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Anatomy and Processes in Human Body

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    Question Answer
    The primary sex organ in the male is the _____. testis
    Where do the testes originate in a fetus? retroperitoneal space
    When do the testes begin to descend? two months prior to birth
    The failure of a testes to descend is referred to as _____. cryptorchidism
    Spermatogenesis is a function of the _____. seminiferous tubule
    What is the source of the male sex hormones? interstitial cells
    Testicular cancer usually arises from the _____. seminiferous tubules
    Which cells are present in a male age five? spermatogonia
    Where do sperm cells attain fertilization competence and motility? epididymis
    Which structure contains lysosomal-like enzymes? acrosome
    Where does the epididymis direct sperm cells into? ampulla
    The ejaculatory duct is the union of the vas deferens and _____. seminal vesicle
    The substrate used for sperm metabolism is produced by the _____. seminal vesicle
    The main function of the prostate seems to be _____. secretion of alkaline mucus
    Infertility could develop when the sperm cells display _____. a count of less than 20 million per ml semen
    Which of the following has no homolog in the female? prostate
    The process of capacitation usually occurs in the _____. vagina
    Which term includes the other terms?
    A) spermatozoa
    B) alkaline mucus
    C) semen
    D) fructose
    The urethra passes through the _____ of the penis. corpora spongiosum
    Which of the following is not compatible with penile erection? blood leaves erectile tissue
    Blood enters the erectile corpora tissue in the penis; stimulation is a parasympathetic event but orgasm is _______. sympathetic
    Which hormone initiates the changes in puberty? GnRH-
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone,
    The target of FSH is the _____. seminiferous tubule
    The target of ICSH is the _____.
    (interstitial cell–stimulating hormone)
    interstitial cells
    Testosterone is converted to _____ in the prostate. dihydrotestosterone
    Which of these is not a function of testosterone?
    A) loss of body hair
    B) thickening of the larynx
    C) anabolism of skeletal muscle
    D) thickening of bones
    thickening of the larynx
    What normally inhibits testosterone production? decreasing ICSH
    The largest ovarian ligament is the _____ ligament. The broad ligament-
    is a fold of the peritoneum that is attached to the ovaries, uterine tubes and uterus.
    How many oocytes are there in the ovaries of an adult? 400,000
    Which cell has been fertilized by a sperm cell? secondary oocyte
    The oogonia develop into oocytes; the secondary oocyte completes its _____ only when it is fertilized and becomes the ovum. meiosis
    A cell called the ______ is a fertilized cell with 46 chromosomes. zygote
    The result of oogenesis is _____. one secondary oocyte
    Spermatogenesis produces _______ for every parent cell four spermatozoa
    Oogenesis produces only one 1) ______ ________ because of the loss of cells called 2)__________ from unequal meiosis. 1) secondary oocyte
    2) polar bodies
    The initiation of puberty and menses in a female involves increased levels of _____. FSH
    The granulosa cells are the early cells that surround an ____. Oocyte
    During ovulation, the oocyte passes into the _____. pelvic cavity
    What is the first structure to receive the oocyte? fimbriae
    The oocyte enters the fimbriae border of the infundibulum of the ______ . uterine tubes
    The largest component of the uterus by weight is the _____. myometrium
    The myometrium is the thick _____ layer of the uterus. smooth muscle
    The superior portion of the uterus is the _____. fundus
    The outer serosal layer of the uterus is the _____. perimetrium
    The superior region of the vagina is the _____. cervix
    The inner lining of the vagina is _____ epithelium. stratified squamous
    Which of these includes the other terms?
    A) labia
    B) clitoris
    C) vulva
    D) vestibular glands
    What structure corresponds to the scrotum in the male? labia major
    The _____ is the space between the labia minor. vestibule
    The ____ is the collective term for external female genitalia. vulva
    Which of the following is a steroid?

    Which of the following is a steroid?
    A) FSH
    B) LH
    C) estrogen
    D) GnRH

    : The purpose of _____ and ______ is to prepare the ovary to produce its estrogens which will then target secondary sex organs. FSH and LH
    Which of these is not a function of estrogen? decreases adipose
    What area experiences the greatest changes in a menstrual cycle? endometrium
    Estrogens are produced by the ______ AND ______. adrenal gland and ovary;
    Which factor causes the act of ovulation? LH levels
    Where is the majority of progesterone produced? corpus luteum
    Which factor will inhibit the secretion of estrogens? estrogens
    Rising levels of estrogens cause an inhibition of FSH production by ________. negative feedback.
    What factor will inhibit LH secretion? progesterone
    Which of the following is the most accurate sequence of hormones?
    A) FSH, LH, estrogen, progesterone
    B) LH, FSH, estrogen, progesterone
    C) FSH, estrogen, LH, progesterone
    D) FSH, estrogen, progesterone, LH
    FSH, estrogen, LH, progesterone
    FSH stimulates ______ during the first half of a cycle; LH then causes an increase in _______ during the second half. 1) estrogen secretion
    Which hormone thickens the lining of the uterus? estrogen
    Which hormone causes the uterus to increase glycogen? progesterone

    Progesterone stimulates the increase in lipids and glycogen in the endometrium necessary to insure implantation of the embryo.

    The shedding and bleeding of the decidua during menses is directly caused by low levels of _____. sex steroids
    Which of the following 3 are a result of menopause?
    A) loss of hormones
    B) reduction in breast mass
    C) increase in calcium deposition
    D) psychological changes
    loss of hormones
    reduction in breast mass
    psychological changes
    The layer immediately covering the testes is the tunica vaginalis.
    The maturation process through which spermatids become spermatozoa is called spermiogenesis.
    The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds the testes is called the tunica albuginea.
    The two-step process necessary for sperm to become mobile is called capacitation.
    Straight tubules originate at the seminiferous tubules and form a maze of passageways called the rete testis.
    In males, meiosis produces ______________ spermatids. four haploid
    Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens by peristaltic contraction.
    What is the primary hormone secreted by the corpus luteum? Progesterone
    In males, LH…. causes secretion of testosterone.
    The muscular layer of the uterus is the myometrium.
    The erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the corpus spongiosum.
    Oogenesis results in one haploid cell.
    During the ovarian cycle the tertiary follicle is opened on the point of ovulation, shedding the secondary oocyte and corona radiata.
    basal body temperature should be highest during which phase of the uterine cycle? Secretory phase
    Place the following structures in order from 1 to 6, corresponding to the passage of sperm from the testes outward: Rete testis >Efferent ductule >Epididymis >Ductus deferens >Ejaculatory duct >Prostatic urethra
    The irregular ridge on the midline of the scrotum, formed from fusion of the urethral folds during development is the raphe.
    In the testis, sperm cells develop in the seminiferous tubules.
    The leftover portion of the process vaginalis that covers the testes is the tunica vaginalis.
    arge cells that nourish developing sperm cells and form the blood-testes barrier a Sertoli cells

    The Sertoli cells also referred to as the “nurse” cells nourish the developing sperm cells and form the blood-testes barrier.

    Given these cells:

    1. primary spermatocytes
    2. secondary spermatocytes
    3. Spermatids
    4. Spermatogonia
    5. sperm cells.

    primary spermatocytes
    secondary spermatocytes
    sperm cells.
    From each primary spermatocyte, __________ sperm cell(s) is (are) produced; from each primary oocyte, __________ secondary oocyte(s) is (are) produced. 4, 1
    A comma-shaped structure on the posterior testis; maturation of sperm cells occurs here: epididymis
    The epididymis is the comma-shaped structure on the posterior testis, where the maturation of sperm occurs. epididymis
    From the ejaculatory duct, sperm cells travel directly into the prostatic part of the urethra.
    The cap (formed from the corpus spongiosum) over the distal end of the penis is the glans.
    The bulb of the penis refers to the_______________ found at the base of the penis. corpus spongiosum
    Which of these structures contributes the greatest percentage to semen? seminal vesicles
    This hormone is released from the hypothalamus and stimulates cells in the anterior pituitary. GnRH
    __________ , which is secreted by the placenta, stimulates the synthesis and secretion of testosterone before birth. HCG
    Testosterone has a negative-feedback effect on A) GnRH secretion.B) FSH secretion.

    C) LH secretion.


    In the male, the process in which sperm cells, secretions of the prostate, and secretions of the seminal vesicles accumulate in the prostatic urethra is called emission.
    The visceral peritoneum covering the surface of the ovary is germinal epithelium.
    At birth, a girl has in her ovaries many __________ that have started meiosis but stopped at prophase I. primary oocytes
    A primary oocyte divides to produce a(n) secondary oocyte and a polar body
    The layer of clear, viscous fluid that is deposited around a primary oocyte is the zona pellucida.
    The innermost cells of the cumulus mass are called the corona radiata.
    In the process of oogenesis, a polar body is formed b4fertilization & after fertilization.
    During ovulation, a(n) __________ is released from the ovary secondary oocyte
    After ovulation, the granulosa cells of the follicle develop into a glandular structure called the corpus luteum.
    The funnel-shaped end of the uterine tube (fallopian tube) is the infundibulum.
    The large, superior, rounded portion of the uterus is the fundus.
    The innermost layer of the uterus is the endometrium.
    Which of these layers is shed during menses? functional layer of endometrium
    The superior, domed portion of the vagina is called the fornix.
    In the female, erectile tissue that corresponds to the corpus spongiosum in the male is the bulb of the vestibule.
    Concerning the breasts: they are attached to fascia over the pectoralis major muscles by mammary (Cooper’s) ligaments.
    The first episode of menstrual bleeding is called menarche.
    During the menstrual cycle, the time between the ending of menses and ovulation is called the follicular phase.
    The hormone responsible for ovulation is LH.
    In the menstrual cycle, progesterone levels are highest during the secretory phase.
    The cause of menses in the menstrual cycle is decreased progesterone and estrogen secretion by the ovary.
    A woman with a typical 28-day menstrual cycle is most likely to become pregnant from sexual intercourse occurring on days 9-14.
    While the follicle is developing, a positive-feedback loop occurs in which __________ stimulates the follicle, which increases the secretion of __________, which stimulates GnRH secretion. FSH, estrogen
    After fertilization, development of a full-term fetus depends upon release of HCG by the trophoblast to maintain the corpus luteum.
    During sexual intercourse, oxytocin and __________ both stimulate smooth muscle contractions in the uterus and uterine tubes. prostaglandins
    he clinical age of the unborn child is about 14 days more than the postovulatory age.
    1. blastocyst
    2. embryo
    3. fetus
    4. morula
    5. zygote
    Implantation in the endometrium of the uterus occurs about __________ days after fertilization. 7
    In the blastocyst, the cells that develop into the embryo are the inner cell mass.
    The cells from the embryo that invade the endometrium of the uterus and form lacunae are called syncytiotrophoblast cells.
    During formation of the embryonic disk, ectoderm is adjacent to the __________ , and endoderm is adjacent to the __________ . amniotic cavity, yolk sac
    Neuroectoderm cells become the brain and spinal cord.
    The pericardial, pleural and peritoneal cavities all develop from the celom.
    During development, the period of organogenesis is between days 14 and 60.
    The bones of the face develop from __________ cells, whereas the rest of the skeleton develops from __________ cells. neural crest, mesoderm
    Fusion of male and female gametes form —-? Zygote

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