Biomechanical Analysis of Shot Put and Discus

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Biomechanical Analysis: Shot Put A biomechanical standpoint, the shot put and has many different aspects that can be look at upon the affects of many different factors. Although there are many different factors that are important to success and performance related to the shot put and discuss. Thus, I am going to look at the speed, the angle, and the height of release. These factors are particularly important to performance of the shot put and discus but there are many other important factors that also contribute, including range of motion, timing, position, internal force, and external force.

The next area that we are going to look at is speed. Results from studies done by M. Hubbard et al. showed that Achievable release speed decreases with increasing release angle at about 1. 7 (m/s)/rad and decreases with increasing release height at about 0. 8 (m/s)/m, with only small differences in sensitivities between throwers. Speed plays a role in the optimum projection angle. Athletes throw at different speeds and are unable to have the same speed at all optimumprojection angles. As the athlete throws at a higher angle the speed decreases.

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Yeadon (1998) developed a simple computer simulation model of shot-putting that assumed a linear decrease in release speed with increasing release angle. Therefore, the shot put, release speed is considered more important than release height because changes in release speed have a greater effect on the flight distance than equal relative changes in release height (Hay, 1993). Lastly, the third element of projected distance is release height. This factor is the least important and since nothing can really be done to change height it is very convenient.

Thus it is determined by an athletes anthropometric parameters and to a fewer degree by the release angle. As one continues to look at different aspects related to biomechanics there are very many in relation to the shot put. In the paragraphs above, we looked at the angle of release and why the angle of release is important due to internal and external forces. Gravity acts downward as a non-contact force on the shot put and internal force inhibiting release speed of the shot put. This is important when propelling the shot upwards with the force acting on the shot since the angle of release has to do with release speed.

This brings me to my next concept of speed and velocity. This is simply the greatest indicator in relation of performance. Studies have shown over time that the more speed one gets with a shot put the increase in distance, which concludes, to an increase in performance. Thus velocity is indicates that a lower release angle and a greater speed will have a greater impact on distance. One other concept that is important to performance of the shot put is vertical and horizontal motion of a projectile. Vertically the shot is constantly accelerating downward and horizontally it wont slow down or speed up.

In area of release height, we can say that the higher the initial height of release of the shot the longer it will stay in the air. As a result the higher a projectile is at release and the faster it is moving upward at release, the higher it will go. Hence we want to maximize horizontal displacement of the shot put is the objective. Where thirty seven degrees may maximize the benefit of vertical and horizontal velocities and projection angle. Thus this emphasizes initial and horizontal velocities have equal influence on horizontal displacement.

Consequently, to maximize horizontal displacement release velocity should be maximized, and a higher release height is better. It is also determined that the horizontal component of release velocity should be slightly faster than the vertical component so that the projection angle is slightly lower than 45 degrees (McGinnis, 2005). {draw:frame} Many different muscles and joints used in shot putting. The shoulder muscle and joints around it are very important in performing. As part of the humerus bone, the acromioclavicular joint and the glenohumeral jointwork together to inhibit shoulder movement.

Specifically, the glenohumeral joint allows complete range of motion for the shoulder because it is technically the “ball and socket. ” Therefore, the joints in the humerus part of the muscle help the athlete to have a steady and controlled throw. In addition, before the shot is released, the arm can helped be controlled by the joints in the shoulder. Muscles associated with the shoulder that provides mobility and strength to the shoulder joints are the rotator cuff muscles. The rotator cuff muscles actually hold the ball in the socket. Without the rotator cuff muscles, the muscles joints would not function properly.

They are important for providing strength to the shoulder as the athlete performs. When the athlete has the shot at its initial point, the rotator cuff muscles will move as the athlete prepares to throw (Shoulder). In addition to shoulder muscles associated with shot putting, elbow muscles are also associated with it. The two major elbow muscles that are usedin shot putting are the biceps brachii and the triceps brachii. The biceps brachii is an important muscle when flexing in the arm. It flexes the elbow, supinates the forearm, and flexes the shoulder. The triceps brachii allows the elbow to be extended.

Both the biceps brachii and the triceps brachii allow the arm to function to throw the shot. When throwing the shot, every part of the arm needs to be flexedand extended to get the best possible throw (Elbow). Some believe upper body strength is the most important part for being a successful shot put athlete. However, the reality is that the one with greater lower body strength will usually win in the end. It is more important to have a stronger core and lower body than to have a stronger upper body muscles. The quadriceps and hamstrings and the two lower muscles that are involved in shot putting (Expert).

The quadriceps and the hamstrings go across the knee joint. The hamstrings are usedwhen decelerating and the quadriceps are used when accelerating. When the athlete is in motion before the actual throw, the quadriceps is used. After the throw, the athlete needs to decelerate back to a normal state and uses his or her hamstrings. The hamstrings also bend the knee and extend the hip. The quadriceps straightens the knee and flexes the hip. It is important for the knee to be able to bend in preparation for the throw and extend when needed (Quadriceps).

Other than the hamstrings and quadriceps, the ligaments of the knee also are important to the knee and combine to factor into throwing the shot put. While the muscles move the joint, the ligaments stabilize it. The ligaments and muscles of the knee allow the athlete to move his or her lower leg. Movement of the lower leg is necessary for the athlete to a greater distance for throw (Knee). The muscles of the upper body work with the muscles of the lower body to give the athlete the best possible throw. Although, more strength and power of the throw will come from the lower body, the upper strength is still very important.

The upper strength is important for release of the ball and control of the throw. Athletes need to remember to throw from their knees and not their back. In addition, they need to remember to work opposing muscle groups equally. For example, if the athlete works out the hamstrings with fifty pounds, then the quadriceps should also be worked outat fifty pounds. Practicing the method of using similar weights for opposing muscle groups will help the athlete’s shot put form. As the athlete becomes stronger, his or her form will improve and there will usually be better results (Expert). Works Cited

Elbow Muscles. 9 Dec. 2007. http://www. eatonhand. com/mus/mus093. htm. Expert Shot Put Tips. Life Tips. 9 Dec 2007. . Hay, J. G. (1993). Biomechanics of Sports Techniques, 4th edn. Englewood Cli? s, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Hubbard, Mont and John Scott. “Dependence of Release Variables in the Shot Put. ” http://www. elitetrack. com/shotput. pdf. Knee Joint- Anatomy and Function. The Center for Orthopaedics & Sports Medicine. 9 Dec. 2007. http://www. arthroscopy. com/sp05001. htm. Lichtenberg, D. B. and Wills, J. G. (1978). Maximizing the range of the shot put. American Journal of Physics, 46, 546± 549.

McGinnis, Peter M. Biomechanics of Sport and Exercise. 2nd ed. New York: College at Cortland, 2005. Quadriceps and Hamstrings. 9 Dec. 2007. . Shot Put Projection Angle. 1 Oct. 2007. Brunel University. 9 Dec. 2007. http://people. brunel. ac. uk/ ~spstnpl/BiomechanicsAthletics/ShotPut. htm. Shoulder Anatomy and Physiology. About. com. 9Dec. 2007. . Yeadon, F. R. (1998). Computer simulation in sports biomechanics. In Proceedings of the XVI International Symposium on_ Biomechanics in Sports _(edited by H. J. Riehle and M. M. Vieten), pp. 309± 318. Konstanz: UVKUniversitatsverlag Konstanz.

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