the autonomic nervous system controls all of the following except the __________.
skeletal muscle in the rectus abdominis
autonomic nervous system fibers are involved in all of the following except__________.
maintaining tonicity of the muscles of the neck
which one of the following best describes the order of a visceral reflex?
sensory receptor-afferent nerve fiber-interneuron-efferent nerve fiber-gland
which of the following statements is true regarding parasympathetic tone?
it holds the resting heart rate below its intrinsic rate.
sympathetic nerve fibers are not associated with situations involving _________.
the background rate of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity is called__________.
the neurotransmitter(s) associated with autonomic ganglia is (are) _________.
the effect of autonomic fibers on target cells is _______. the effect of somatic fibers on target cells is _________.
excitatory or inhibitory; always excitatory
which of the following is true regarding the autonomic nervous system?
its denervation would cause hypersensitivity
in response to high blood pressure, stretch receptors called _________ in the walls of arteries carrying blood to the head, will trigger a reflex that causes the heart to _______ its beats per minute.
the motor pathway of the autonomic nervous system usually involves _________ neurons.
preganglionic fibers run from the ________to the ________.
gray matter; autonomic ganglia
preganglionic fibers of the autonomic efferent pathway are ________ and secrete __________.
myelinated; acetylcholine (ACh)
which of the following is not a reason that somatic reflexes act faster than visceral reflexes?
the effector organs in the somatic reflex are closer to the spinal cord
most fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system travel in the __________.
Sympathetic fibers arise only from the _________ region(s) of the spinal cord.
thoracic and lumbar
the sympathetic chain of ganglia is found at the ________ levels of the spinal cord.
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal
which of the following is not a feature of the sympathetic division of the ANS?
it has long preganglionic fibers
which of the following is not a characteristic of the parasympathetic division of the ANS?
it has short preganglionic fibers
which of the following structures releases neurotransmitter in a paravertebral ganglion?
preganglionic sympathetic fiber
which of the following structures is not associated with the autonomic nervous system?
most preganglionic fibers in the sympathetic nervous system synapse with _________.
10-20 postganglionic neurons
the solar plexus is used as a name for the _________.
the celiac and mesenteric ganglia
the adrenal medulla secretes mostly ____________.
the parasympathetic division arises from the ________ regions of the spinal cord.
brain and sacral
damage to the __________ may affect near vision accommodation.
oculomotor nerve (CN III)
white rami carry _________ neurons, while gray rami carry _______ neurons.
myelinated preganglionic; unmyelinated postganglionic
which of the following is not a characteristic of the enteric nervous system?
its reflex arcs are associated with the spinal cord
if a cell has a1 adrenergic receptors, it is sensitive to __________.
which of the following is not under dual control of the ANS?
adrenal medulla activity
propranolol, a beta-blocker, is typically used to ________.
decrease hear rate
which of the following is more effective in producing bronchodilation?
muscarinic receptors bind __________.
the binding of __________ to a nicotinic receptor of a muscle fiber will __________it.
atropine is sometimes used to dilate the pupil for an eye examination. which receptor would atropine block?
antagonistic effects of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system are exemplified in the control of ___________.
__________ is an example of the cooperative effect between the two autonomic nervous system divisions.
sympathetic fibers do not release __________.
nitric oxide (NO)
sympathetic effects tend to last _______than parasympathetic effects. one reason is that _________.
longer; norepinephrine can diffuse into the bloodstream without being broken down.
the enzyme that breaks down norepinephrine (NE) is called ___________.
monoamine oxidase (MAO)
a neuron that synapses in the adrenal medulla is a ____________ neuron, and releases the neurotransmitter ___________.
preganglionic; acetylcholine (ACh)
drugs that are monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors would most likely __________.
decrease the amount of NE destroyed and may be used as an antidepressant
a possible explanation for the effect of caffeine is that it blocks the receptor for a neuromodulator in the brain called ____________, which inhibits ACh release by cholinergic neurons.
which one of the following is made up of primarily adrenergic fibers?
postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division
the _________ is an especially important center of autonomiccontrol.
autonomic function receives input from all these except ______________.
___________nerve(s) pass(es) throughout sympathetic ganglia without synapsing.
which of the following is associated with the “fight-or-flight” reaction?
reduced urinary output