thatthe king could not apply heavy taxes without the consent of the parliament.
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