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Bluetooth Technology For Automatic Meter Reading Computer Science

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    In this chapter we will research more about how meter reading is done, the different type of techniques that exist to read metres, and automatic metre reading ; specially the usage of Bluetooth engineering for automatic metre reading. A universe broad position will be explored before we look to the context of Mauritius.


    A metre is a device that can observe and expose the exact measure of an component, substance or any quantifiable affair, may it be negatrons, H2O, gas, glucose and many others.

    There are many utilizations of metres and in many different sectors of our universe. For illustration, in wellness sector ; metres are used to mensurate the degree of glucose in the blood, to mensurate pulse rate, and many others. The public-service corporation sector, like gas, H2O or electricity companies, uses a really big Numberss of metres. These companies have to supervise the use of the resources used by their clients so that they can be charged for the sum they have used. There are besides other metres like: gauss metres, geomagnetic metres, microwave metres, and many more.

    As we have seen, there are many sectors in which metres are being used ; we can non concentrate our attending in all of them. So, we will concentrate our attempt in the public-service corporation sector, more specifically the 1 for electricity companies. Why this pick? Because Energy sector is a driving force in our universe and that many developments and progresss are thanks to electricity. So from here on we will concentrate our attending on that specific sphere.

    Types of metres

    There are many types of metres depending on the country of usage. The chief types of electric metres are:

    Electromechanical Induction Meter ( Standard Meter ) : It is a metre which counts the figure of bends an aluminum phonograph record does. The sum of electricity used is straight relative to the figure of revolutions of the aluminum phonograph record. The electricity is measured in kilowatt-hours and the rate of charge remains changeless all over the twenty-four hours. These types of metres are normally used on individual stage jumping current supply.

    Electronic Meters: These metres have an electronic show and do usage of radio engineerings like Bluetooth, GSM and GPRS to reassign information about electrical ingestion. They have inbuilt automatic detectors which helps to observe electrical energy larceny or metre meddling.

    Postpaid metres: are like the standard metres ; the lone difference is that, alternatively acquiring a measure at the terminal of the month, it is a wage as you use service. I.e. the consumer wages in progress for the electricity ingestion.

    Smart metre: These metres record the sum of electricity ingestion for a certain period of clip. The recorded information is so sent to the public-service corporation company for monitoring and charge intents. Smart metres can reassign informations from and to the metre, i.e. it is a two manner communicating.

    Meter reading

    Electric metres measure electricity largely in kilowatt hr ( kWh ) . One kilowatt hr is equal to the sum of energy used by a burden of one kW over a period of one hr, or 3,600,000 Js. The metre reading procedure is done sporadically, so that consumers can be billed for that period of clip. There are different methods used by different companies for metering. There are two ways that can be identified. Namely: the traditional manner and new techniques.

    The traditional manner, which uses the ‘standard metre ‘ , can be described as: The metre reader goes to the consumer ‘s topographic point. There, the metre reader reads the current value on the metre and note it down on the measure for the old electricity ingestion period. The measure is so given to the consumer. The metre reader will so come in the current value in the company ‘s system, so that the consumer can be billed for that current period.

    The new techniques, which uses, electronic and smart metre are as follows: The metre reader makes usage of new engineerings to read the metre value, and metres have an electronic show. There are many different new techniques used for metre reading, and they will be farther elaborated below.

    Automatic metre reading ( AMR )

    Automatic metre reading ( AMR ) , is the engineering where informations about ingestion and the position of the metre device is collected automatically. The information is sent to a cardinal database for it to be analysed and charging intent. Meters for H2O, gas, and electricity can utilize the AMR technique.

    With the utilizations of AMR, there can be one manner or bipartisan communicating. In the one manner communicating, question is done merely to cognize the reading value from the metre. Whereas in the two manner communicating ; maps can besides be implemented to the metre.

    Techniques for automatic metre reading

    There are several techniques for automatic metre reading ; some of them are listed below.

    Touch Technology

    In the touch engineering, a metre reader have a device, it may be a hand-held computing machine or specialised informations aggregation device. When the metre reader in close scope to the metre ; the latter imperativeness a button. A signal is sent house the device to the metre and the reading of the metre is saved on the device. That saved informations is downloaded to a information aggregation computing machine for charging intent. This technique is besides referred as “ on-site ” AMR, as the metre reader needs to travel on site to read the metre reading.

    Radio Frequency Network

    As its name suggest, the web uses wireless moving ridge to pass on with the metres. There are automatic reading systems which uses the wireless based engineering such Wi-Fi, ZigBee, Bluetooth and many others. Some of them are listed below.

    Handheld: a metre reader collects meter reading from metres which support AMR system. The metre reader carries a portable computing machine with a wireless frequence receiving system and transceiver which reads the metre readings value. [ 2 ]

    Mobile: it is besides referred to as “ drive-by ” is a technique where the metre reading device is installed in a vehicle. The metre reader needs merely to drive the vehicle along the way where the metres are found and the metre reading value is read automatically by the device installed in the vehicle. [ 2 ]

    Fixed web: it is a method where there is a web which is installed for good to read metre reading. The web consists of many repeaters, aggregators and a batch of other equipments so that values read are transferred to a cardinal database. This method does non necessitate the intercession of any human to read the metering value.

    Some clip a intercrossed AMR system is implemented so that when the fixed web goes down, the nomadic system come into action. [ 2 ]

    Measuring the traditional metre reading and AMR

    The advantage and disadvantage of both traditional metre reading and AMR techniques are listed in the tabular array below.

    Traditional Meter Reading



    Creation of occupation, as more people are needed to execute metre reading

    Social contact with consumers

    There can be error when reading the value.

    Difficult to observe fraud on metres.

    Some people consider the metre reader as an interloper in their privateness.

    Security of the individual executing the reading the individual may be attacked by Canis familiariss

    Table 2aˆ‘1: Traditional Meter Reading

    Automatic metre reading



    Enable larceny sensing.

    More accurate metre reading.

    Reduce runing cost.

    There is no demand to come in consumer ‘s belongings ( except for exceeding instances ) .

    If the system is down, charge will be affected.

    The usage of wireless moving ridges can be a beginning of concern to a minority of people

    Table 2aˆ‘2: AMR

    Existing system utilizing Automatic Meter reading

    There are many AMR systems implemented in many in different states and utilizing many of the different techniques listed above. Some of the bing AMR systems are listed:

    New Mexico Gas Company is utilizing the AMR service. This has greatly helped to better the working of the company. [ 4 ]

    “ The Ontario authorities introduced statute law on Nov. 3, 2005 to get down the procedure of acquiring “ smart metres ” into every place and little concern in the state by 2010 ” . [ 5 ]

    “ Meridian Energy has started replacing traditional electricity metres with new smart electricity metres which will put a new benchmark for electricity retailing in New Zealand ” [ 6 ]

    Existing system of Bluetooth enable metre reading

    There are some companies which are utilizing Bluetooth enabled metre for the reading of their metres, and there are some supplies of Bluetooth enabled metres. The subject is further developed below.

    Existing system

    “ Cambridge Consultants has delivered a paradigm design of a Bluetooth-based wireless faculty to the taking public-service corporation metering company, Actaris. Based on a single-chip Bluetooth device, the faculty provides new chances to drive down the cost of distant metering, leting metres to be wireless-enabled at really low cost and opening the door to high-integrity consumer-activated strategies. Consumers with Bluetooth nomadic phones, laptops or PDAs would hold the option of taking meter readings themselves and pass oning them to the public-service corporation company over the cyberspace or GSM. ” [ 7 ]

    Bluetooth enabled metres providers

    There are many providers of Bluetooth enabled metres. Some of the providers are listed below.

    Landis+Gyr, is a company which design and industries electricity metres. This company have besides design a Bluetooth reading system where they can read metres utilizing Bluetooth. [ 8 ]

    Figure 2aˆ‘1: Bluetooth reader [ 8 ]

    Metex Corporation limited is a company which is manufacture metre readers, and the company has metres with Bluetooth engineering. These metres can be used in an AMR system. [ 9 ]

    Current state of affairs in Mauritius

    In Mauritius, we have the Central Electricity Board ( CEB ) , Central Water Authority ( CWA ) and Waste Water Authority ( WMA ) as the chief public-service corporations companies. All these public-service corporations companies are utilizing the traditional manner for their charge intents. .I.e. a metre reader will travel place by place and read their several criterion metre.

    The CEB is making research on how to implement automatic metre reading and they have some electronic metres for proving intents. CEB has besides purpose to implement postpaid metres.

    The AMR system on which CEB is experimenting consist of metre which has a modem. Then a communicating is set with the modem and concerned informations is read. That information is used for the charge intent. As mentioned, the system is still at a proving stage, so a batch are still need to be done. To be able to implement AMR system all standard metres need to be changed to AMR supported metres, and metre readers need to be trained to be able to utilize the new system.

    Bluetooth Technology

    What isA Bluetooth?

    BluetoothA is a wireless engineering for short scope communications which was developed to replace the overseas telegrams linking devices, may it be fixed or portable 1s. Such devices are ; nomadic phones, pressmans, cameras, desktop computing machine, and many others. The BluetoothA engineering is a low power, low cost and maintains high degrees of security.

    “ Bluetooth engineering operates in the unaccredited industrial, scientific and medical ( ISM ) set at 2.4 to 2.485 GHz, utilizing a spread spectrum, frequence hopping, full-duplex signal at a nominal rate of 1600 hops/sec. ” [ 10 ]

    The Bluetooth Special Interest Group ( SIG ) , an organisation of several companies work together to keep and develop the Bluetooth engineering. [ 10 ]

    The name “ Bluetooth ” comes from Danish King Harold Bluetooth. He was influential in unifying warring cabals in parts of what is now Norway, Sweden and Denmark. [ 11 ]

    Bluetooth engineering can defy intervention from radio engineerings which uses the 2.4 GHz spectrum. Adaptive frequence hopping ( AFH ) of Bluetooth engineering detects other devices in the spectrum and avoid the frequence they are utilizing. [ 11 ]

    Harmonizing to Martin Reynolds, an analyst with Gartner Group ‘s Dataquest, “ The thing about Bluetooth is that it truly will transport in the one million millions of units once it additions momentum. It ‘s truly a multibillion-dollar market. ” [ 12 ]

    Bluetooth Logo

    Figure 2aˆ‘2: Bluetooth logo [ 13 ]

    Bluetooth scope

    Bluetooth wireless moving ridges use certain sum of energy and can goes up to a upper limit of certain diameter. The tabular array below show Bluetooth category and its bound up to where it can travel.


    Power usage ( mW )

    Range ( approximate ) in metres










    Table 2aˆ‘3: Bluetooth category scope

    BLUETOOTH Network

    There are two type of web:

    Piconet: is made up of one maestro and one or more slaves but merely up to a upper limit of seven active slaves at a clip. The device originating the connexion automatically becomes the maestro and is the maestro of the piconet. Slaves may non pass on straight with each other ; they can merely pass on with the maestro and transportation informations when they are granted transmittal clip by the latter. Slaves synchronize their frequence skiping with the maestro utilizing the maestro ‘s clock and Bluetooth reference.

    Figure 2aˆ‘3: Typical piconet [ 14 ]

    Scatternet: Multiple piconets with overlapping coverage countries form a scatternet. Each piconet may hold merely one maestro, but slaves may take part in different piconets on a time-division manifold footing. A device may be a maestro in one piconet and a slave in another or a slave in more than one piconet.

    Figure 2aˆ‘4: Typical scatternet [ 15 ]

    Bluetooth protocol tonss

    The Bluetooth protocol stack allows Bluetooth devices from different industries to work with one another. Some of Bluetooth protocol tonss

    A LMP ( Link Management Protocol ) ; configure and control links to other devices.

    A L2CAP ( Logical Link Control & A ; Adaptation Protocol ) ; links upper bed protocols over the Baseband and the passing on of quality of service information.

    RFCOMM ( Cable replacing protocol ) : protocol provides emulation of consecutive ports over the L2CAP protocol.

    A Service Discovery Protocol ; supply a manner for detecting services provided by or available through a Bluetooth device. It besides allows applications to cognize about the features of the services which are available.

    A HCI ( Host/Controller Interface ) ; entree the hardware position and control registry. It besides provides a bid interface to the Link Manager and Baseband Link Controller.

    Bluetooth wireless is a transceiver which transmits and receives modulated Bluetooth wireless moving ridges for the devices.

    Figure 2aˆ‘5: Bluetooth protocol tonss [ 15 ]

    Bluetooth profiles

    Bluetooth profiles help two devices which have the same profile to pass on with each other. Each Bluetooth device must back up at least one profile. There are a broad scope of Bluetooth profiles that explain many different types of applications.

    Generic Access Profile ( GAP ) : Provides the footing Bluetooth functionality for all profiles. Some of the functionalities are like puting up L2CAP links, managing security manners and ascertainable manners.

    Consecutive Port Profile ( SPP ) : Provides consecutive port ( RS-232 ) emulation based on the RFCOMM portion of the Bluetooth stack.

    Dial Up Networking Profile ( DUNP ) : Defines how to a Bluetooth device can be used as a Dial Up Networking gateway

    FAX Profile: Defines how a Bluetooth device can be used as a FAX gateway

    Headset Profile: Defines what is required to reassign audio e.g. a wireless Bluetooth headset

    LAN Access Point Profile: Defines how a Bluetooth device can be used as a LAN entree point

    Generic Object Exchange Profile ( GOEP ) : Provides support for the OBjext EXchange ( OBEX ) protocol over Bluetooth links

    Object Push Profile: Defines how to interchange vCard and vCalendar objects, based on the GOEP

    File Transfer Profile: Defines functionality of how to voyage through booklets and copying, canceling or making a file or booklet on a Bluetooth device, based on the GOEP.

    Figure 2aˆ‘6: Bluetooth Profiles [ 16 ]


    Short transmittal scope up to a upper limit of 100 metres with category 1.

    Low Power: Bluetooth takes comparatively low power, therefore it is suited for devices with restricted battery capacity.

    Interoperability: as it have standardised protocols.

    Robustness: capable of operating in an environment strongly where there are many other wireless moving ridges

    Technologies for developing the system

    There are many stage for the development of a system and there are many tools available for their development. Two classs can be identified for a system ; hardware and package. The hardware portion is the portion that can be hold by custodies and travel if it is portable. The package portion can be seen as the 1 who make the hardware works right. Without the package, the hardware can non be used to the full.

    Programing linguistic communication

    There are a series of programming linguistic communications that are available to coders to code systems. Each scheduling linguistic communication has an country of application where it is better. Some of the scheduling linguistic communications are listed below.


    Java is transverse platform and GNU General Public LicenseA programming linguistic communication. Java is an object-oriented, class-based, all-purpose, and coincident linguistic communication. It is intended to allow application developers “ write one time, run anyplace ” . Java programming linguistic communications is used in many systems runing from applications package to net applications. Java can be usage for Bluetooth programming. Java Communication Process ( JCP ) developed JSR 82, Java API for Bluetooth, so that Bluetooth enabled devices can be code easy utilizing J2ME.

    Integrated development environment ( IDE ) aid to code with Java, some illustrations are:


    The NetBeans IDE is written in Java and needs JVM tally. It can run on different runing system like Windows, Mac OS, Linux, and Solaris. A JDK is required for the functionality of Java development. Netbeans besides has a GUI design tool that aid developers to plan GUIs.


    Eclipse was largely written in Java and can be used to develop java application. There are a batch of circuit board which helps to for development.


    J2ME is Java platform used to code embedded devices, like nomadic phones. Java ME beginning codification is licensed under the GNU General Public License. J2ME can be use to code systems with wireless connexion.

    C scheduling linguistic communication

    C is a all-purpose computing machine programming linguistic communication that can run on many platforms. C can be usage for developing portable application package.


    Python is a multi-paradigm scheduling linguistic communication and it is transverse platform, i.e. it can work on different operation systems. Python can be usage for Bluetooth scheduling.

    Ocular Basic.Net ( VB.Net )

    Ocular BASIC is implemented on.Net model. VB.Net was designed by Microsoft and it is an object oriented linguistic communication.

    Relational Database Management System ( RDMS )

    Some of RDMS are listed below:


    MySQL is a relational database direction system which is released under the GNU General Public License. It offers multi-user entree to databases and it is transverse platform package.


    PostgreSQL is an object-relational database direction system ( ORDBMS ) and it is released under PostgreSQL License. Thus it can be modified and distributed in any signifier desired.

    Web Server

    A Web waiter is responsible to treat users ‘ petition and answer back. The answers are chiefly HyperText Markup Language ( HTML ) paperss. Web waiters are chiefly used T host Web sites.

    Apache HTTP Server

    Apache HTTP Server is a Web waiter which is licensed under Apache License 2.0, which means that it is an unfastened beginning HTTP waiter. It is platform independent, extremely secure and efficient.

    Internet Information Server ( IIS )

    IIS was created and is owned by Microsoft. There is demand to purchase it license to utilize it.

    Web Development Tools

    There are many server side scripting linguistic communications that are used. Some of them are listed below:


    PHP ( Hypertext Preprocessor ) is a all-purpose scripting linguistic communication that was designed for web development so as to hold dynamic web pages. PHP can work on most waiters and runing system.


    ASP.NET allows coders to construct dynamic web pages, web services and web application. It is a web application model developed and marketed by Microsoft.


    Some of the hardware that can be used is listed below.

    Mobile phone

    Mobile rivers phones have become a common electronic device. It offers many options than merely do call and send messages. Nowadays we can entree the Internet via nomadic phones, and there are many applications that where developed on nomadic phone. New coevals Mobile phones are equipped with camera and Bluetooth.

    Laptop/ Computers

    Computer is like the tool that enables coders to work. All most all scheduling linguistic communications, non to state all, can work on computing machines. They are besides equipped with many wireless devices like Wi-Fi and Bluetooth.

    Embedded devices

    There are embedded devices that are designed specifically to make certain things. Some illustrations are: MP3 participant, rinsing machines, Bluetooth metre reader, and many others.

    Evaluation of Tools

    Programing linguistic communication

    The scheduling linguistic communication is what will assist to do the package. Each scheduling linguistic communication has positive and negative points depending on the type of package that need to be developed. The pros and cons of certain scheduling linguistic communications are listed below.




    Offer better networking capableness

    Available on assorted platforms

    J2ME applications are portable

    Rich user interface

    Robust security characteristics.

    There is a broad scope of Mobiles which support Java, therefore holding broad scope of nomadic phone that can be used.

    Midlet can non entree all native resources without mandate.

    Application need to accommodate for phones which have different CLDC, MIDP, JSR and Bluetooth.

    Table 3aˆ‘4: J2ME




    Java codification can work on many different platforms.

    Java is unafraid, robust and dependable.

    Java provides usage of multithreading.

    Java is object oriented and allows creative activity of modular plans and reclaimable codification.

    Java have an API for Bluetooth programming

    Java is slower and consumes more memory when compared to linguistic communications such as C or C++ .

    Table 3aˆ‘5: Java

    Web Waiters

    Web waiters are what will enable the informations to be entree over a web in a convenient manner. There are a batch of web waiters, some of them are described below.




    Apache is unfastened and therefore can be customised easy harmonizing to demands

    Multi-platform. It runs on a broad assortment of runing systems, including all discrepancies of UNIX, Windows 9x/NT, and Mac OS

    Apache is non on a regular basis updated

    Requires more proficient cognition to put in and configure

    Table 3aˆ‘6: Apache

    Iraqi intelligence service



    GUI manner installing.

    Plants with a broad scope of runing systems and browsers.

    Beginning codification is proprietary.

    Can merely work within Windows environment.

    Table 3aˆ‘7: Iraqi intelligence service

    Web Development Languages

    Web development linguistic communication will be used to code for application at server side. There is a broad pool of linguistic communication that is available. Some of them are listed below with their some of their pros and cons.




    PHP is free and easy to utilize.

    PHP aid to interact with database easy.

    Can back up many runing systems, like Windows, Linux and Mac OS.

    PHP engine demand to be installed on waiter to utilize PHP.

    Debuging can be drawn-out for complex plan.

    Table 3aˆ‘8: PHP




    ASP.NET codification is compiled at waiter before being sent to the browser ; therefore faster.

    ASP.NET pages are simple to compose and can get by with heavy traffic without impacting public presentation adversely

    ASP.NET runs on merely windows platform.

    ActiveX objects are platform specific, therefore it will non work easy on many Web waiters.

    Table 3aˆ‘9: ASP.Net


    Relational Database Management System ( RDMS ) will be used to hive away all informations. It is really of import as all sensitive informations will be at that place and informations will be used to make charging aim.




    Easy to utilize.

    Free and Open beginning system.

    Runs on a scope of different platforms.

    Can manage big sets of informations.

    It is unafraid. Passwords are encrypted

    Recovery of database is non guaranteed in instance of a power cut.

    Operates over known IP ports which facilitate the undertaking of interlopers

    Table 3aˆ‘10: MySQL




    It is a free and Open beginning package

    PostgreSQL can work on different platform

    PostgreSQL is really scalable and extensile

    It is slow compared to MySQL

    Lacks binary distribution for all the supported platforms.

    Table 3aˆ‘11: PostgresSQL

    Choice of Final Tools

    Java is appropriate for the desktop application as it can work on many different platforms and have an API for Bluetooth.

    J2ME is used for the nomadic application development as many nomadic phones can back up Java and have an API for Bluetooth.

    Bluecove API for Bluetooth programming as it is unfastened beginning and support Java.

    PHP will be used for the web application as it is free and easy to interact with database.

    MySQL is more suited for database system as it is free and work good with Web waiters.


    The design subdivision gives an overview of the construction of the package and architecture of the system. It besides includes the informations involved, the interfaces between system constituents, algorithm and protocol to be used for the system execution.

    System Design Issues

    Several system design issues like public presentation, quality of service, mistake tolerance, and security, which are of import in the design of a system, are discussed below.

    Performance Issues

    The public presentation issues are concerned with the restriction of computing machines in term of treating power and communicating capacities. These issues can be described in the followerss ways:

    Responsiveness: It is how fast the system processes given input to give an end product. The usage of weaving allows multiple undertakings to treat at the same time. Togss can be used for processor intensive procedure. Togss can be implemented in Java Environment.

    Applications running on webs depend greatly on the burden and public presentation of waiters and besides the web burden itself. Server and web burden reconciliation can be used to forestall them from being overloaded. Such technique is beyond the range of this undertaking. When utilizing the Internet, there is a chance of communicating holds and informations being corrupted, this beyond of one ‘s control.

    Throughput: It is of the system corresponds to the sum of informations transmitted between the client and waiter in a given clip interval.

    On a radio web is takes a long clip to set up connexion between the waiter and the client and the latency clip of HTTP is significantly high. So, the figure of HTTP unit of ammunition trips in the application must be kept to the rigorous lower limit.


    Robustness is the ability of the system to run in the presence of wrong input or header with mistakes when the system is running.

    Validations check like length cheque and informations type look into can be used to forestall incorrect input and gimmick mistakes where shared resources are being accessed.


    Interaction with the system can be in many different ways. Data or bid input to the system will do it bring forth certain consequence. Some of the ways that can interact with the system are listed below.

    The usage of graphical user interface ( GUI ) to ease user to pass on with the system.

    Supplying options and bill of fares where possible alternatively of typing informations.

    Users utilizing the nomadic application demand to come in informations via phone computer keyboard.

    Use of meaningful icons, so that user can interact rapidly with the system.


    The web application can back up multiple users at a clip and can have and treat multiple petitions a clip. The system must be able to get by if there is important addition in the figure of users and extra resources can be added if needed to.


    The nomadic application can be run on Java enabled Mobiles phones which support MIDP 2.0. The web application can run on multiples types of waiters.

    Limit size of JAR file

    The nomadic application has limited resources to utilize. So the application is obfuscated to cut down its size. The bewilderment procedure helps to take fresh categories and libraries.

    Mistake, Exception Handling and Fault Tolerance

    The application should go on to work right in presence of package, hardware and web mistakes. Mistakes will be caught in try-catch blocks to alarm user of the mistake.


    Security is one of the focal point of a system. There is no system on Earth which can be tagged as impenetrable. What can be done is, to do the system less vulnerable to onslaughts. The system needs to protect informations from unauthorised users. The ways to protect the system is listed below.

    Users need a username and watchword to be able to entree the system. User will be identified and authenticated before they can utilize the system.

    The database will be protected with watchword.

    Architectural Design

    In this subdivision, the different constituents of the system are illustrated and how they interact between them.

    Overall Architecture

    The system is made up of three chief constituents: the metre, the nomadic application and the waiter application. The nomadic application will be used to read a value via Bluetooth from the metre and will direct that value via nomadic web operator to the waiter. The connexion between the Mobile and the waiter is done via wireless connexion such as GPRS, WAP, EDGE or Wi-Fi.

    The metre will be a fake metre on a laptop that will be accessed via Bluetooth by a nomadic application.

    The waiter will be used to host the web site and connect to the database. That database will be used to hive away all information needed.

    The figure below shows the overall architecture.

    Figure 4aˆ‘7: Overall architecture

    Detailed architecture

    Figure 4aˆ‘8: Component diagram

    Communication Design

    The communicating design is based on issues when client application and the waiter communicate to interchange information and the protocol used for the information transmittal.

    Communication Protocol

    Hypertext Transfer Protocol ( HTTP ) will be used as communicating protocol between the client and the waiter. The HTTP protocol is a request-response protocol. Client send petition with some parametric quantities to the waiter and the latter will answer to that petition.

    The Bluetooth protocol, wireless frequence communicating ( RFCOMM ) will be used to pass on between the metre and the nomadic application. RFCOMM is a simple conveyance protocol which offers dependable informations watercourse

    Inactive mold

    Class diagram

    & lt ; Class diagram & gt ;

    Dynamic mold

    Activity diagram

    Activity diagram show a graphical representation of the way activities can take and any loop or determinations along the way.

    Read a metre value

    Figure 4aˆ‘9: Read meter value

    Administrator login to net application

    Figure 4aˆ‘10: Administrator entree web application

    Meter reader alteration username/password

    Figure 4aˆ‘11: Meter reader alteration username/password


    The execution procedure is where the codifications are written for the system. The different facets of the analysis and design stage are applied in this subdivision to run into both analysis and design demands. This chapter includes standard and conventions to be used during the cryptography procedure and sample codifications. There is besides a development program to demo the probationary clip that different faculties will take to code.

    Execution Issues

    Different issues like public presentation, dependability and security, demand to be considered during the nidation stage. These issues will after the system greatly and will act upon user experience.


    Performance can be a step of the system ‘s reactivity and throughput


    The architecture of the system is a client and server one. The client sends informations to the waiter which processes it and replies back the client. All petition made to the waiter are attended and replied back. Equally shortly as attested users change their username or watchword, the database will be updated instantly. When reading values are received, an entry will be made to the database immediately.


    The informations transportation rate between the metre and the nomadic application will depend upon the environment where it is being executed. But if there is no obstruction the information rate will be that of Bluetooth. When informations will be transferred from nomadic application to the waiter, the transportation rate will depend on which radio engineering the nomadic application is utilizing.


    Each subdivision will be utilizing different protocols depending on what it is intended to make.

    Between the metre and the nomadic application, Bluetooth is being used as transmittal medium and the protocol is RFCOMM.

    HTTP protocol is being used to reassign informations between nomadic application and waiter, and besides between clients and server application.

    Standards and Conventions

    It is easier to read and understand codifications when they are written in an elegant and consistent manner. Standards and convention aid to hold a standard manner for coders to compose codification for different constituents of the system. It besides facilitates plan care. Some of the conventions used are listed below.

    Naming conventions

    Naming conventions helps to hold a criterion when calling identifies and plan codifications are easier to read. Identifiers should hold meaningful names that reflect what they are used for. The tabular array below shows the criterion for calling identifiers.

    Naming conventions for identifiers

    Identifier Type

    Naming Convention



    Class Name

    Title Case

    The first missive of each word capitalized



    Upper Case

    Should be all uppercase with words separated by underlines ( “ _ ” )



    Assorted Case

    The first missive small letter, with the first missive of each word capitalized.

    show ( )


    Assorted Case

    First word in lower instance and the staying words capitalized.


    Naming convention for objects

    The interfaces have several objects and appellative conventions are needed for these objects. The tabular array below shows the appellative conventions for the objects.


    Naming Convention





    Test Field



    Command button



    Combo box



    Coding Convention

    It is of import to do codification as clear as possible when composing the codifications. To accomplish this codification convention is used.


    Indentation helps to better readability and lucidity.


    Identifiers are declared at the beginning of each category or category block. One identifier is declared per line so that can add remarks next to it.


    Remarks have been used where necessary to assist to understand the codification, to cognize what a map is used for, or to cognize the intent an identifier.

    Version tracking

    Software version is used to track the most recent version of package. The highest figure is the most recent one.

    Developments environment and Tools

    This subdivision consists of the hardware and package tools inside informations that are used to develop the different faculties of the system.

    Hardware Specifications

    The list of hardware used is listed below.

    Laptop Computer

    Mobile Telephones

    The laptop computing machine was used to develop and prove the package, whereas the Mobiles phones were used to prove the nomadic application.

    The tabular array below provides an overview of the hardware specifications of the laptop computing machine used.




    Intel Core i3 2.2Ghz


    3 GB DDR3

    Hard Disk

    320 GB


    802.11b/g/n, Dell Wireless 365 Bluetooth 2.1

    The tabular array below shows the specification of the nomadic phones used for the proper development of the nomadic application


    Nokia 3500c

    MIDP Version


    CLDC Version





    Nokia S40

    Wireless Connection



    Software Specification

    Several package have been used for implementing the assorted portion of the system.

    Software Component


    Operating System

    Microsoft Windows 7 32-bit

    Java Development

    Java 2 Platform Enterprise Edition 6 Software Development Kit ( JDK 6.0 )

    J2SE Runtime Environment ( JRE 6 )


    Version 2.1.0


    Version 2.0

    Web Development

    PHP 5.3.5, MySQL 5.5.8


    Netbeans 6.9.1

    Other Tools

    PhpMyAdmin 3.3.9

    Development Procedure

    Execution Detailss


    A metre will be simulated so that its reading can be read by the nomadic application. The metre will be moving as the waiter in the Bluetooth web. The nomadic application will entree it and read the value. Sample codifications of the metre waiter connexion are shown below.

    //Create the servicve URL

    Stringing connectionString = “ btspp: //localhost: ” + uuid + ” ; name= ” +myMeterName ;

    //open waiter URL

    StreamConnectionNotifier streamConnNotifier = ( StreamConnectionNotifier ) ( connectionString ) ;

    Mobile application

    The nomadic application will be used to read the metre reading from the metre. The nomadic application will move as client in the Bluetooth web and will entree the metre which will be moving as the waiter. After that the metre reading is read, the value is sent to the waiter. Sample codifications of the nomadic application connexion to the waiter are shown below.

    A A A //A OpenA anA HTTPA ConnectionA object

    A A A A A A httpConnA =A ( HttpConnection ) ( url ) ;

    A A A A A A //A SetupA HTTPA RequestA toA POST

    A A A A A A httpConn.setRequestMethod ( HttpConnection.POST ) ;

    A A A A A A httpConn.setRequestProperty ( “ User-Agent ” ,

    A A A A A A A A ” Profile/MIDP-1.0A Confirguration/CLDC-1.0 ” ) ;

    A A A A A A httpConn.setRequestProperty ( “ Accept_Language ” , ” en-US ” ) ;

    A A A A A A

    A A A A A A httpConn.setRequestProperty ( “ Content-Type ” , A ” application/x-www-form-urlencoded ” ) ;

    Server application

    The waiter application will have informations from the nomadic application and salvage that information to the database. Sample codifications of the connexion to the database are show below.

    //mySQL connexion twine

    $ conn=mysql_connect ( $ hostname, $ db_user, $ db_pwd ) ;

    if ( ! $ conn )


    dice ( ‘Could non link: ‘.mysql_error ( ) ) ;


    //select database

    $ db=mysql_select_db ( $ database, $ conn ) ;

    if ( ! $ dubnium )


    dice ( ‘Could non choose database: ‘.mysql_error ( ) ) ;



    The database is used to hive away informations for the proper running of the system. It shops data about metres, clients, metre readers and readings. A screenshot of the metre reader tabular array from the database is show below.

    Mistake handling and mistake tolerance

    The system has been designed in such a manner that it catches human made mistakes and shows an mistake message. Error like, if user has wrongly input informations, the user will be notified of the mistake. However, unexpected system mistakes besides can happen and this portion, the system will take attention of advising the user. Some of the mistakes that may happen are listed below.

    If user has entered the incorrect username or watchword in the nomadic application, an mistake message will be displayed.

    AlertA errorA =A newA Alert ( “ LoginA Incorrect ” , A ” PleaseA tryA once more ” , A nothing, A AlertType.ERROR ) ;

    error.setTimeout ( Alert.FOREVER ) ;

    If there is any input end product mistake, it will be caught ; the sample codification is show below.

    } gimmick ( IOException e ) {

    System.out.println ( “ IOException: “ + e.getMessage ( ) ) ;


    Integration and Testing

    Testing is a procedure to analyze how the package works with existent universe informations, to analyze the end product from the package and expression for any anomalousnesss with it. The proving procedure helps to happen mistakes, non their absence.

    White Box Testing

    White box proving depends on the codification logic and the plan construction. In this type of proving, the plan codifications are studied and every possible way in the plan is tested at least one time. One weak point of this type of proving is that it will non observe if there are maps losing.

    Black Box Testing

    Black box proving considers the plan as a black box, into which informations are input and from which the end product are displayed. The trial informations are derived by analyzing what the plan is supposed to make. Blacken box testing was used to prove the system.

    The proving procedure is an iterative one ; the different phases need to be retested when a alteration is made to in one of the phases. The different phases can be classified in five parts ; unit testing, faculty testing, sub-system testing, system proving and credence testing.

    Unit of measurement testing: the single constituents of the system are tested.

    Module testing: aggregations of dependent constituents are tested.

    Sub-system testing: aggregations of faculties which have been combined into sub-system are tested.

    System proving: all the subsystems which are related are added together to do the whole system and so the full system is tested.

    Credence testing: the user that will utilize the system will prove it will existent life informations.

    Unit of measurement proving

    Module proving

    Sub-system testing

    Acceptance proving

    System proving

    Figure 6aˆ‘12: phases in package proving

    Unit of measurement proving

    The system has different constituents and they implemented individually. These constituents have been tested separately. Unit proving aid to hold error free constituents which will be utile when executing the integrating. Unit proving have been performed on the different constituents and any mistake found was corrected.

    Faculty and sub-system testing

    The different constituents have been grouped into faculties which have so been integrated in sub systems. Below are the trial instances of some of the faculties.

    Login sub-system trial instance

    Test ID


    Expected Consequence



    Blank username and watchword

    Error message: Username can non be clean

    Base on balls


    Invalid username and watchword

    Error message: Incorrect username or watchword. Please seek once more

    Base on balls


    Invalid username and correct watchword

    Error message: Incorrect username or watchword. Please seek once more

    Base on balls


    Correct username and invalid watchword

    Error message: Incorrect username or watchword. Please seek once more

    Base on balls


    Correct username and watchword

    Main bill of fare is shown

    Base on balls

    Register metre reader sub-system

    Test ID


    Expected Consequence


    All field are clean

    Error message: First name can non be clean

    Base on balls

    Input correct informations

    Data saved to database

    Base on balls

    Edit reference

    reference is updated and saved to database

    Base on balls

    Change password sub-system

    Test ID


    Expected Consequence


    Both watchword does non fit

    Error message: Password does non fit

    Base on balls

    Input correct informations

    Password updated

    Base on balls


    The different faculties which have been integrated into sub-system demand now to be integrated to organize the full system. There are two type of integrating ; Top-down attack and Bottom-up attack.

    Top down attack

    In this method, the integrating and proving start at the highest degree and goes down to the lower degree one by one. The tendency is from top goes towards the underside, the lowest degrees are usually faculties.

    Degree 2

    Degree 2

    Degree 1

    Bottom up attack

    In this method, the lowest constituents are tested foremost and so added up to following degree and tested once more. The tendency is from underside to the top, where the top is the highest level..

    Degree 2

    Degree 2

    Degree 1

    The system is designed and implemented faculties by faculties, therefore the underside up integrating will be best.

    Integration proving

    When incorporating sub-modules together, mistakes can originate. Integration proving can take topographic point when all the sub-modules have been tested and are error free. It ensures that sub-systems can work together right. The integrating of the system was successful, there were some little mistakes, but they were tackled.

    System proving

    All the sub-systems are integrated to do the full system. Below a trial was done to read a value signifier the metre and sent that value to the database.

    The login screen

    Searching for metres

    Meter is chosen and the value sent and saves in database.


    This undertaking has helped me to work within restricted clip and to run into deadlines. It has besides helped to increase my cognition about assorted engineerings like Java, PHP and Bluetooth. This undertaking has given me an penetration of how undertakings are developed and its different phases. I hope that this system can function as a theoretical account and that some of its principal can be used to use to other sectors.

    Critical Appraisal

    In this subdivision, the demands of the system are checked with those implemented to do certain that the system has been developed right and wholly.

    Undertaking Accomplishments

    Functional Requirement Assessment

    Non-Functional Requirements Appraisal






    Mobile application and server respond rapidly



    Both nomadic and server application is easy to utilize



    The waiter can get by with multiple connexions.



    The system is ever available when waiter is on.



    The waiter can manage a big figure of coincident procedures



    Mistakes have been taken attention of.



    Server can run on many platforms. Any Java enabled nomadic phone with MIDP 2.0 can back up the nomadic application.



    Merely valid users can utilize the system



    Bluetooth entree point has non been protected. Access to net application has been protected with login.

    Critical Analysis of the system

    In this subdivision, the strength and failing of the system that has been listed.


    The usage of AJAX engineering makes the web site more synergistic and gives faster responses as no page reloading is necessary in most instances.

    The system provides robust security through the usage of hallmark.

    The client is J2ME-based and can therefore be installed on a big scope of devices.

    Bluetooth engineering aid to protect the metre, as the individual need to be in a scope of 10 metres with the metre to be able to try any onslaught on it.

    Failings of the system

    If the web operator system clangs, no reading can be done

    If the waiter clangs there is no backup waiter.

    Bluetooth entree point is at hazard.

    Future Works

    The system could be enhanced in assorted ways in the hereafter:

    Cater for different waiters, in instance one is down, the system can work.

    Save reading to the phone memory, and send the information when web available.

    Work different nomadic platform

    Use of new versions of Bluetooth.

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