British Premier and German Chancellor

Table of Content

“In parliamentary governments the head of state and the chief executive are two separate offices.(…) Many times the head of state functions in a primarily ceremonial role, while the chief executive is the head of the nation’s legislature. The most striking difference between presidential and parliamentary systems is in the election of the chief executive.

In parliament systems, the chief executive is not chosen by the people but by the legislature. Typically the majority party in the parliament chooses the chief executive, known as the Prime Minister. However, in some parliaments there are so many parties represented that none hold a majority. Parliament members must decide among themselves whom to elect as Prime Minister. Party members in parliaments almost always vote strictly along party lines” (Parliamentary versus Presidential 11-17).
In general, the prime minister holds both a dual role: he or she is a member and chairman of the collegiate body called the Council of Ministers or Cabinet, which sets the policy direction of government; he or she is the body that directs the actions of ministers to coordinate and maintain the unity of the government’s political direction.

The Prime Minister chooses the other members of the government and gives them the ministerial portfolio: in some systems he or she formally appoints them, in others the formal appointment is for the head of state on his or her proposal in fact binding. In the same way members of the government may revoke or change their portfolios. It should be added that in some systems (e.g. Italy) in the joint departments of the administration is predetermined by law, so that the prime minister can only decide the names of the owners, while in other systems (such as the British one), however, the Prime Minister also has the power to alter this articulation.
It is also responsible to the Prime Minister, directly or through its proposal to the head of state, the appointments of other prominent state and,.

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