Agrarian reform is very significant for the economy of any country because almost more than half of the populations are employed in the agriculture sector. Agriculture is the main source of livelihood especially for the developing countries. Reforms are important because they protect the rights of the farmers.
The Government does agrarian reform where they redistribute the agricultural land among the farmers of the country. The agrarian reform is concerned with the relation between production and distribution of land among the farmers.
According to Handelman, there are four different types of Agrarian Reform.They are: i.
Externally Imposed Reform ii. Revolutionary Transformation iii. Moderate Reformism iv. Limits of Agrarian Reform Externally Imposed Reform: This reform was successful after World War II in East Asia.
According to Handelman, the US occupation command limited the land ownership in Japan to 10 acres and transferred 41 % of the country’s farmland from landlord to their tenants. That way the number of landless tenants fell from 28% to 10%.
Same pressure was encouraged in Taiwan and South Korea and ownership of farmland was limited to a very small number.The transformation was successful with a huge agricultural productivity, rural standard of living and also strengthening the political stability.
But later this land reform were not very successful in Southeast Asia and Central America. The property owners or the landlords refused and used the extensive political power to obstruct rural reform (Handelam, 2009 p 182). Revolutionary Transformation: The inequality in land ownership is the major cause of revolution. Land reform itself is the central demand of most agrarian based revolution.
According to Handleman, “Revolutionary reform is generally considered more far reaching than any of the other approaches, the way in which the Government implement land reform frequently does not please the peasant recipients. Marxist regime converted the land of both vanquished property owners and victorious peasantry in to large collective or co-operative farms dominated by the State , rather than breaking up the landlords holdings into the type of peasant small holding created in East Asian model. ” (Handelman, 2009 p 183) The land reforms in Mexico, Nicaragua, Cuba occurred during revolution.Moderate Reformism: Moderate reformism is free of violence.
Moderate reformism is basically the military agrarian reform enacted in 1960. According to Handelman, moderate reformism is often associated with revolutionary programs but its scope is far more limited than externally induced redistribution or revolutionary change. Like revolution in Cuba, Mexico and Nicaragua introduced Latin America’s most extensive land redistribution programs exceeding moderate reformism (Handelman, 2009 p 186). Limits of Agrarian Reform: The agrarian reforms also have limitations.
The agrarian reform will improve the living standards of the peasants but there is limited availability of land. According to Handelman, it is impossible to improve the living standard of the peasants without the shift of wealth and government resources from the urban areas. There is still rural poverty and agrarian reform hardly redistributed poverty within the countryside (Handelman, 2009 p 187). Handelman, H.
(2009). The Challenge Of Third World Development. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. From the study of Sociology of Developing Countries this quarter, I learnt a lot about the challenges the developing countries are facing or had faced.
Political underdevelopment, poverty, economic and social underdevelopment are the key challenge these developing countries are struggling from. In the third world countries, rural poverty is seen as the main problem. Many nations have populations too large to fit within their land’s boundaries, or to feed with their resources. This in my opinion also can lead to conflicts between nations and between ethnic groups within nations.
I also learnt how different sociologists have given their views about the problem.
Cite this Agrarian Reform Concept
Agrarian Reform Concept. (2017, May 06). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/agrarian-reform-concept/