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Chapter 15 Test

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    The term general senses refers to sensitivity to all of the following, except
    Taste
    Which of the following is not one of the special senses?
    Vibration
    The general senses
    Involve receptors that are relatively simple in a structure
    Which of the following can contribute to receptor specificity?
    The structure of the receptor cell, characteristics of the receptor cell membrane, accessory cells that function with the receptor, and accessory structures and tissues that shield the receptors from other stimuli
    Sensory transduction can involve which of the following?
    A stimulus altering the permeability of a receptor membrane, change in the flow of ions across the sensory membrane,the production f a receptor potential, and inhibition of neurotransmitter release
    Central adaptation refers to
    Inhibition of nuclei located along a sensory pathway
    Our perception of our environment is imperfect for all of the following reasons, except that
    Receptors respond in an all-or-nothing manner.
    Which of the following is sometimes called “prickling pain”?
    Fast pain
    Endorphins can reduce perception of sensations initiated by
    Nociceptors
    Thermoreceptors
    Are found within the dermis, are free nerve endings, and for “cold” are structurally indistinguishable from those for “warm”
    A receptor that contains many mechanically gated ion channels would function best as a
    Tactile receptor
    A fast-adapting mechanoreceptor in the papillary layer of the dermis that responds to fine touch is a
    Tactile (meissner) corpuscle
    Receptors that monitor the position of joints belong to the category called
    Proprioceptors
    Mechanoreceptors that respond to changes in blood pressure are called
    Baroreceptors
    Tactile receptors composed of capsules that surround a core of collagen fibers intertwined with dendrites are called
    Ruffini corpuscles
    A tactile receptor composed of highly coiled dendrites that are surrounded by modified Schwann cells and a fibrous capsule is a
    Tactile (Meissner) corpuscle
    A very large, fast-adapting tactile receptor that is composed of a single dendrite enclosed by concentric layers of collagen is a
    Lamellated corpuscle
    A highly sensitive tactile receptor composed of dendritic processes of a single myelinated fiber that makes contact with specialized cells of the stratum germinativum is a
    Tactile (merkel) disc
    A fast-adapting tactile receptor that monitors movements across the body surface is a
    Root hair plexus
    Which of the following kinds of information do fine-touch and light-pressure mechanoreceptors provide?
    Location, shape, texture, and movement of the stimulus
    Which of the following is not a property of thermoreceptors?
    Tonic response to temperature change
    Chemoreceptors are located in all of the following, except
    In the skin
    Which ascending tract carries the sensations for fine touch and vibration?
    Posterior (dorsal) column
    The spinal tract that carries sensations from proprioceptors to the CNS is the
    Spinocerebellar
    The spinal tract that relays information concerning pain and temperature to the CNS is the
    Lateral spinothalamic
    The spinal tract that relays information concerning crude touch and pressure to the CNS is the
    Anterior spinothalamic
    Each of the following is an ascending tract in the spinal cord, except the
    Reiculospinal tract
    The afferent neuron that carries the sensation to the CNS is a ________ neuron.
    First-order
    Examples of sensory modalities include
    Touch, warmth, smell, and vibration
    Thalamic neurons that project to the primary sensory cortex are ________ neurons.
    Third-order
    Only about ________ percent of the information provided by afferent fibers reaches the cerebral cortex and our awareness.
    1
    Neurons from the nucleus gracilis
    Decussate before entering the medial lemniscus.
    We can localize sensations that originate in different areas of the body because
    Sensory neurons from specific body regions project to specific cortical regions
    The descending spinal tract that crosses to the opposite side of the body within the cord is the ________ tract
    Anterior corticospinal
    The descending spinal tract that crosses to the opposite side of the body within the medulla oblongata is the ________ tract.
    Lateral corticospinal
    The spinal tract that normally plays a minor role in the control of the distal muscles of the arms is the ________ tract
    Rubrospinal
    The spinal tract that unconsciously maintains balance and muscle tone is the ________ tract
    Vestibulospinal
    The medial pathway that controls involuntary movements of head, neck, and arm position in response to sudden visual and auditory stimuli is the ________ tract
    Tectospinal
    The pyramidal system provides
    Voluntary control over skeletal muscles
    The corticospinal system is often referred to as the
    Pyramidal system
    The area of the motor cortex that is devoted to a particular region of the body is proportional to the
    Number of motor units in that region
    Axons of the corticobulbar tract terminate in the
    Motor nuclei of cranial nerves
    Based on the motor homunculus, which of the following body regions has the largest motor units?
    Back
    The pyramids on the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata are formed by fibers of the ________ tracts
    Corticospinal
    Axons that decussate between the pyramids of the medulla oblongata belong to the ________ tracts.
    Lateral corticospinal
    The upper motor neurons of the medial pathway are located within any of the following, except the
    Mamillary bodies
    Tracts of the lateral and medial pathways include all of the following, except ________ tracts.
    Cortiospinal
    A brain injury to a patient results in facial paralysis. Which descending tract is most likely affected?
    Corticobublbar tract
    The basal nuclei
    Provide the background patterns of movement involved in voluntary motor activities
    Complex motor activities such as riding a bicycle
    Require the coordinated activity of several regions of the brain
    Damage to the pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex would directly affect
    Voluntary motor activity
    The cerebellum adjusts motor activity in response to all of the following, except
    Touch sensations
    Motor neurons whose cell bodies are within the spinal cord are called ________ neurons.
    Lower motor
    Which ascending tract carries the sensations for fine touch and vibration?
    Posterior (dorsal) column
    Some neurons within the basal nuclei are known to
    Inhibit neurons with GABA and stimulate neurons with acetylcholine
    Visceral sensory information enters the CNS on afferent fibers within
    Cranial nerves V, VII, IX, and X, dorsal root T1 and L2, S2 to S4
    Mechanoreceptors might detect which of the following sensations?
    Pressure, touch, vibration, and muscle length
    If a friend is talking about someone she knows who lost his special senses, you would correct her when you hear her mention ________, because it is not a special sense.
    It must received by the somatosensory cortex
    Gustatory receptors are sensitive to dissolved chemicals but insensitive to light. This is due to
    Receptor specificity
    A receptor potential may
    Increase and decrease neurotransmitter release, and hyper polarization and depolarization
    Sensory information that arrives at the CNS is routed according to the ________ of the stimulus
    Modality and location
    Pain is to ________ as cold is to ________.
    Nociceptors; thermoreceptors
    Peripheral adaptation ________ the number of action potentials that reach the CNS
    Decreases
    Tickle is to ________ as itch is to ________.
    Touch; pain
    Tactile discs are to ________ as tactile corpuscles are to ________.
    Merkel;Meissner
    ________ are receptors in the aorta that monitor the blood pressure
    Baroreptors
    Your uncle was just diagnosed with a heart attack. One of his major symptoms is left arm pain. You are not surprised because you are familiar with the phenomenon of
    Referred pain
    Descending (motor) pathways always involve at least ________ motor neuron(s).
    2
    Conscious and subconscious motor commands control skeletal muscles by traveling over the
    Corticospinal pathway, medial and lateral pathway
    The medial and lateral motor pathways can modify, or direct, skeletal muscle contractions by ________ lower motor neurons.
    Stimulating, facilitating, inhibiting
    The cerebellum relies on information from
    The eyes, the inner ear as movements are under way, proprioceptive sensations, and motor commands from upper motor neurons
    ________ is a rare condition in which the brain fails to develop at levels above the mesencephalon or inferior part of the diencephalon.
    Anencephaly
    The labeled line is
    A link between a receptor and a cortical neuron
    ________ receptors are ________ times more numerous than ________ receptors
    Cold; 3 or 4; warm
    In relation to the medial and lateral pathways, the ________ pathway controls ________ movements of trunk and ________ limb muscles.
    Medial; gross; proximal
    In relation to the medial and lateral pathways, the ________ pathway controls ________ movements of ________ limb muscles.
    Lateral; precise; distal
    A sensory receptor characterized peripherally as a free nerve ending and centrally uses glutamate and/or substance P as neurotransmitters, would most likely be a
    Nociceptor
    Sensory encoding of the perceived location of a stimulus depends on
    The specific location of the cortical neuron that is stimulated
    Destruction of or damage to a lower motor neuron in the somatic nervous system produces
    Flaccid paralysis of its muscle fibers (motor unit)
    All of the following are true of a prickling pain sensation, except that they
    Are fast adapting.
    Sensations of burning or aching pain
    Cause a generalized activation of the reticular formation and the thalamus.
    What loss would result from cutting through the medial lemniscus on the right side?
    Loss of fine touch sensation on the left side of the body
    Stimulation of a neuron that terminates in the superior region of the left postcentral gyrus would produce
    A sensation in the right leg
    Upper motor neurons are located in the
    Precentral gyrus and spinal cord
    Somatic sensory axons enter the ventral root and usually ascend directly to the thalamus
    Both parts of the statements are false
    Which of the following is true about the relation between stimulus intensity and its neural representation
    Strong stimuli produce large generator potentials in sensory potentials and high frequency of action potentials in sensory afferents
    Damage to the tectospinal tracts would interfere with the
    Ability to make reflex responses of the head and neck in response to sudden movements or loud noises
    Bladder fullness is to ________ as blood pH is to ________.
    Baroreceptors; chemoreceptors
    If the primary motor cortex is destroyed, fine control of movement will be lost, but movement may not be lost completely because the medial and lateral pathways can still provide coarse motor control.
    Both parts are true

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