He was born January 17, 1706 and died April 17 1790. Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, musician, inventor, satirist, civic activist, statesman, and a diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. He invented the lightning rod, bifocals, the Franklin stove, a carriage odometer, and the glass harmonica. He facilitated many civic organizations, including a fire department and a university. Franklin earned the title of “The First
American” for his early and indefatigTABLE campaigning for colonial unity; as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies, then as the first United States Ambassador to France, he exemplified the emerging American nation.
Franklin gained international renown as a scientist for his famous experiments in electricity and for his many inventions, especially the lightning rod. He played a major role in establishing the University of Pennsylvania and was elected the first president of the American Philosophical Society.
Franklin became a national hero in America when he spearheaded the effort to have
Parliament repeal the unpopular stamp Act. An accomplished diplomat, he was widely admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a major figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations. For many years he was the British postmaster for the colonies, which enTABLEd him to set up the first national communications network. He was active in community affairs, colonial and state politics, as well as national and international affairs. 1 785 to 1788, he served as governor of Pennsylvania. Towards the end of his life, he freed his slaves and became on of the most reorient abolitionists.
Just like Benjamin Franklin there where others in the world that created something new for the world to see, which made them creative thinkers, The Wright Bothers, Orville and Wilbur, were two American brothers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who were credited with inventing and building the world’s first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight, on December 17, 1903. Both brothers attended high school, but did not receive diplomas. The family abrupt move in 1 884 from Richmond, Indiana to Dayton,
Ohio, where the family had lived during the sass, prevented Wilbur from receiving his diploma after finishing four years of high school. From 1905 to 1907, the brothers developed their flying machine into the first practical fixed- wing aircraft. Although not the first to build a fly experimental aircraft, the Wright Brothers were the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing powered flight possible. The brothers fundamental breakthrough was invention of the three-axis control, which enTABLEd the pilot to steer the aircraft effectively and to maintain its equilibrium.
From the beginning of their aeronautical work, the Wright Brothers focused on developing a reliTABLE method of pilot control as the key to solving ‘the flying problem”. This approach differed significantly from other experimenters of the time who put more emphasis on developing powerful engines. Using a small home-built wind tunnel, the Wrights also collected more accurate data than before, enabling them to design and build wings and propellers that were more efficient than any before.
The Wright Brothers status as inventors of the airplane has been subject to counter-claims by various parties. Much introverts persists over the many completing claims of early aviators. Despite Aliment’s fate, the brothers favored his strategy; to practice gliding in order to master the art of control before attempting motor-driven flight. The death of British aeronautic Percy Filcher in another hang gliding crash in 1899 only reinforced their opinion that a reliTABLE method of pilot control was the key to successful?and safe?flight.
At the outset Of their experiments they regarded control as the unsolved third part of “the flying problem”. They believed sufficiently promising knowledge of the other two issues?wings and engines?already existed. The Wright Brothers thus differed sharply from more experienced practitioners of the day, notably Adder, Maxim and Langley who built powerful engines, attached them to airframes equipped with unproven control devices and expected to take to the air with no previous flying experience.
Although agreeing with Aliment’s idea of practice, the Wrights saw that his method of balance and control?shifting his body weight?was fatally inadequate. They were determined to find something better. On the basis of observation, Wilbur concluded that birds changed the Engle of the ends of their wings to make their bodies roll right or left. The brothers decided this would also be a good way for flying machines to run?to “bank” or “lean” into the turn just like a bird and just like a person riding a bicycler an experience with which they were thoroughly familiar.
Equally important, they hoped this method would enTABLE recovery when the wind tilted the machine to one side. They puzzled over how to achieve the same effect with man-made wings and eventually discovered wing-warping when Wilbur idly twisted a long inner-tube box at the bicycle shop. The Wrights based the design of their kite and full-sized gliders on work done in the sass by other aviation pioneers.
The adopted the basic design of the Chancre Herring biplane hang glider, which flew well in 1896 experiments near Chicago, and used aeronautical data on lift that Alienated had published. In 1 903 the brothers built the Wright Flyer I, using their preferred material for construction, spruce, a strong and lightweight wood, and Pride of the West muslin for surface coverings. This made the Wright Brothers famous thinkers due to the time and effort it took them to master flight controls and the way airplanes fly today.
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