LAB 1 1. Describe the function of the following pieces of safety equipment and how each might be used: (10 points) a. Eye Wash (2 points) The eyewash fountain is used to rinse chemical splashes off the eyes. They are used by rinsing the eyes 15 to 30 minutes with water. b. Fire Blanket (2 points) Fire blankets are used to extinguish small fires. They are used by covering the small fires with the blankets until it extinguishes. c. Shower (2 points) Safety showers were made to eliminate any fire or chemical spills on the body. They are used by standing underneath the shower and turning it on for 15 to 30 minutes. d. Chemical Spill Kit (2 points)
Chemical Spill Kits are used eliminate any chemical spills. If there is an acid spill you use a base to control it and clean up, if it’s a base spill you use an acid to clean up and throw away in a chemical container. e. Biological Spill Solution (2 points)
Biological Spill Solution is used to control any Biological organism in a container where they are stored and should be handled with extreme care. 2. Briefly describe a situation when each of the following waste disposal containers would be used and give examples of the waste involved: (4 points) a. Broken Glass Container (2 points)
Broken glass containers would be used whenever there is broken glass or to discard coverslips. For example if I am measuring liquid and drop the graduated cylinder then the glass should be discarded in the broken glass container. Thermometers should never be thrown away in this container. b. Biological Hazards Materials Container (2 points)
Biological hazards material container would be used when discarding any organism that was used for example human blood that was used in a test or animal blood. 3. Metric Measurements: Perform each of the following conversions. (24 points) a. Given that one inch = 2.54 cm. State the student's height in inches and then convert to centimeters. (4 points) I don’t know which student it’s talking about so I did my height. I’m 66 inches tall and 167.64 centimeters tall.
b. The width of a normal sheet of paper is 8.5 inches. Convert this length to kilometers. (4 points) 0.0002159 km c. A lab exercise in BIO156 required 300 ml of water that was poured from a two-liter container. How many milliliters were left in the original container? (4 points) 1700 mL d. A typical can of soda is 355 ml. How many liters are there in this can of soda? (4 points) 0.355 L
e. The weight of a small bag of sugar is 2.265 kg. The student is baking cakes for a college scholarship fundraiser. It takes 100 grams of sugar to make one small cake. How many cakes can be made from a single bag of sugar? (4 points) 22 cakes
f. The student is conducting a nutrition experiment using lab rats. One group (control group) is fed a normal diet, while the other group (experimental group) is fed a diet high in protein. There were 30 rats total used in the experiment. At the end of the experiment, the average mass (weight) of a rat in the control group was 60.4 g while the average mass (weight) of a rat in the experimental group was 0.0689 kg. What is the average difference in weight between the two groups in grams? (4 points) 64.65 g
4. Temperature: Perform the following temperature conversions: (6 points) a. Normal body temperature is 98.6°F. The student is not feeling well and only has a Celsius thermometer available. The student's temperature is taken and the thermometer reads 38.5°C. 1. Convert the temperature to Fahrenheit. (1 point)
101.3 Fahrenheit 2. Is the student running a fever (i.e., is the normal body temperature above normal)? (1 point) Yes, the student is running a fever since its above normal temperature.
b. The student's cookbook says roast beef is rare at 140°F, medium at 160°F, and well done at 170°F. The student prefers beef cooked medium and only has a meat thermometer in °C. What temperature will the thermometer reach for the roast to be done the way the student likes it? (2 points) 71.1 Celsius
c. The student is driving in Mexico and notices that daytime temperatures are only given in °C. The student sees a sign indicating that the current temperature is 29°C. What is the temperature in °F? (2 points)
5. What is the purpose of the control group in the Scientific Method? Briefly explain and use examples. (5 points) The purpose of the control group is to see what happens to the group when nothing is done to the experiment while looking at the experimental group where that group is being tested. An example would be a boss thinks water will help his workers be fast. So he gets his workers and the controlled group in an hour make100 burgers while the experimental group is given water and makes 150 burgers. Another example would be an energy drink would make an athlete faster so the controlled group is made to run a mile and finish it 6 minutes without any energy drink while the experimental group is giving the energy drink and runs the mile in 5 minutes.
6. Design a (hypothetical) experiment that adheres to the Scientific Method. Be sure to include all the necessary requirements at each step and give examples at all of the steps. Start with an observation, whether it's real or made up, state the null hypothesis, and design an experiment (including an experimental and control group, random sampling, sample size, and reproducibility) that will allow the student to reject or fail to reject the hypothesis, and state the conclusion (** 20 points.) Does powerade help us run faster? Powerade helps us to remain hydrate plus its filled with vitamins and electrolytes so we can replenish them while we use them in the run. My hypothesis is that powerade would give that boost to make runners run fast. 10 runners are placed in a track to do a 2 mile run. 5 of them would be given powerade to drink in the mile mark while the other 5 are not given anything. The 5 runners that drank the powerade ran 2 miles in 10 minutes while the other 5 runners that didn’t drink anything ran the 2 miles in 12 minutes. As a result powerade helped the runners run faster for their times were faster than the ones that didn’t drink it. **Note that the point value of this question is 20 points. It is imperative that one thoroughly understands and can apply the Scientific Method as it is necessary to the understanding of all science. Take the time to ensure the answer is thorough, inclusive, and complete. 7.
a. What solution is used to clean biological spills (be specific)? (2 points) 10% bleach solution is used to clean small biological spills like organisms being released with no big splashes or mess in the area. b. Why is this different than solutions used for chemical spills? (3 points) Chemical solutions are different than biological spills because chemicals can do serious damage to living organisms and won’t be completely cleaned in routine waste treatment faculties. Also bleach solution wouldn’t remove acid or base spills they have to be treated different.
8. List three things that one can do to protect oneself from contamination/injury in the laboratory. (6 points) a. (2 points) No eating or drinking anything in the lab. b. (2 points) Roll up any loose clothing or sleeves, nothing lose when doing a lab. c. (2 points) Keep pencils, pens, or anything out of mouth for it can be chemically or biologically contaminated.
9. (Application) How might the information gained from this lab pertaining to the scientific method, safety, or measurement be useful to a student employed in a healthcare related profession? (20 points)
This information is useful to a student employed in a healthcare related profession for they now know what the dangers are when working in a laboratory, what to do in case of emergency or spills and what not to do when in the room. If conducting an experiment, they would be prepared and know where to throw away all tested material and how to clean up after they are done. When measuring things, they would be able to use the scientific method to help them out by knowing that if they add more to a pill or to a solution it would either help or affect the person. That is why it is really important to measure the amount needed for a pill or drug for it has been experimented and has been supported with evidence that a certain amount can either help or kill someone. In conclusion the scientific method and, safety and measurement are all useful so they can help and support a persons life.