Biology 2 Essay
System Interactive Physiology Worksheet The Immune System: Immune System Overview 1. Pathogens are classified according to their size and where they are located in the body. List the five types of pathogens from largest to smallest: • __________________________• __________________________ • __________________________• __________________________ • __________________________ 2. Which type of pathogen is always intracellular? ________________ Which type of pathogen is always extracellular? ________________ 3.
Name the three main lines of defense and give an example of each: |Line of defense |Example | | | | | | | | | | 4. When the surface barriers (innate external defenses) are penetrated, what is the next line of defense? ___________________________ 5.
This defense mechanism (named in question 6) identifies enemies by recognizing ____________ unique to the pathogens. When they are overwhelmed, they secrete __________________ to mobilize the adaptive defenses. 6. Name the four key ways adaptive defenses differ from innate defenses: • __________________________• __________________________ • __________________________• __________________________ 7. B and T lymphocytes recognize pathogens by binding to them. What the lymphocyte recognizes is called the __________________ found on the antigen. 9.
Specific B cells called _________ cells secrete ______________, which bind to the antigens. Humoral Versus Cellular Immunity 10. ____________ immunity is directed against pathogens in the extracellular fluid.
This immunity involves ___ lymphocytes. 11. ____________ immunity is directed against pathogens within the cells. This immunity involves ___ lymphocytes. 12. Which type of immunity involves antibodies? _______________ 13. Name three circumstances in which the T cells would be activated against body cells: • ____________________________ • ____________________________ ____________________________ The Immune System: Anatomy Review 1. Name the two major anatomical parts of the immune system: • ________________________________________ • ________________________________________ 2. Cells of the immune system originate in ___________. These cells are called ______________ when traveling in the blood and are classified according to the shape of their nucleus and colors of their granules when stained. 3–4. List the leukocytes in order of frequency from most to least common. In the second column put their distinct characteristics. Name of Leukocyte |Description | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 5.
Primary lymphoid organs, where B and T cells originate and mature, are the bone marrow and thymus. Fill in the following: Both B and T cells originate from ________________. The B cells mature in the ___________________. The T cells mature in the ___________________. (Hint: This is how they came to be called B and T cells. ) 6. Secondary lymphoid organs, where lymphocytes become activated, include the following structures: • _____________• _____________• _____________ • _____________• _____________ 7. The lymphatic vessels collect excess interstitial fluid that leaves the capillaries and returns it to the cardiovascular system. How many liters per day are collected? ___ L/day 8.
If lymphatic vessels do not function properly, there will be a buildup of fluid in the tissues. This condition is known as _________________. 9. The lymphatic capillaries have ______ valves to collect the excess interstitial fluid and any leaked proteins. 10. The lymph is filtered through the _______, where antigens and pathogens are removed and the immune system can be activated. 11. Special lymphatic capillaries in the intestines, called __________, transport absorbed _________ from the intestines into the blood. 12. Name two functions of the lymph nodes: • __________________________• __________________________ 13. The ________ cleanses the blood like the lymph nodes cleanse the lymph. 14. Functions of the spleen include: Removes ____________________________________________________ • Stores ______________________________________________________ • Site for activation of the ________________ 15. Collections of secondary lymphoid tissue (called _________ for short) are distributed throughout the mucosal surfaces of the digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary system. Aside from the diffuse cells in respiratory and other mucosa, this includes the following specific structure: • ________________________ (protection of oral and nasal cavities) 16. The ___________, a primary lymphoid organ, is the site for differentiation of lymphocytes into mature T cells. What happens to this organ as we age? The Immune System: Innate Host Defenses 1.
Name the two major categories of innate (nonspecific) defenses: • _______________________________________ • ________________________________________ 2. Surface barriers include the ____________ and ________________ of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. 3. List the three properties of skin that help it resist invasion: • ___________________________• ___________________________ • ___________________________ 4. The mucus membranes not only provide a barrier, but they also produce a variety of protective chemicals. For example, the stomach secretes _____________ enzymes and has a very _____ pH. The respiratory and digestive tracts are lined with ___________ that traps pathogens. 5.
Once the surface barrier has been broken, the second line of defense, the innate internal defense system (nonspecific defense system), attempts to limit the spread of pathogens. Name the 5 components of the innate internal defense system: • ___________________________• ___________________________ • ___________________________• ___________________________ • ___________________________ 6. Neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages (monocytes develop into macrophages in the tissue) are the two types of phagocytes discussed. Answer the following questions by circling the correct answer. Which phagocyte is most abundant? Neutrophil or Monocyte Which phagocytizes more pathogens? Neutrophil or Macrophage Which cell is not found in healthy tissue?
Neutrophil or Macrophage 7. A phagocyte recognizes and binds to molecules found on pathogens using special membrane receptors, such as the ______________ receptor and the ___________ (____) receptor. 8. At least 10 different TLRs have been identified on human phagocytes. Two reactions are triggered when TLRs recognize a pathogen: • _________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________ 9. A phagocyte engulfs a pathogen and brings it inside the phagocyte in a vesicle called a _____________, which later fuses with a lysosome and is then called a __________________. 10. Name three ways the pathogen is destroyed: ___________________________________________________________ • ___________________________________________________________ • ___________________________________________________________ 11. Many pathogens have evolved strategies to avoid being killed by phagocytes. For example, some bacteria enclose themselves in capsules. _______________ is a process of coating bacteria to enhance phagocytosis by a macrophage. Phagocytes have receptors that can attach to opsonins on the bacteria. Two factors can act as opsonins: • __________________• __________________ 12. Certain _______ (from the adaptive defense system) can enhance the killing process within a macrophage.
This happens when the macrophage presents antigens from the bacteria to this cell. This is an example of the interaction between the innate and adaptive defense systems. 13. ______________ cells are a type of lymphocyte, but, unlike the B and T cells, they are not specific. However, they can still recognize abnormal cells. T cells look for the presence of abnormal antigens on the cell surface, while these cells look for the ____________ of normally occurring self-proteins. 14. NK cells kill like ___________ T cells; direct contact with a target cell causes it to undergo ____________, a form of cellular suicide. 15. Name the two types of antimicrobial proteins: ______________________°______________________ 16. What causes a cell to secrete interferons? _______________________________ 17. The interferons secreted by this cell bind to receptors on nearby cells, causing these nearby cells to produce proteins that __________________ by degrading ____________ and preventing synthesis of _________________. 18. The complement system is a cascade of interdependent proteins which enhance both the innate and adaptive defenses. When activated, these proteins can: • ____________________________________________ • ____________________________________________ • ____________________________________________ 19. Name the four cardinal signs of inflammation: ____________________• ____________________ • ____________________• ____________________ 20. The purpose of inflammation is to bring __________ and ________ into an injured area. This action accomplishes three things: • Prevents _______________________ • Disposes of _____________________ • Sets the stage for _________________ 21. When tissues are injured, macrophages release chemical mediators, called inflammatory mediators. These chemical mediators cause two key effects: • __________________, which causes redness and heat • ______________________, which causes swelling and, thus, pain 22. These chemical mediators activate cell adhesion molecules on endothelial cells.
When neutrophils bind to these molecules, they are activated and leave the blood vessel by a process called ____________. Once in the tissue, the neutrophils follow a chemical trail to the site of infection. This process is called ______________. 23. In addition to the complement system, other chemicals act as inflammatory mediators: • _______________________• _______________________ • _______________________ 24. Bacterial components and cytokines act as ___________, which cause the body’s thermostat to set its temperature higher, thus causing a __________. This elevated body temperature is advantageous to our defense system because: • ________________________________________________________
The Immune System: Common Characteristics of B and T Lymphocytes 1. Lymphocytes must distinguish between normally occurring internal antigens called _________________ and those external to the body. The ability to distinguish between the pathogens depends on the ________________ of the lymphocyte antigen receptors. 2. Specificity of B and T cells depends on their ability to recognize ___________ ______________. They have the ability to do this because their surface is covered with 10,000 to 100,000 __________________________ receptors. All of these receptors on a specific B cell are identical; thus, the cells bind optimally with only one _______________________. 3.
The antigen receptor on a B cell is an immunoglobulin, which is Y-shaped and basically a membrane bound ___________. 4. The T cell receptor recognizes antigen fragments housed in cell membrane proteins called “________________________________” (_____) proteins. 5. The immune system can develop receptors for a specific antigen before that antigen enters the body. Lymphocytes make a wide variety of receptors, and when an antigen binds and activates one of these receptors, the cell divides, making many ________. This process is called__________________________. 6. Our bodies make approximately _________________different types of lymphocyte antigen receptors. With only 25,000 different genes in our body, how can so many antigen receptors be made? ____________________________________________ 7. Receptors have two regions. The _____________region is the same for all antigen receptors, while the ____________region is specific for an antigen. 8. The ________________ and ___________ are primary lymphoid organs because the B and T cells originate and/or mature in these organs. To become immunocompetent, B and T cells must accomplish two things: • _______________________________________ • _______________________________________ 9. T cells recognize antigens by binding to _______ proteins on an antigen presenting cell such as a dendritic cell. This process is known as ____________ selection.
If T cells fail to recognize this protein, they die by a process known as ____________. 10. If lymphocytes attack the body’s own cells, this will result in a/an ___________________ disease. 11. Below is a list of diseases that result when the immune system attacks the body’s own cells. State what cells the immune system is attacking in each disease. • Grave’s Disease: ______________________________ • Type I diabetes: ______________________________ • Multiple sclerosis: ______________________________ • Hemolytic anemia: ______________________________ 12. The T cell becomes activated when it encounters its antigen. The T cell then undergoes repeated cell division known as ____________________________.
During this process, two basic types of cells are produced: • _____________ cells, which attack the antigen-presenting cell • ______________ cells, which remain to be reactivated if the antigen is ever encountered again 13. When an antigen activates a B cell, the cloned _________________ (effector cells) secrete antibodies in about 7 days. This is known as the ______________ immune response. 14. When exposed to the same antigen again, the ______________B cells generate a _____________ immune response. This response is generated (faster or slower) and produces a ______________ number of effector cells. 15. The purpose of _________________________ is to generate memory cells, thus protecting us without the risk of getting sick. The Immune System: Humoral Immunity 1.
Antibodies can be found on the plasma membrane of ________________ (where they act as antigen receptors) or free in the extracellular fluid, here they are known as ______________________________. 2. Antibodies consist of two types of polypeptide chains: • Two _________ chains—located on the inside of the Y-shaped molecule • Two __________ chains—located on the outside of the Y-shaped molecule The chains are held together by _____________ bonds. 3. Each chain has a ____________ region which is unique for each antigen and a ___________ region which is the same for each antibody in a given class of antibodies. 4. Each arm of the Y-shaped antibody has identical ____________________ sites. The shape of these sites must match the shape of the _______________________ on the antigen in order to bind. 5.
The stem of the Y-shaped antibody determines how it will interact with other components of the immune system. Complete the following examples given in this topic: • Whether the antibody remains ____________ to the B cell • Whether it activates the ______________________ system • Whether it acts as an ____________________ to promote phagocytosis • Whether it can be joined with other antibodies to form a ______________ (pair) or _______________ (5 antibodies) • Determines the _________ pattern—how it travels through the body 6. Name the five classes of antibodies, each with a distinct type of stem: • _______• _______• _______• _______ • _______ 7.
Complete the list of four contributions of IgG antibodies: • Constitutes the ______________________ of circulating antibodies • Formed in the late _______________ and throughout the _______________ immune response • Provides ___________________________ to the fetus • Can be transferred from one individual to another (example of ______________________ immunity) 8. Match the characteristics listed below to the correct antibody. Choose either IgM or IgA. • These antibodies are found in secretions of tears, sweat, and saliva _____ • First antibodies secreted in response to a new antigen_____ • Retained as monomers on the surface of B cells _____ • Found in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract_____ • Found in breast milk_____ • Secreted as pentomers_____ 9. IgE is produced as a result of the body’s infestation with _____________________.
Which white blood cell is important to combat this infestation? _______________ List the two key factors in the production of IgE: • __________________________• __________________________ 10. In modern, industrialized countries, the most common function of IgE is its role in _____________ responses. When exposed to an _______________ such as pollen, the body makes IgE antibodies. 11. The first exposure to an antigen is called _________________________. As a result, IgE antibodies are present on ________________ and __________________. During the second exposure, the allergen causes the release of _____________ and other inflammatory mediators. 12.
As a result of the actions of the chemical released in question 11, the affected person gets a runny nose (due to ___________________________________) and has difficulty breathing (due to _______________________________________). 13. _____________________are drugs that bind and block histamine receptors, thus alleviating the allergy symptoms. 14. Allergic reactions to peanuts can be very serious, causing a systemic allergic reaction known as _________________________. 15. IgD antibodies are located on the surface of ______________ cells and act as an antigen receptor. They participate in activating the _______ cell. 16. There are four general ways that antibodies work (to remember: PLAN).
Fill in the following: • P—act as opsonins to destroy pathogens by ___________________ • L—initiate complement activation resulting in ________ of the pathogen • A—cause _______________________, the clumping of molecules, which enhances phagocytosis • N—cause _____________________, which prevents toxins and viruses from interacting with body cells 17. List the 3 key points for B cell activation: • B cells respond to ________________ antigens. • These antigens are concentrated in the ______________________________. • B and T cells continually _____________ and congregate in the ________________________________ (where the antigens are concentrated). 18. If the T cell recognizes the antigenic fragment bound to the _________ protein on the B cell, the T cell binds to the B cell and __________________ are released from the T cell. The exchange of signals between the B and T cells is called ______________________. 19.
Humoral immunity can be acquired either actively or passively. Define each and give an example of the naturally and artificially acquired forms. Active Immunity: __________________________________________ • Naturally acquired: __________________________________________ • Artificially acquired: __________________________________________ Passive Immunity: __________________________________________ • Naturally acquired:__________________________________________ • Artificially acquired: __________________________________________ The Immune System: Cellular Immunity 1. Cytokines are small proteins that transfer information within the immune system.
List the actions of cytokines given in this Topic: • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ • ______________________________________________ 2. Interleukin-1, a cytokine, acts as a chemical alarm to alert the immune system to the presence of a pathogen. List the three actions given for interleukin-1 in this Topic: • ______________________________________________ 3. Interleukin-2, released by helper T cells, causes proliferation of activated lymphocytes. This process is called _____________________________. 4.
The two major classes of lymphocytes that mediate cellular immunity are based on the presence of surface proteins called ______ proteins. The most common are those with the ______ markers. 5. Below are the two major classes of cells with CD protein markers. List what the cells become and what class of MHC proteins they bind. CD4 cells:- most become _____________ cells but some become ___________________ cells – bind to __________ MHC proteins CD8 cells:- all become _____________ cells – bind to ____________ MHC proteins 6. The HIV virus binds to CD4 surface proteins and destroys the _____________ cells. 7. The _______ proteins are one major class of self-antigens.
Thus, before an organ transplant, the donor’s and the recipient’s ________ proteins are matched as closely as possible to decrease the chance of organ _______________. 8. ______________ cells circulate through the body searching for infected or cancerous cells by examining the antigenic determinant on ________ MHC proteins on the cell surface. Fragments of _______________, degraded proteins are loaded unto these proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. If the antigenic peptide is a _____________ antigen, the body cell will be destroyed. 9. Unlike class I MHC proteins, which can be displayed on any nucleated cell, class II MHC proteins are only displayed on select cells.
Name the antigen-presenting cells that have class II MHC proteins:• ________________________• ________________________ • ________________________ These cells communicate with CD4 cells, which will become ____________ cells. Antigens presented on class II cells are _______________antigens. 10. Name two results of presenting the exogenous antigen on class II MHC proteins: • CD4 cells are converted to helper T cells when _____________ cells and _________________ present the antigen. • ________cells and ______________ present antigens to helper T cells to request further activation. 11. Dendritic cells are responsible for activating most T cells.
Choose the correct answer for each of the following: • They can capture antigens found __________________ (extracellularly, intracellularly, or both). • They can activate __________________ (CD4, CD8, or both CD4 and CD8) cells. • They can express __________________ (MHC I, MHC II, or both MHC I and MHC II) proteins. 12. List the two steps necessary for T cell activation: • _____________________________________________________________ • _____________________________________________________________ 13. Once T cells are activated they undergo proliferation (called: ____________ __________________ ) and differentiation. ________________, a type of cytokine, is necessary for the proliferation. 14.
Antigen-presenting cells will express co-stimulatory molecules when they have been signaled by the ___________defense mechanisms that an infection is present. However, if there is no infection, the antigens on the MHC protein are likely to be _________________. Thus, without co-stimulation, the T cells become inactivated, a process called ________________. 15. There are two ways to induce a process of self-destruction in a cell, which is called _________________: • Cytotoxic T cells look for the presence of MHCs with foreign antigens and release ____________ and _______________ or they bind to an __________ _____________ receptor (Fas receptor) on the surface of the cell. Natural killer cells look for the absence of _____________ and are thus able to eliminate abnormal cells that cytotoxic T cells cannot detect. 16. Helper T cells are critical for the activation of __________cells and ____________ T cells. 17. The helper T cell can help activate the CD8 cell to become a ____________ T cell in two ways: • It stimulates the dendritic cells to express additional ___________________ molecules • It secretes _____________ (including interleukin-2) to help activation 18. Regulatory T cells suppress the activity of other T cells by direct ____________________ contact or by releasing ____________________. They are important in helping to prevent ___________________ diseases.