“Autism Is a complex neurologically disorder that includes Impairments In social Interaction and developmental language and communication skills, and rigid, repetitive behaviors” (WebMD, 201 AAA). In another words, autism is a lifelong disability that blocks the learning, language communication, emotional and social development of a child. Another way to define autism is that it is a developmental disorder that appears during the first 3 years of life, and affects the brain’s normal development of social and communication skills (Pumped, 2010).
It Is a form of disorder with a wide anger of symptoms which are so mild that a child can function In a regular classroom setting with special services or at other times It Is so severe that a child Is mute and institutionalized (MASON, 2012).
It ranges in severity from a handicap that limits an otherwise a normal life to a devastating disability that may require institutional care. Autism is considered to have a physical condition which is linked to abnormal activities of the biology and chemistry in the brain (Smith, Seal ; Hetman, 2012).
But, the real or exact causes of these unspecified abnormalities are still minded a mystery which prompts youngsters to be Interested and turns out as a very active area of research. There are probably combinations of factors that lead to autism. Chronological flow of autism research Back in 1938, an American psychiatrist, Leo Canner had observed 11 children (subjects) which he believed have autism’s symptoms.
After 10 years observation, he was the first who described autism as a disorder and published a paper about it with the title, “Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact” to describe the symptoms that he found on behaviors of his subjects. He described autism as an early form of schizophrenia. The combination of extreme autism, possessiveness, stereotype, and calceolaria brings the total picture into relationship with some of the basic schizophrenia phenomena” (Canner, n. D). Leo Canners theory of autism is more based on practical.
He observed and recorded the backgrounds, behaviors, and later development of the 1 1 subjects. He found some similarities In characteristics among them and this helped him to categorize characteristic of autism. Leo Canner claimed that outlasts children normally have inability to relate themselves In the ordinary way to people and situations from the beginning of life (Canner, n. ). They are much more desired for aloneness and their aloneness is basically caused from their poor parenting families.
Even facts show that autistic children mostly came from families with highly intelligent parents, but few of those parents are really warmhearted. Their parents referred to them as they always pretend there Is nobody around them; they feel happy and comfortable when they are alone. The children’s relation to people is altogether different (Canner, n. D). For example, when they get pricked, they might show fear of the pain but not the person who pricked him. During his observation to the 11 subjects, one of his patients, Alfred when asked, “What is this picture about? He replied “People are moving about. ” Canner had stated that Alfred behavior had approached characteristic of autism, which is literalness regard to preposition. In his paper, he also shared that outlasts children actually developed a Panola AT loud noels Ana moving dejects An Injection or gas Turner malign create them a big grave motional crisis. One of his patients was even afraid to go near the closet in which vacuum cleaner is kept. Besides that, Canner claimed that autistic hillier get anxiously obsessive desire for the maintenance of sameness.
They cannot tolerate with different setting or sequences once they had experienced in certain setting or sequences. Their insistence on sameness always led them become greatly disturbed upon the sight of anything broken or incomplete. Today, technology is much more improved than before, more equipment are in used to study further about autistic disorders. Recently, a new theory named mirror neurons theory had developed to describe autism in another perspective. Compare to Leo Canner’s theory, mirror neuron system is much more focus on biological way to duty changes of neurons of autistic individuals.
Hadrian (2007) had described the definition of mirror neuron system as below: Mirror neuron theory is a theory that study about resonance behavior. It defined as a neural activity spontaneously generated during movement, gestures or action, and that is also elicited when the individual observes another individual making similar movements, gestures or actions, has its underlying neural substrate in mirror neuron system (MANS). A group of Italian researchers, G. Organization, L. Fogies and V. Gaggles had serendipitously discovered MANS in the monkey.
In their experiment, they are performing electroencephalographic recording in area of monkey, a region specialized for the control of hand action. As a result, neurons were firing while monkey was grasping objects, which is food. Surprisingly, they found there are same neurons were also firing when the experimenter was performing the same grasping action. According to Hadrian (2007), he claimed that these neurons “mirror” the behavior of the other animal/human, as though the observer were performing the actions; they are not allowed in imitation, but rather in action understanding.
Mirror neuron yester is active when action or behaviors is imitating. Several studies have found that, autistic children have deficits imitating simple body movement and actions with symbolic meaning (Hadrian, 2007). In addition, autistic individuals have found that comparing developmentally delayed with normally developing children, they found impairments on empathy, Joint attention, and imitation of actions or facial expression of emotion. Types of Autism Today, there are several different sub categories for different levels of disability or function.
Autism is one of the five types of autism spectrum disorder. The autism picture or autistic spectrum “describes a set of developmental delays and disorders which affects social and communication skills and, to a greater or less greater, motor and language skills” (Rudy, 2011) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (ADSM). No two children diagnosed will be the same, but there will be many things that they do have in common. The autism spectrum or autistic spectrum also describes a range of conditions which is classified as persuasive development disorder (PAD).
Persuasive development disorder include Speaker’s disorder, Canner’s syndrome or classic autistic disorder, Pervasive Developmental Dealers tot -N toneless spectacles Retest syndrome Ana Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Monsoons & Myers, 2007). Speaker’s disorder, also called as Speaker’s syndrome is an autism spectrum disorder (SAD) that is characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction, alongside restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests (Condensate, AAA).
Besides that, it is similar in some ways to autism – another more severe type of PAD – there are some important differences. It differs from other autism spectrum disorders by its relative preservation of linguistic and cognitive development McFarland & Kline, 2006). “Children with Speaker’s syndrome typically function better than do those with autism. In addition, children with Speaker’s syndrome generally have normal intelligence and near-normal language development, although they may develop problems communicating as they get older” (Renee, 2012).
Although it is not required for diagnosis, physical clumsiness and a typical used of language are frequently reported (Basking, Speeder & Price, 2006). People with Speaker’s syndrome often display intense interests, such as this boy’s fascination with molecular structure. Symptoms of Speaker’s syndrome symptoms includes, problems with social skills, eccentric or repetitive behaviors, unusual preoccupations or rituals, communication difficulties, limited range of interests, coordination problems, skilled or talented (Renee, 2012).
With this type of Autism disorders they also tend to have an average or above-average intelligence. Canner’s syndrome or classic autistic disorder is a spectrum of neuropsychiatry disorders characterized by deflects in social and communication. It is the second leading childhood development disorder and it is considered as the most severe type f autistic disorders around (Autism Info Now, 2012).
All children with autism spectrum symptoms demonstrate problems with repetitive behaviors or interests, social interaction, verbal and nonverbal conversation (Condensate, Bibb). In addition, very often they have unusual response to sensory experiences, such as certain sounds or the way objects looks. It is normally diagnosed before the age of 6 and may be diagnosed in infancy for some cases (Medicine, 2000). They are generally considered to be low functioning, but how well their mind works is largely unknown because of extremely poor social and communication skills.
Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PAD-NOSE) is a pervasive developmental disorder (PAD), and is also considered one of the three autism spectrum disorders (SAD). PAD-NOSE is often called atypical autism. “Atypical autism is a neurological disorder characterized by impairment in ability to interact with others and by abnormalities in either communication or behavior patterns or interests” (Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PAD- NOSE), 2012).
PAD-NOSE affect boys four times more often than girls. ASS-NOSE symptoms are similar like autism but are often seen in a milder form. Because it is a spectrum disorder, all children diagnosed will show different PAD-NOSE symptoms. The two symptoms that bring the most problems in social functioning, are social interaction with other children and communicating problems with parents” (Health for World, 2009). The differences between PAD-NOSE and autism are minor and usually only obvious to researchers and doctors.
Retest’s syndrome originally termed as cerebrations hyperthermia is a rare Ana relatively little – Known type AT adults, Ana It Is a genetic Lassoer Tanat affects only girls and may be misdiagnosed as autism or cerebral palsy (Davis, 2010). It is the only one of the autism spectrum disorders that can be diagnosed medically (so far). Development appears to be normal for the first 6 – 18 months. The infant with Ret syndrome often avoids detection until 6-18 months, owing to a relatively normal appearance and some developmental progress (Nell & Gobi, 2004).
Symptoms of Retest’s syndrome may include, praxis, breathing problems, change in development, excessive saliva or drooling, floppy arms and legs, intellectual disabilities and learning difficulties, scoliosis, shaky, unsteady, or stiff gait; or toe walking, seizures, lowing head growth beginning at approximately 5 – 6 months of age, loss of normal sleep patterns, loss of purposeful hand movements, loss of social engagement, ongoing severe constipation and gastrointestinal reflux (GEAR), poor circulation that can lead to cold and bluish arms and legs and severe language development problems (Shoeshine ; Give, 2010).
This particular type of autism has been diagnosed since the sixties, but in the late sass a gene that might cause this condition was found. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder is a condition where children starts to plopped them around the age of 3 or 4. After that, in a few months time, children tend to lose language abilities, motor, social, and other skills that they have already learned. The cause of this disorder is still undiscovered, but it have been linked or related to the brain and nervous system problems (Van Overshoes, 2010).
Symptoms may include delay or lack of spoken language, impairment in nonverbal behaviors, inability to start or maintain a conversation, lack of play, loss of bowel and bladder control, loss of language or communication skills, loss of motor skills, loss of social kills, problems in forming relationships with other children and family members (Sieve, 2010). Additional symptoms may include the onset of difficulty in the transition to waking from sleep.
Social interactions become compromised (as manifested by aggressiveness, tantrums, or withdrawal from peers), as does motor function, resulting in poor coordination and possible awkwardness of gait (Palomar, State ; Kline, 2009). Though there are more autism types out there, these tend to be the most common. They are all things that take parents by surprise, and each comes with their own set of difficulties. Most children will need to be cared for long after their peers have established independence, even though the will to be on their own is very strong.
Famous Autistic Individuals One of the many famous people was diagnosed with autism, such as John Elder Robinson, is the author for a New York Times bestseller book, Look Me in the Eye. It is about John’s life story growing up as an autistic before there was such a diagnosis. Robinson was later diagnosed with Speaker’s syndrome, but before that, he was already well-known for his talents in mechanics and electronics. His strong abilities n these fields led him to find work in Pink Flood’s sound company to make special effects and rigging pyrotechnics for the guitars of the band, Kiss.
He now owns his own business collecting and restoring old European cars. Robinson reached the public eye when he was introduced by the author, Augustan Burroughs’ in his memoir running with Scissors. John tells his story with a candid sense of humor and honest account of what made him different from others around him. It wasn’t until Robinson turned 40 Tanat en learned AT Nils Lagoons Ana Decade compelled to teen writes Nils life’s account (Silverman, 2001). Secondly, Jason McClellan, he is an autistic high- school basketball wonder.
Autism brings with it a cluster of symptoms from repetitive behavior, tics, social blindness, speech impediments to auditory processing and sensory integration issues. A high school basketball player from Rochester, New York, Jason became known not technically as a basketball player for his local high school team, but for his involvement in the last game of their basketball season. Jason was known at school because of his autistic fixation for playing basketball. He was known to practice for hours on end all by himself.
At the last four minutes of the last game f the season he was asked to play and scored an astonishing 20 points, some from a three point range, a number that often is not even scored through an entire game (Sanders, n. D. ). Besides that, Stators Taxi, he is the creator of Pokemoon. Referred to as a child as ‘Dry. Bug by friends because of his autistic fixation with bugs, Stators Taxi later created one of the most popular video game franchises in the world, second only to Super Mario Brothers.
It was based on his childhood fascination with bugs. Video games was another fixation Stators had and once when he saw two kids playing with heir Game Boys linked – he imagined a bug crawling across the link cable and thus the idea for Pokemoon was born. Diagnosed with Speaker’s syndrome, Stators Taxi has been described by Nintendo officials as exceedingly creative but reclusive and eccentric (Bullheaded, n. D. ). Furthermore, U. S. Autistic Jazz prodigy Matt Savage.
Often times when doctors are not sure where on the spectrum a child or adult falls, but autism is believed to exist, that person will be diagnosed as having a PAD or Pervasive Development Disorder Unspecified. Matt Savage was diagnosed with PAD at the age of three and later came a Jazz prodigy. In Savage’s teens he becomes a professional Jazz pianist with his own trio. He plays alongside the best adult musicians of our time and plays all over the world. He has recorded three audio CDC with the proceeds being donated to autism research and support.
The legendary Dave Bruce, known as the Jazz legend’ has coined Savage as the “Mozart of Jazz. ” Savage now attends the largest independent college of contemporary music in the world at Berkeley College of Music in Boston, Massachusetts (Firebombed, n. D. ). Finally, Temple Agrarian, animal and autistic advocate. She is known as a high- injunction autistic that has educated and inspired the autistic community by not only sharing her life story, but also because of the revolutionary ideas to improve the cattle industry; making it more humane for animals.
HOBO recently released a film based on her life and this year Claire Danes who played Temple Agrarian won at the SAG awards for best actress in a leading role in a TV series or movie. Temple holds a PhD and is a professor of Animal Science at the University of Northern Colorado. She’s written a book called, thinking in Pictures along with many other books about her profession as well as about her autism (Durham, 2011). Perspective on autism As mentioned, autism in general is seen as a lifelong disability that blocks the learning, language communication, emotional and social development of a child.
The real or exact causes of these unspecified abnormalities are still remained a mystery but due to the various perspective in psychology, there are different ways to study Ana treat adults. I nose serve as multiple blew pilots to nave a netter unreasoning towards autism itself which will also serve beneficial in the treatment areas. One of the perspectives is psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis is based on the observation that individuals are often unaware of the factors that determine their emotions and behavior and therefore, the treatments also explores to these factors (PAPAS, 2012).
The treatments in this perspective are not only to the autistic child but also the parents itself. “The therapist focuses on the behavior, mood, or emotion of the child and then translates it to the child and waits for the sign that the child feels understood, such as a furtive glance. And from there, the therapist enters the child’s world. ” (Mann, 2008). Rather than a therapist, they are more suitable to be called as a decipher or translator. Needless to say, this therapy is indeed crucial for autism.
Although being autistic means having deficits in areas in communication, language and also having a repetitive behavior, autistic child are human which literally trapped in their own world and unable to communicate with us if that autistic child is in a very severe case of autism. However, these therapists may serve as bridge to help them in a way or another to deliver that very message to us. “Children with autism often display narrow patterns of interests that include a fascination with arithmetic, repetitive behaviors or stereotyped body movement” (Mash & Wolfe, 2007, p. 92). The question here, is why?
Why do they behave as such? Behaviorism believes that these behaviors are shaped by the environment and by reaction that they are learned behaviors (Wert, 1998). In this perspective, is perfectly fine because behaviorist’s totally reject all ideas about internal traits, cognitive, motivations and so and so forth. Behaviorism purely believes that people are controlled by their environment (Friedman & Shattuck, 2011). Behavior therapist use therapeutic technique such as Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), which practically focus on principles that give explanation on how the learning takes place.
Enhanced by reinforcement behavior will repeat itself soon enough. Rather than giving a treatment ABA gives a form of training to shape behavior to the autistic child. Sadly this wont recover them from autism but on the other hand prepare them for the society in the future. Since autism has no cure yet, this might be a very good alternative to reduce the effect of autism which will harm and block away the child’s potential. The third perspective, cognitive approach.
This approach focuses on the way humans’ process information, looking at how we treat the information that comes in to the person, and how this treatment leads to a response. The psychologist in this approach mainly focus on the internal processes including perception, attention, language, memory and thinking (McLeod, 2007). Since autistic people are literally trapped in their own world, these perspectives have the potential to be the most fruitful in compare to the other perspective to understand autism. As such, research was conducted.
However, the limitation of cognitive theories may be out-modeled in their ability to explain autism but nevertheless the theories represent framework(s) of choice for many researcher and clinician (Regenerated & Mitchell, 2007). In this perspective, there also consist of a treatment though combine with behavior approach, Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CUB). “This therapy naturally based on the idea that how we think (cognition), how we feel (emotion) and how we act (behavior) all Interact together. Specifically, out tongues determine our Telling Ana our behavior. ” (Autistic, n. D. ).
This however in a way shows how the other perspectives link with each other in the field of psychology. For instance, therapist are needed to understand the inner world of the autistic child (psychoanalysis) to get an idea on owe they think (cognition) in order to know how they will react (behavior). Early treatments & later treatments of autism In sass, Bruno Bethlehem, an eminent scholar and educator had out his focus on application of psychoanalytic principles to problem in education, society, and family. Based on Fetishism’s idea, autistic children had suffered anguish in their inability to sustain themselves in the family. Central persons” is needed for autistic children in order to bring them out from the disorder. These important persons are functioning as nurturing, observing and interpreting autistic children’s feelings and expressions. Autistic children normally suffered from inability to relate themselves, so they need people who really understand them to help them express themselves. Zelda (2000) illustrated that mainstay of autistic children’s life (counselor and teachers) functioned as ego supports to these extraordinary needy young people. They normally failed to function their ego well before admitted to Orthopedic School.
Orthopedic School was one of the famous main thrust of Fetishism’s work. He encourage individuals with autism should attend Orthopedic School by helping to educate them through educating their care takers. Children’s developing mind could be transformed into classroom practice at the Orthopedic School” (Zelda, 2000). He believed that education will helps autistic children to grow up their mature strivings, strengthen their conscious mind. Through attending Orthopedic School, children can also learn social skill while learning with other children.
Nowadays, many psychologists had put effort on treatment of autism and come out different kinds of treatment. For example, psychosocial therapies, music therapy, animal- assisted therapy, medical therapy and so on.. Since dawn of civilization, humans and animals have a strong ND powerful bond and this bond has been a source to relief individuals with emotional pain. Animal-assisted therapy is one of the famous treatments to use for individuals with autism. Animal-assisted therapy, also named as pet therapy, where an animal such as dog or a horse is a type of therapy that involves animals as a form of treatment.
Animal-assisted therapy helps autistic children to improve their social emotion, or cognitive function. By encounter with warm animal, it can help to lessen perception of physical pain, and also illness such as blood pressure or heart rate. It also has beneficial effect to help individuals to prevent from sensation of anxiety, depression or loneliness. Autistic children exposed to therapeutic horseback riding exhibited greater sensory seeking, sensory sensitivity, social motivation, and less inattention, destructibility, and sedentary behaviors (Anderson, 2011).
There are also some alternative treatments such as music therapy. Music therapy is a “systematic process intervention wherein the therapist helps the clients to achieve health, using musical experiences and the relationships that develop through them as dynamic forces of change” (Prussia, 1989 as cited in Paltrier, 2000). It may due to the deficits in communication where languages do not develop well for the autistic child; this is exactly where Music Therapy is important. Moreover, is been proven in a research that music can bypass the speech and language barriers in the outlasts Uninominal. A gallants positive relationship was totaled Detente musical vocal skills and non-musical speech production skills, implying that communication through music bypasses speech and language barriers in individuals with autism” ( Sketchpad, 2009). Music in itself which has different kind of tones and pitch, every unique feeling which differs contain in each song which then again can be classified in terms of genre. They are quite many famous individual who are autistic in the musical field such as Sarah Longest and James Durbin (McGee, 2012).
This may not prove that all autistic people are musical savant but it shows that the autistic people are somewhat sensitive towards music. This can trigger a response and nevertheless counter the three deficits in autism; social interaction, communication and repetitive activities and interest. Because of the sensitivity towards music of autistic individuals, this can alter their attitude to a better standing in the society. Though autism is a life-long disability which the causes or reasons are yet to be found but because of this, researchers are getting more interested in this disorder.
Cite this Autism argumentative
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