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The transmission and development of cholera infection

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    A pathogen is a biological agent that causes diseases. Two illustrations of pathogens are bacteriums and viruses.

    Features Virus Bacterias Fungus Protozoa
    Shape and size Proteins and nucleic acid find the form and size of a virus. They come in different forms such as coiling, polyhedral, enveloped and complex There are so many species of bacteriums and they all come in 3 different forms. Some bacteriums cocci ( shaped like balls )

    Some are borrelia ( coiling or coiling )

    Some are Bacilli ( rod or lodge shaped )

    Fungi besides come in different forms and sizes. They are individual cells and besides come in tremendous concatenation cells that can stretch for stat mis. Protozoa come in different forms and sizes. There is an ameba which changes its form to paramecia that has a fixed form and construction.
    Structures Have a familial information molecule and protein bed that protect information molecules. The nucleus has nucleic acids which make up the familial information in the signifier of RNA and DNA. The mirid bug environments and protects the nucleic acid. They are individual microscopic beings. They have cells which are smaller than animate being and works cells The organic structure of fungi consists of ramification and colourless togss called hyphae. All the fungus will incorporate a figure of therefore hyphae linked to do up a tangled web called mycelium. They are microscopic unicellular eucaryotes that consist of a complex internal construction and besides carries out complex activities
    Reproduction They reproduce through thelytic rhythm. Here they are joined to the host cell and make full the cell with its cucleic acid.

    Some viruses do non multiply as speedy and these are viruses such as HIV and herpes and this is because the nucleic acid in the chromosome is non active. Once it separates from the familial stuff of the host cell it starts to multiply.

    Bacterias reproduces by a signifier known as binary fission. Bacteria contains DNA which is copied and divided. Bacterias can split every 20-30 proceedingss Fungus kingdoms can reproduce without sex and the single-yelled barm reproduce asexually by budding. Asexual reproduction of protozoons takes topographic point when the cell separates in half by binary fission. Protozoans which are parasites multiply inside the host whilst other protozoons reproduce sexually



    The transmittal and development of infection


    Cholera is a disease caused by a bacterium known as vibro cholerae. This bacterium cause watery diarrhea which can take to desiccation and can potentially do decease. An affected individual can look out for symptoms such as emesis, thirst, low blood force per unit area, dry mucose membranes and a rapid bosom rate. These symptoms must non be ignored and the needed immediate attending and one demand to be extremely hydrated.

    To avoid cholera, people require the right sanitation, clean uncontaminated nutrient and a clean H2O supply. A toxin known as choleragen is released in the little bowel after bacterium has passed through the tummy. Choleragen interrupts the epithelial tissue maps to let salts and H2O to go forth the organic structure which cause diarrhea taking to desiccation.

    To remain protected and avoid contraction cholera, boiling H2O before imbibing and cookery is advised. Using chemically disinfected H2O is besides recommended. Water can be disinfected by boiling and filtrating it whilst adding beads of bleach or iodine tablet.

    Natural nutrient such as common fruits and veggies, unpasteurized milk merchandises, uncooked fish, meat are besides perpetrators when it comes to doing cholera. Handss should ever be washed before and after any activities particularly when managing nutrient and utilizing the lavatory.

    Athletes Foot

    Athletes foot is caused by fungi belonging to a group known as dermatophytes. This fungi requires warmth, damp environments and provenders on ceratin which are dead cells found in hair nails and tegument. It does non usually affect people who are barefooted because of the conditions it requires. Fungal infection is usually and chiefly affects the pess.

    Dermatophytes enter the tegument through cryings and cuts where they begin to infect the cells. Tinea pedis is besides a fungous infection which is the most known and most contagious. It can be passed on through skin-to-skin or non-direct contact. Anyone can be infected with this fungous infection through any topographic point where the fungus is present.

    Signs to looks out for if one suspects that they may hold jocks foot are ; scaling and flaking of tegument which is accompanied with itchiness. Rubing can do redness, swelling and hurting. Blisters can besides look in affected countries.

    To prevents jocks foot, regular lavation and drying of pess utilizing a separate towel is recommended. Avoiding utilizing towels that would hold been used by person else can besides – fungous pulverization can besides be used to pulverize the feet.elp to understate hazards of conveying the Fungi.


    Malaria is an infective disease caused by parasitic protozoons. It is spread by mosquitoes bites. There are five parasites and the on vitamin E know to do malaria is known as plasmodium. 90 % of malaria deceases are in Africa. ( )

    It is spread by a female mosquito called Anopheless which usually moves and bites at dark. After seize with teething, the parasite is so passed into the blood watercourse and to the liver where it reproduces and destroys the cells. Anopheles mosquitoes engender in H2O and prefer to seize with teeth worlds more than animate beings. They tend to favor seasonal conditions during and after showery conditions.

    Vector control can cut down the transmittal of malaria. To cut down the hazards of infection, mosquito cyberspaces can be used which can cut down mosquito bites. Dead Waterss should be avoided and besides utilizing insect powders can command the mosquitoes. When one is going to topographic points where there is a high hazard of infection, medicine known as sulfadoxin and pyirimethamin are recommended. Anti malarial medical specialties can understate and forestall the hazards of undertaking malaria.


    Influenza is a viral infection that targets the respiratory system such as the olfactory organ, pharynx and lungs. Symptoms of the grippe are dry cough, rhinal congestion, workout suits and icinesss, concern and febrility.

    It is really contagious and can easy be spread by inhaling septic droplets in the air. These droplets are created when an septic individual coughs or sneezings and this is when they are passed on to nearby people. It can besides be spread by touching. If person touches a surface with flu virus on it and so touch their olfactory organ, eyes or oral cavity, this can so go through on the virus.

    The World Health Organisation ( WHO ) recommend flu-vaccination which can forestall an person from being infected with the virus particularly for people with low immune systems, the aged, ill people, kids every bit good as vulnerable people such as wellness workers. Good personal wellness and hygiene such as rinsing custodies before and after activities is of import. Puting custodies over the oral cavity and nose whilst coughing and sneeze is good pattern every bit good as rinsing custodies after making this. Staying off whilst infected with the virus can besides avoid cross taint.

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    Infection Control

    Cross infection is the spread of infection from one being to the following. The chief perpetrators of the beings are bacteriums and viruses. Cross infection occur amongst patients and hospital equipment. These infections can be endangering to one & A ; apos ; wellness and can do serious unwellnesss such as pneumonia and meningitis aboard other diseases. Diarrhoea is besides really common and can easy be passed if hapless hygiene is being practised.

    The chief causes of cross-infection are bacteriums from sneezing, coughing, virus through human contact, dirty environment and utilizing unsterilised medical equipment.

    Workers play an of import function in understating and forestalling the hazard of cross infection. Hand hygiene is one of the most of import activity that one could make to avoid and cut down the spread of infection. A right technique demands to be followed when rinsing custodies and it is believed that really few people follow this. Soap and warm H2O demand to be used when rinsing custodies or an intoxicant gel can besides be used as a replacement. Handss need to be decontaminated before and after contact with a patient, after utilizing the lavatory and besides earlier and after managing nutrient. Whilst working in the wellness industry manus readyings are besides to be followed to understate the hazards of infection. These include, covering cuts with appropriate dressings, unreal nails must non be warn, nails should be kept short and without Polish.

    Personal protective equipment should be used on patients if they need to and besides the health care worker. This equipment includes baseball mitts, aprons, goggles, masks and vizors.

    Disposal of chemicals, waste and sharps should be followed and done right. Policies on waste disposal showed be written and displayed where all material can see and read it. All waste should hold coloring materials coded bags, for illustration ; ruddy bags should be used for dirty linen and vesture ; yellow bags should be used for clinical waste. Sharps should be disposed of in a sharps box or whichever method is in the infirmary & A ; apos ; s policy.

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    How the organic structure defends itself against pathogens which cause infective diseases

    T and B cells are defence cells that are moulded to different sources. When sources attack the organic structure, T and B cells recognise and respond to this onslaught. They multiply in order to contend the infection and besides they keep in head whom the aggressor was and do the organic structure immune to it if there is traveling to be another onslaught. Infections occur when a pathogen attacks the organic structure cells and reproduces. When the organic structure has been attacked, this will take to an immune response. A speedy effectual response will extinguish the infection. Some infections can be so terrible that they will take to diseases and these diseases chiefly occur when the immune system is weak or when the virulency of the pathogen is high.

    The specific immune response is made up of cells in the blood and other parts of the organic structure. Immune tissues trap pathogens and there is a topographic point where the cells can work together. In the immune system, the variety meats and tissues involved are the Thymus, bone marrow, lymph nose, spleen, appendix, tonsils and Peyey & A ; apos ; s spots.

    Non-specific barriers of the organic structure are physical and chemical barriers that deter distant agents from perforating the outer bed of the organic structure. These barriers consist of the tegument, mucose membrane, hairs and alia, stomachic juice, vaginal secernments every bit good as urine cryings, perspiration, spit and cerum. In the respiratory system there is the rhinal gap covered by mucose membranes that trap dust and other airborne atoms. The mucose membranes prevent these atoms from making the lungs.The tegument is a really of import bed. It has dead difficult cells that allow the surface to be acidic. When perspiration leaves the organic structure, salt is left on the tegument. These conditions deter micro-organisms from turning on the tegument.

    Cryings get rid of fragments from the eyes. Vaginal secernments are besides acidic and put off the growing of pathogens. In the eyes, oral cavity and rhinal gaps there is an enzyme called muramidase that breaks down bacteriums cell walls. Lysozyme is besides in blood, perspiration and some tissue fluids. The blood besides contains elements that protect the organic structure from beings that cause diseases. There are white blood cells that kill occupying bacteriums and viruses every bit good as septic cells. Blood plasma clots the blood when there has been an hurt, forestalling encroachers such as pathogens. Proteins in the blood take portion in a cascade of molecular events that cause redness and release of molecules that stimulate phagocytic cells.

    Inflammatory response is besides a nonspecific defense mechanism mechanism that prevents infections from distributing though it can take to weave harm or decease in serious instances as it involves swelling, high temperature and hurting.

    Organisms are kept under control by the host & A ; apos ; s defense mechanism which lessens opportunities of them doing diseases. Normal flora micro-organisms compete with disease-causing beings to protect the organic structure.

    Specific mechanisms are at that place for when the nonspecific mechanisms fail to protect the organic structure. The specific defense mechanisms allow the organic structure to take peculiar pathogens and pathogen-infected cells for devastation. Specific mechanisms rely on specialized white blood cells known as lymph cells and contain T cells produced from lymph cells that mature in the Thymus secretory organ and B cells from lymph cells that mature in the bone marrow.

    There are two specific immune responses which are cell-mediated response and the antibody-mediated response. T cells in the cell-mediated response are responsible for rupturing down infected organic structure cells by viruses or cancerous cells. Antibody-mediated response have both T and B cells and they destruct occupying pathogens every bit good as get rid of toxins.

    Cell-mediated and antibody-mediated responses are instigated after a type of phagocytic cell, a macrophage and steep a pathogen. Macrophages digest pathogens and show antigens from the surface country of the pathogen. Antigens are molecules like proteins that bring out an immune response.

    The cell-mediated response is triggered when lymphokines released from T cells stimulate other cells to take portion in the immune response. Antibody-mediated response is triggered when lymphokines activate peculiar B cells to bring forth antibodies. Antibodies are tied to antigens on the surface of the pathogens and signal onslaught by phagocytic cells.

    When a hoist comes across an antigen that activates a specific immune response the memory lymphocytes identify it and get down to turn, divide and produce high degrees of lymphokines and antibodies. This response is really speedy because of the memory cells present. This speedy response is besides an account as to why hosts are immune to developing many diseases the 2nd clip unit of ammunition. This speedy response does non give a pathogen adequate clip to reproduce to degrees that arise in disease before the host & A ; apos ; s organic structure destroys it.

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    Unsusceptibility is the physical, chemical and cellular defense mechanism against antigens. Immunity is classed as natural, acquired inactive and active.

    Natural Immunity

    Natural unsusceptibility besides known as innate is the province of being able to defy unwellnesss. Natural unsusceptibility is present from birth as one inherits it from parents unlike acquired unsusceptibility and remains throughout birth. It protects the organic structure from undertaking diseases.

    Acquired unsusceptibility

    It protects the organic structure from pathogens nowadays on other members of the same species. Acquired unsusceptibility is one which an person develops during their life-time. It can either be short lived or womb-to-tomb and it can ensue due to inoculations or it can be passed down from a female parent before the babe is born. It can besides ensue after a disease has attacked the organic structure and the most common one being chicken syphilis.

    Active Unsusceptibility

    Like inactive unsusceptibility, active unsusceptibility protects and battles the organic structure against pathogens and is produced due to reach with these pathogens and antigens. Active unsusceptibility is classed natural or acquired and the immune response is non immediate as it can take yearss or hebdomads to develop but it is long lasting. During its response it produces antibodies.

    Passive unsusceptibility

    Passive unsusceptibility is about opposite to active unsusceptibility although they both protect the organic structure against pathogens. It is transferred from one homo to another human by injection and it is a really effectual protection but it disappears with clip, normally a few hebdomads or months. This unsusceptibility produces a speedy response.

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