About Great Russian Cities Essay
Arkhangelsk, besides Archangel, metropolis, northern European Russia, capital of Arkhangelsk Oblast, on the Northern Dvina ( Severnaya Dvina ) River, near the White Sea ( Beloye More ) . It is a major haven, although icebound in winter months. The metropolis is besides a trade and processing centre for an of import timber-producing part. A nautical school, a forestry institute, and a regional museum are located here.
Arkhangelsk was the main Russian haven from its initiation ( 1584 ) as Novo-Kholmogory until the edifice of the Baltic port of Saint Petersburg in 1703. It received its present name in 1613. The metropolis declined in the eighteenth century, but trade revived at the terminal of the nineteenth century, when a railway to Moscow was completed. During World Wars I and II Arkhangel-sk was a major port of entry for Allied assistance. The metropolis resisted Bolshevik regulation during 1918-20 and was a fastness of the White Army, supported by Allied forces.
Blagoveshchensk, metropolis in far eastern Russia and capital of Amur Oblast. Located at the meeting of the Amur and Zeya rivers, Blagoveshchensk lies on the boundary line of Russia and China. Its river port promoted the development of the ship building and ship fix industries. Its propinquity to sedimentations of of import natural resources stimulated the growing of the production of equipment for the coal and gold excavation industries. Other houses produce electrical equipment, paper, furniture, apparels, alcoholic drinks, and meat merchandises. Dairy and milling are besides of import facets of the economic system. Blagoveshchensk serves an of import transit function in the regional economic system ; in add-on to its river port, the metropolis is the concluding station on a railway goad from the Trans-Siberian Railway. The metropolis has legion educational establishments, including schools of agribusiness, instruction, and medical specialty. The metropolis besides has theatres for play and puppetry and a museum of regional history. Blagoveshchensk was founded in 1856 as a military outstation at the oral cavity of the Zeya River. The metropolis was constructed with broad, tree-lined streets ; recent urban development has emphasized zones with big flat composites outside of the metropolis centre.
Irkutsk, metropolis, southern Siberian Russia, capital of Irkutsk Oblast, at the meeting of the Irkut and Angara rivers. It is a major industrial and commercial centre served by the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Manufactures include aircraft, motor vehicles, fabrics, edifice stuffs, excavation equipment, and leather goods. A big hydroelectric installation is here. A regional cultural centre, the metropolis has history and art museums, theatres, a symphonic music orchestra, and several establishments of higher acquisition, including a university.
Irkutsk was founded in 1652 as a Cossack outstation and developed as a fur- and gold-trading centre on the path to Mongolia and China ; it was besides used by the Russian authorities as a topographic point of expatriate. Industrialization accelerated after the coming of the Trans-Siberian Railway in 1898.
Kaliningrad, once K & # 1094 ; nigsberg, metropolis, western Russia, on the Pregolya River. The capital of Kaliningrad Oblast, it is a major industrial and commercial centre, connected by channel with Baltiysk, an ice-free port on the Baltic Sea. Among its chief industries are ships, machinery, chemicals, paper, and timber. Historic landmarks in Kaliningrad include the Schloss, or Castle ( 1255 ) , and a cathedral ( fourteenth century ) . The German philosopher Immanuel Kant, a indigen of the metropolis, taught at its university ( now Kaliningrad State University ) , which was established in 1544.
The metropolis, founded in 1255 as a fortress by the Teutonic Knights, became a member of the Hanseatic League in 1340. From 1457 to 1525 it was the official place of the expansive maestro of the Teutonic Knights, and from 1525 to ( 1618 ) it was the abode of the dukes of Prussia. Frederick I was crowned as the first male monarch of Prussia in the chapel of the Schloss in 1701. During World War I ( 1914-18 ) the metropolis was the scene of heavy combat between the Germans and the Russians. Following the war it was made the capital of the German state of East Prussia. The metropolis was badly damaged in World War II ( 1945-45 ) , and in 1945, after a two-month besieging, it was occupied by Soviet military personnels. By understanding among the Allies at the Potsdam Conference ( 1945 ) the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ( USSR ) annexed the metropolis and environing district. In 1946 the metropolis ‘s name was changed from K & # 1094 ; nigsberg to Kaliningrad, in award of the Soviet leader M. I. Kalinin.
Kazan, metropolis in cardinal European Russia, capital of the democracy of Tatarstan, and a port at the meeting of the Volga and Kazanka rivers. Kazan- is a major industrial, commercial, and cultural centre. Manufactured merchandises include machinery, refined crude oil, chemicals, edifice stuffs, processed nutrient, footwear, soap, and fabrics. Once a outstanding Muslim metropolis, Kazan remains a centre of Tatar civilization ( see Tatars ) . It is the site of Kazan State University ( founded in 1804 ) , where Leo Tolstoy and Vladimir Ilich Lenin studied, and several proficient schools. Noteworthy constructions include the Kremlin ( bastion ) , the oldest portion of which dates from the fifteenth century ; a 16th-century church ; and two 18th-century mosques.
Kazan was founded in the late fourteenth century and shortly became the capital of a powerful Tatar khanate. In 1552 the metropolis was annexed by Russia under Ivan IV Vasilyevich. It was mostly destroyed in 1774 during a rebellion by military personnels under the leading of the Cossack soldier Yemelyan Pugachov, but was rebuilt shortly thenceforth, during the reign of Catherine the Great.
Murmansk, metropolis, northwesterly Russia, the largest metropolis in the universe North of the Arctic Circle. Situated on Kola Inlet, an arm of the Barents Sea, the metropolis is an of import port with an ice-free seaport. It is the capital of Murmansk Oblast. Murmansk is a Russian naval base and has major ship building and fish-processing installations. It is the place of institutes of oceanology and polar research.
Murmansk was founded in 1915, during World War I, as a port of entry for Allied supplies after Russian ports on the Black and Baltic seas had been closed. In 1916 it was linked by rail with Petrograd ( now Saint Petersburg ) . After the Russian Revolution, an Allied force briefly occupied Murmansk, and it was an Allied port of entry in World War II ( 1939-45 ) .
Nizhnevartovsk, metropolis in northeasterly Russia, in western Siberia. Nizhnevartovsk is portion of Khantia-Mansia, an independent okrug within Tyumen- Oblast, and is located along the Ob- River. The metropolis grew in economic importance in the seventiess as a service centre for the local oil industry. The Samotlar oil basin, an of import beginning of oil, is located in the part, and oil and natural gas grapevines cross the metropolis. Extra industry in the metropolis includes lumber, building stuffs, and nutrient. Transportation system to the metropolis is limited, although there is a railway station. There is a regional history museum in Nizhnevartovsk.
During the clip of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ( USSR ) , Soviet cardinal contrivers concentrated resources in several metropoliss, including Nizhnevartovsk and Surgut, to advance the growing of the Siberian oil industry. The labour intensive nature of oil production during the Soviet period spurred dramatic population growing in the metropolis. In 1970, prior to the birth of the industry, the population of the metropolis was merely 16,000. By the terminal of the decennary the metropolis had grown to 109,000, and by the terminal of the 1980s the metropolis had once more more than doubled, to 242,000. By 1979 the metropolis had grown to more than three times the size Soviet contrivers had expected, doing serious lodging and substructure deficits. The population of the metropolis is presently worsening, most likely due to economic troubles in the oil industry.
Nizhniy Novgorod, metropolis in western Russia, at the meeting of the Oka and Volga rivers. Nizhniy Novgorod is a major river port, railway hub, and industrial centre. The metropolis is the site of one of the largest car mills in Russia, and its industries besides include aircraft, fabrics, and railway and electric equipment. Nizhniy Novgorod has libraries, museums, a big university, and several proficient schools. Historical constructions include a rock Kremlin ( bastion ) built in the thirteenth century, two 13th-century churches, and a 17th-century castle. Nizhniy Novgorod was founded in 1221. In the late fourteenth century the metropolis was plundered by the Tatars before being annexed by Moscow in 1392. Important for its trade with Asia, the metropolis became celebrated for its trade carnivals, held yearly from 1817 until 1917. From 1932 to 1991 it was named Gorkiy ( besides spelled Gorky or Gorki ) in award of the Russian author Maksim Gorkiy, who was born in the metropolis.
Novgorod, metropolis, capital of Novgorod Oblast, western Russia, on the Volkhov River, close Lake Il-men- . It is the commercial centre for a rich farm part, and industries here produce fertiliser, processed nutrient, furniture, and China. Novgorod retains illustrations of early Russian architecture, including a Kremlin ( bastion ) and the Cathedral of Saint Sophia ( both 11th century ) .
One of the oldest metropoliss in Russia, Novgorod was founded every bit early as the 5th or sixth century. Rurik, laminitis of the Russian monarchy, became prince of Novgorod in 862. In 1136 the metropolis achieved independency from Kyyiv ( Kiev ) and, with a
democratic signifier of authorities, became the capital of autonomous Great Novgorod. In the 13th and 14th centuries, Novgorod flourished as a trade outstation of the Hanseatic League and was a major cultural centre. It repulsed Tatar invasions in the late thirteenth century. In 1478 the metropolis was annexed by its challenger, Moscow, under Ivan III. The metropolis declined as a trading centre after the constitution of nearby Saint Petersburg in 1703. During the German business ( 1941-44 ) of World War II, the metropolis was badly damaged.
Rostov-na-Donu, besides Rostov-on-Don, or Rostov, metropolis, southwesterly European Russia, capital of Rostov Oblast. Situated on a high bank of the Don River near its oral cavity on the Sea of Azov, the metropolis is an of import commercial, industrial, and transit centre. It is connected by a deepwater canal to the Sea of Azov, and by the Volga-Don Canal to the Caspian, Baltic, and White seas. The metropolis is besides linked by grapevine with the crude oil Fieldss of the Caucasus part. Industries include ships, chemicals, agricultural machinery, electric equipment, and edifice stuffs. Several establishments of higher acquisition, including a university, are in Rostov-na-Donu.
In 1749 a imposts office was established on the site of contemporary Rostov-na-Donu. A fortress was built here in 1761, and in 1797 the colony achieved metropolis position. In the nineteenth century it grew as an of import trading port. During World War II the metropolis was held twice ( 1941, 1942-1943 ) by German forces and was damaged well.
Saransk, metropolis in cardinal European Russia, capital of the democracy of Mordovia. Saransk is located along the Insar River in the Volga River basin, approximately 630 kilometers ( about 390 myocardial infarction ) E of Moscow. Industrial activity in Saransk includes the production of electrical overseas telegrams, chemicals, cosmetic fabric, and nutrient merchandises ; machine edifice, and metalworking. The metropolis besides has two thermic power Stationss. Saransk has had a train station since 1893, presently located on the Rusaevka-Kazan- rail path, and is located along a main road. Saransk has many historic architectural sites stemming from its early colony in 1641 as a fortress for the southeasterly boundary line of the Russian State. Soviet contrivers reconstructed the old metropolis centre in the sixtiess and 1970s, adding broad streets and be aftering the building of monolithic residential countries. Saransk has several theatres: a play theatre ( founded in 1961 ) , a marionette theatre, and a comedy theatre. It besides has a regional history museum and a museum of picture. The Mordovian State University ( founded in 1957 ) is located in Saransk every bit good as several proficient schools.
Stavropol, metropolis in southern European Russia, capital of Stavropol- Territory ( Kray ) , in an country known as Caucasia. Since the prostration of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ( USSR ) in 1991, Stavropol- has attracted many refugees from neighbouring parts as a consequence of political and economic pandemonium and armed struggle near Russia ‘s boundary lines. The metropolis ‘s economic system is concentrated on heavy industry ; it has mills that produce cars, Cranes, furniture, and reinforced concrete. Light industry is besides represented with the production of places and dairy merchandises. Stavropol- has air, rail ( the Kavkazskaya-Divnoe-Elista rail line ) , and main road connexions to other major metropoliss. It is besides linked by coach paths within northern Caucasia. Buses provide of import linkages because of the cragged nature of the country. The metropolis has technical-training institutes for medical specialty, instruction, art, and building. The metropolis was founded in 1777 as a garrison for the Russian ground forces. It was established as a metropolis in 1785, and in 1822 became the centre of the North Caucasus Territory. From 1935 to 1943 it was known as Voroshilovsk.
Syktyvkar, metropolis in northern Russia, capital of Komi democracy, Syktyvkar is located along the Sysola River near its meeting with the Vychegda River about 1200 kilometer ( about 744 myocardial infarctions ) nor’-east of Moscow. Since the 1960s, the metropolis ‘s economic system has focused on the lumber industry and includes the production of cellulose, paper, and wood furniture. Extra industry includes the nutrient industry ( flour milling, meat, and dairy ) , light industry ( leather places, fabrics ) , and building stuffs. Liing outside Russia ‘s power web, Syktyvkar has a thermic power works to function its energy demands. Because of its utmost northern location the metropolis has few transit links ; it is, nevertheless, the concluding station on a rail goad from the metropolis of Mikun- . Syktyvkar University ( founded in 1972 ) is located in the metropolis and there are several developing institutes for the cellulose industry and the Fieldss of medical specialty, music, and instruction. The metropolis has a play theatre and two museums. Syktyvkar was settled every bit Ust — Sysol-sk in 1586 and was named Syktyvkar in 1930. Most likely due to its utmost northern location and restructuring in the cellulose industry, the metropolis is one of many in the far north that have lost population since the dissolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ( USSR ) .
Volgograd, once Stalingrad, metropolis, capital of Volgograd Oblast, southwesterly Russia, on the Volga River. Volgograd, an of import industrial, commercial, and transshipment centre of Russia, is a railway hub and a major Volga River port. It is linked to the Don River by the Volga-Don Canal, constructed between 1950 and 1957. A big hydroelectric power dike is merely north of the metropolis. Among the chief industries in Volgograd are crude oil refinement, ship building, and the industry of aluminium, chemicals, processed nutrient, farm machinery, Fe and steel, and forest merchandises. The University of Volgograd ( 1980 ) is located in the metropolis.
Volgograd was founded in 1589 as Tsaritsyn, a fortress on the southeasterly frontier of Russia. It was taken by Cossack Rebels twice: in 1670 by Stenka Razin and in 1774 by Yemelyan Pugachov. With the enlargement of the Russian Empire in the nineteenth century, Tsaritsyn became an of import port for merchandises shipped down the Volga River. Early on in the Russian Revolution, in 1917, the metropolis was taken by the Bolsheviks. During the civil war that followed it was occupied by White Russian military personnel for three months in 1919. In 1925 the metropolis was renamed Stalingrad, for Joseph Stalin, who had been noteworthy in the defence of the metropolis against the White Russians.
During World War II, Stalingrad, a strategically located industrial centre, was a critical German aim. A big German force mounted an assault on the metropolis on August 20, 1942, after a period of heavy air foraies. A successful Soviet counteroffensive began on November 19, and on February 2, 1943, the Sixth German Army surrendered, therefore stoping the German progress into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ( USSR ) . German casualties entirely totaled more than 300,000, and the Soviet metropolis was about wholly destroyed. Reconstruction began instantly after the war. The metropolis was renamed Volgograd in 1961.
Yaroslavl, industrial metropolis, capital of Yaroslavl- Oblast, cardinal European Russia, port and railway centre on the Volga River. Manufactures include refined crude oil, motor vehicles, chemicals, man-made gum elastic, machinery, processed nutrient, and fabrics. Points of involvement in the metropolis include a 13th-century church and monastery and three 17th-century churches incorporating notable frescoes. Besides notable is Yaroslavl- University ( 1971 ) , which has modules in the physical and societal scientific disciplines.
Harmonizing to tradition, Yaroslavl was founded in the early eleventh century by Russian swayer Yaroslav the Wise of Kyyiv. From 1218 to 1463, when it was absorbed by Moscow, Yaroslavl- was the place of an independent princedom. In the 16th and 17th centuries it was an of import commercial metropolis on the path between Moscow and Arkhangel-sk. Commerce declined in the eighteenth century, and the metropolis became known for the industry of fabrics. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Yaroslavl- was developed as a centre of heavy industry.
Yekaterinburg, once Sverdlovsk, metropolis, capital of Yekaterinburg Oblast, Russia, on the Iset River. Located on the eastern incline of the Ural Mountains in a mineral-rich part, Yekaterinburg is a major industrial centre and a station on the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Among the big industrial plants located in the metropolis are platinum refineries, Cu and Fe smelters, and mills bring forthing electrical equipment, chemicals, and heavy machinery. Yekaterinburg ‘s educational institutes include the Urals A. M. Gorkiy State University ( 1920 ) and the Yekaterinburg State Medical Institute ( 1931 ) .
The metropolis was founded in 1721 by Czar Peter I as an ironworking centre and was named Yekaterinburg for his married woman, who was subsequently proclaimed Empress Catherine I. Industrial development was spurred by the building of the Great Siberian Highway in the late eighteenth century and the Trans-Siberian Railway in the late nineteenth century. Czar Nicholas II and his household were held confined in the metropolis by the Bolsheviks after the Russian Revolution and were executed here in 1918. The metropolis was renamed Sverdlovsk in 1924 in award of Bolshevik and Soviet leader Yakov M. Sverdlov. During World War II ( 1939-1945 ) industry from threatened European countries of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ( USSR ) was transferred here. Following the decomposition of the USSR at the terminal of 1991, the metropolis ‘s name was changed back to Yekaterinburg.