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Child Development and Periods of Transition

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Understand the expected pattern of development for children and young people from birth-19 years. Q1. 1 Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth-19 years. A1. 1 Children’s development is fluent and can be measured in several different ways. Although all children develop at different rates and in several different ways, the sequence in which they develop will be about the same as they need to have developed one skill, for example holding on to something before they can shake something like a maracas.

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Development is broken down in ages, as development is quicker in early years the milestones start by being very close together such as 6 months, 1 year, 18 months. They become further apart as a baby becomes a child and then a young adult. The aspects of development that children are measured on are physical, language, social and emotional, and intellect.

At 0-11 months physical development is very quick in a child’s development, within a short time usually only a few weeks of being born a baby will start facial movements such as smiling, yawning and then they will begin to react to sounds and the environment around them for example babies are well known for being able to sleep through any noise then as they become more aware they find it harder and a more quiet safe comfortable place to sleep.

By 6 months most babies’ muscles will have developed and they will be able to sit up and reach for things they want to hold or put in their mouth.

They begin to be interested in objects, passing them between hands, handling them in different ways and looking for things that are hiding. Their hand to eye co-ordination improves as items are passed from hand to hand. Their first teeth may start to appear and this is a good time to start baby led weaning. Communication development in babies this age will start; they will enjoy making new and different sounds and will display their feelings in crying/laughing/squealing.

Their social and emotional development will start to appear this happens by the baby responding to voices and faces, especially their Mothers and carers and beginning to smile. They have little independence at this age and rely on their mother/father or carer’s reassurance and support. By 9 months babies will have become aware enough to start assessing strangers and may be shy around new people and want to be picked up and hide in their mother. At this age they will begin to enjoy games with others like peek-a-boo or hiding under the blanket and pulling it off.

Cognitive/intellect development begins at this age to it starts very simply by imitating and trying out new ways of behaviour and play for example playing more rough or more gentle. Although their confidence will begin to grow, they will still need reassurance from carers/adults as they start to realise that we are all separate beings and they are separate from their mother. At 1 years of age, some before this they are beginning to crawl or shuffle, pulling or pushing on furniture to stand and then moving around using the furniture as their support.

Between this time and two years walking will start and rapidly speed up as they get faster learning to run and turn around. Toys will start to be pulled/pushed along whilst walking, in my setting I have several toys to promote this push along cars and pull along telephones. Objects will be picked up and smacked together causing a noise that children enjoy. A preference for one hand may start to appear as they begin to hold crayons or pencils when colouring in and mark making. They enjoy trying to feed themselves both with finger foods and with a spoon, and will drink from a cup with both hands.

Waving goodbye becomes fun, they will begin to point to what they want and shake their head to mean ‘no’. Communication development at this age keeps developing they start to respond and understand more words when they are listening, and also start to copy sounds such as their name. Simple commands are understood although their understanding is far more progressed at this stage than their ability to be understood. Their vocabulary could consist of anything up to 150 words and the use of single words will progress to phrases and later small sentences. Questions will begin to be constantly asked.

Social and emotional development at this age can cause signs of separation anxiety from adults close to them. They may choose a particular object such as a teddy or blanket to comfort them. Play becomes more fun with other children, and they will mostly be cooperative and they like to please adults. They can be easily distracted to avoid unwanted behaviour. At 2-3 years of age physical development progresses through fine hand eye coordination such as mark making on paper will progress to scribbles, instead of holding objects like a ball they may be able to throw the ball on demand or kick it.

Children will understand blocks can be interlocked and towers can be built. They will start to experiment normally in the bath to start with pouring liquids in containers and emptying them. Communication development will have progressed, their speech will include longer sentences and they will easily learn new words, names, places etc. Children will begin to join in and remember both the words and actions to songs for example songs like itsy bitsy spider they can remember the words and the actions they do with their hands. Their vocabulary can consist of several hundred words by the time they are three years old.

Social and emotional development between 2 and 3 has vastly changed they will become more independent and want to do things by themselves and when they are not allowed to will start to show unwanted behaviour due to frustration. Although they will begin to enjoy playing alongside other children of their age, or others who give them attention, they do not necessarily play with each other and may be reluctant to share either playthings or adults attention with others. Independence continues to grow, and by the age or four children will start to become self-motivated in certain things.

They begin to cope better with new surroundings and people. Their social skills will be growing as play becomes more cooperative with other children. They are able to share and consider the needs and feelings of others. They like to help and please, and become more cooperative with adults. Intellectual development will stay similar to a 1-2 year old it will start to develop more rapidly between 3 and 4. Between 3 and 4 years of age physical development will increase again and as they gain more independence they will have advanced mobility and se skills such as running ,jumping ,catching and walking up and down stairs.

Their dexterity will increase with smaller objects such as they will be able to complete puzzles and thread beads. With the new independence cooperation comes with getting dressed and more ability to do things for themselves. At 4 years boys gross motor skills tend to be more developed when it comes to throwing and aiming, building, climbing, pedalling etc. Whereas girls fine motor skills tend to be more developed with the use of scissors, holding a pencil to draw and colour threading small beads sewing stitches etc. ommunication development between 3-4 begins to develop children’s language skills further, their vocabulary continues to extend towards 1500 words and mark making becomes more controlled. In both speaking and singing they will start to use pitch and tone. They may start to use past tense. Social and emotional development stays very much on the same track as when a child is between 1 and 2. Intellect development at this age has grown and children will be able to sort by size, colour, shape etc. They will understand a number of simple instructions given at once, for example “go to the table, get an orange and bring it to me”.

Between the ages of 5-7 physical development is not as rapid as it was in the beginning but children will have more pencil control and will begin to copy letters and shapes, and draw people. Ball games will develop more structure as they begin to kick with aim. They will begin to learn to hop on one foot, then the other and also to skip. By 6 years children should be dressing independently as they learn to do buttons, laces etc. Writing becomes more fluent as copying letter shapes has progressed to words and sentences with greater pencil control.

Confidence has increased when playing outside in climbing, jumping from heights and riding a bike. By 7 years physically children begin to enjoy playing team games as they are now hitting a ball, running, jumping, skipping, swinging. Communication development between this age has increased their grammar becomes more accurate and their language and conversations/questions more complex. They understand that pictures in story books help them follow the story and enjoy story books both with and without words. Their pencil control becomes steadier and they begin to form letters and copy shapes/patterns.

They will recognise their written name and other commonly used words. As they get older their language both written and spoken has improved. They will be able to hold conversations and imagine and recall stories. Their knowledge of books will continue as they understand the meaning of text and begin to recognise letters, sounds and words. Socially and emotionally children learn a great deal about how things work, people and the world. They enjoy being given or taking responsibility, and helping others. They start to understand rules and like to have structure and routine.

Play is fun with groups but taking turns can be difficult, so as friendships are made, they are often broken fairly quickly as they still need help to resolve minor arguments and disagreements. Intellectually they will be aware of similarities and differences in aspects of life, and understand that differences can exist side by side. They will begin to understand that the same things can be seen differently, for example the same number of bricks will not look the same when built differently. At about 7 although different for all children they will begin to read to themselves.

All the development in this area stays the same until they start becoming teenagers this is different for every child but on average it happens between 12 and 19. Physical development between 12 and 19 is when a child becomes an adult and this is referred to as adolescence. Physical development during this period is very different in each child. As some may be just beginning to mature physically, others may have already reached full physical maturity. Boys normally begin adolescence around 14 years which is later than girls.

When they have reached the end of this growth period however they are usually bigger than girls. Their body shape will change as their muscles grow and they will develop body hair. Their strength and coordination will increase greatly and their voice will change to become deeper. In the early stages of puberty testicles and scrotum will begin to grow, penis growth will start later but will continue for longer. Girl’s breasts will begin to swell from around the age of 10 and continue. They will also develop hair in the pubic region which will darken and become curly.

Their body shape will change to become more rounded and curvy. Some girls may be physically mature by the age of 15 and nearly at their full adult height although she may still develop larger breasts and a fuller figure. This is of course dependant on the age at which she begins puberty of which there are huge variations ranging from 8 until late teens. The average age for girls to begin menstruation is around 13. Communication and language development between these ages starts to grow more complex. Their humour may change as they begin to understand and use sarcasm and wit.

Their ability to think logically begins to mature and as their intellect increases so too may the confidence and skills required to debate/argue both formally and informally. Social and emotional development at this age is about their final steps to independence and needing less and less support from adults. They will become more aware of their gender and form strong friendships, often playing with friends of the same gender, although adult intervention is often still needed to help resolve arguments and disagreements.

They begin to understand acceptable and unacceptable behaviour and have a strong sense of what is right and wrong. Peer groups are very influential as children want to fit in with others and their rules. Teenagers may need a great deal of reassurance as they approach adulthood. Their bodies are going through many physical changes and they may become very self-conscious. They will also be experiencing huge emotional changes which they may find difficult to control, shifting between childish and adult behaviour and needs. Their independence may cause them to distance themselves from parents and become closer to peers.

Parental beliefs and values will be questioned and often dismissed as the teenager builds their own value system. Strong friendships may be developed with others of the same gender, whilst an interest in the opposite gender begins to develop. Intellectual development will grow and they will take more responsibility for their words and actions. They will begin to think to their future adulthood in relation to occupations, relationships etc. The support and guidance given to children during this time will have a great bearing on the pace of their development.

As a teenager forms their individual identity, education should guide them on moral, social, economic and culture codes. Q1. 2 Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important A1. 2 The difference between sequence development and rate of development is some aspects of development follow a definite sequence, such as in physical development babies learn to lift their heads before they can sit but the rate at what they do it at will vary between each child so some babies will sit up unsupported at 7 months while others may take a couple of months longer.

There is a definite pattern to a child developing such as a toddler being able to walk before they can run. Rate means the speed in which a child develops. When a child develops if they achieve this by sequencing it enables you to plan effectively and at the right time. When recording the rate of development it helps you to identify any concerns that you may have within the development area, this enables you to further investigate why this is happening. Understand the factors that influence children and young people’s development and how these affect practice. Q2. Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors. A2. 1 Personal factors that affect children and young people’s development can be several things such as right at the start in pregnancy choices mothers make can affect the start of a baby’s life for example mothers taking drugs or alcohol can make babies addicts before they are even born, even if a mother has an average healthy pregnancy the genetics that create a person can have an effect on them for the rest of life this includes learning difficulties or even disabilities.

The actual birth of a baby can be a factor if a baby is born very early this can delay their development or if they have a traumatic birth this can cause problems for a child. Another factor is the status of a child or young person’s health this means that either something they were born with in their genetics or factor related to diet, environment and stress. A good example of a child being born something and it affecting them is either a blood disorder or asthma this can cause them to have a lot of tests and medication in their life or breathing problems which is very stressful for a child.

Sometimes children are not born ill but live in unfit living conditions such as a damp house or living with parents who smoke. As I mentioned in factors at birth if a child has a disability, sensory impairment and learning difficulties these can cause problems in development for example a child with learning difficulties with autism may not be able to do the same things as other children their age like doing up their shoes or using a fork and knife. Q2. Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of external factors. A2. 2 As well as personal factors there are several external factors such as poverty and deprivation this can’t always be helped but it means the child may suffer with starvation and this can stop a child being able to concentrate and disrupt their development. A child’s diet can disrupt their growth and behaviour because families on low incomes may buy processed foods that contain lots of salt, fat and sugar and is not very nutritional.

A child’s home may not always be suitable and contain damp, no heating or even be overcrowded so a child can’t rest properly. Children may not always get as many education chances if living in a low income area, the schools may not have as many resources. Not all children have much play and leisure opportunities this can leave them lacking stimulation and this can affect the cognitive development. Coming from a low income can cause children not to have aspirations and expectations which may leave children depressed and unmotivated towards life.

A child’s family and environment can be a large external factor affecting development because parents and family are a very important part of their lives and are meant to nurture and provide for them. Sometimes though parents have personal problems or a disruptive upbringing and can’t cope well with providing for their children and this causes the children to suffer. Family circumstances can also have developmental issues for children such as a family member becoming ill, unemployment or disability this can cause stress, anxiety, UN motivated and antisocial behaviour.

Personal choices usual when they hit adolescence such as choices to smoke use drugs or have sex. Some children who are looked after by people other than their parents can leave them resentful, stressed uncomfortable. Q2. 3 Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice. A2. 3 although there are several personal and external factors that affect development there is also theories of development and frameworks to support developments influence.

The theories of development are important because they help us with our childcare practice, behaviour, ways of learning and reaction. Jean Piaget/ Lev Vygotsky theory allows us to take the idea of ‘schema’ into practice and use it to effectively plan for the development of a child. This basically is a constructivist approach to cognitive development and looks at the way children make sense of the world as a result of their experiences as children are active learners. John Watson/Ivan Pavlov/B. F Skinner theories have a behaviourist approach to cognitive development.

These theories are implemented in current practices by the reward of good behaviour, and the punishment of unwanted behaviour to encourage a child to behave positively. This include stickers, prizes, privileges, and in the case of unwanted behaviour time outs, and ignoring of attention seeking behaviour. Albert Bandura has a social learning approach to cognitive development and his theory says to look at the way children can learn through imitation for example songs that say to turn around or jump children learn to watch what you do and repeat.

Sigmund Freud has a psychoanalytical approach to social and emotional development. His theories basically explain that personality and actions are determined by the unconscious mind which develops in childhood. They do not necessarily fit in with our rigorous scientific standards, and are today not considered to be very accurate he has been very influential as lots of theorists used his theories as a starting point. He has also helped those working with children understand that there is a link between our mind and our unconscious actions.

Abraham Maslow has a humanist approach to social and emotional development his theories explain that motivation and personality are linked to our basic needs being met. While Maslow’s theories have been called into question they have however formed as a basis for other theorists who expanded on his hierarchy of needs to build their own 5-level and 8 –level models. His explanations and interpretations are still useful today when trying to understand the behaviours and motivations of humans.

This can be extremely useful in childcare when addressing a child’s personal needs, ensuring that their basic needs are met to help them develop. The last theory I am going to discuss is by John Bowlby and he has an attachment theory to social and emotional development which he explains that social and emotional development are linked to babies and young children having strong bonds or attachment with their primary carers. Understand how to monitor children and young people’s development and interventions that should take place if this is not following the expected pattern.

Q3. 1 Explain how to monitor children and young people’s development using different methods. A3. 1 Children and young people are monitored several times throughout their lives and by a range of different services for example midwife will monitor babies to check they are gaining weight averagely and growing on average to check they have no problems. In my setting I use observation which means I watch the children in a range of different activities every day and note there development and achievements, this helps me plan activities to help with development.

There is also the assessment framework method which means children are measured by frameworks that show the expected pattern of development as a child-minder I use the EYFS which shows each learning area and at what age a child should be doing certain achievements. I have a development folder which records the children’s development, and what I have planned and unplanned and the times to evaluate. This enables me to support children’s development and to be aware of their current stage of development.

Other Assessment frameworks include 2 year progress check; P-scales are another method that may be used to assess the development of children with learning difficulties. Other materials from Early Support might be used. Another assessment method of development is standard measurement which is school tests/cognitive aptitude tests that demonstrate a snapshot of children’s academic ability or skill at retaining taught information and that might then be used to compare outcomes between larger populations of same-age children.

Health programmes that might measure head circumference, weight, height, visual and auditory functioning. Educational psychologists may use reasoning tests to assess an intellectual age in contrast to a chronological age. I also share information with colleagues and parents which enables me to monitor children, each child’s development folder goes home with them at least once a term so they can see their progress they also tell me things their children are doing at home so I can see if they are doing them in my setting. Q3. Explain the reasons why children and young people’s development may not follow the expected pattern. A3. 2 Sometimes children and young people may not follow the expected pattern this can be for several reasons sometimes it’s because of disability this can affect several areas of development at the same time but early support might help minimise the effects of the disability. Another reason could be emotional reasons, if a child is not settled and having good attachments they are more likely to have low confidence and self-esteem they might not try new tasks and have a lack of motivation.

Sometimes physical development might be effected by genetics this can mean physical growth difficulties or may be the child might be a slower learner and this can stop children following the expected pattern. Environment can be a reason for development not following the expected plan as I stated in outcome 2. 2 there are many reasons that can effect child development like poverty, where a child lives, education and their family structure can effect a child’s development.

Sometimes another reason is cultural because people bringing up their children can differ vastly like in china a girl is deemed second class to a boy the boy is worth tying to a boat but not a girl. Other cultures have restrictions on children’s freedoms this can adversely affect the child’s development. Another reason is socially, children born into poverty and families whose parents are separated are likely to have negative effects on children’s development or if a family might give less time to activities which aid children’s developments like a lack of play this can also effect child development.

Children who are born with learning difficulties, diseases, birth difficulties, and cognitive difficulties or might just have difficulties with writing or reading can have difficulty following the expected pattern. My last reason is communication sometimes medical reasons like hearing or tongue tied can cause communication problems children who have communication needs find it hard to express themselves and can show aggressive behaviour when frustrated.

Children who experience communication needs might have problems with reading and writing slowing their development. Q3. 3 Explain how disability may affect development. A3. 3 Disability used to be very serious for children and young people they were not always offered the same treatment as children without disability this is because not all the equipment available today was available then and not the same approach.

Now most childcare settings have a new approach and are always increasing the ways they can have opportunities for children with disabilities. In saying all this in some circumstances disability can affect a child’s overall development and they may not be able to do everything other children can. There are problems with children with disabilities one of these is stereotyping and low expectations sometimes when children and young people don’t follow the expected pattern the danger of stereotyping becomes apparent and this leads to the low expectations.

An example of this is a child with learning difficulties a teacher or a childcare provision may assume that this child is like every other child they have had with learning difficulties and set very low expectations so this child may be more capable but because the teacher or childcare provision has not worked with the child to see the child’s potential the child will suffer developmentally because of this. Q3. 4 Explain how different types of interventions can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern.

A3. 4 when development does not follow the expected pattern there are several types of intervention that can promote positive outcomes for children and young people. There is SENCO who are people in educational settings who is responsible for organising and helping identify support for children with special education needs. Some children may have intervention from Social workers; they basically are employed by the local authority and voluntary organisations to support vulnerable children/young people and their families with issues at home.

Sometimes children need Speech and language therapists who help children to get past the difficulties they have with communication. Another type of intervention is from Educational psychologists who support children with difficulties with behaviour or learning. They will do this by providing programmed of support for teachers or early year’s practitioners. Some children may need to see a Psychiatrist who is a medically trained doctor who specialises in mental health, they can diagnose problems children and young people have and set up a programme to help them deal with it, this may include medication and counselling.

Another professional involved in intervention is a Physiotherapist who is trained to help maximise the body’s movement they will do this by exercises and using training they have learned. A Nurse Specialist is increasingly needed to support and give advice to children and their families about managing chronic medical conditions. Some children may need Additional Learning support teams who are professionals in intervention who provided a range of services in and out of school to help children who may have specific educational needs. And lastly some children may need a Youth justice team to help with antisocial behaviour.

Understand the importance of early intervention to support the speech, language and communication needs of children and young people. Q4. 1 Analyse the importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition. A4. 1 it is very important to identify disorders with speech, language and communication because the early years are a critical period for children’s development as their brains are still growing therefore early identification of speech and language difficulties is absolutely essential.

The sooner a child’s needs can be identified the greater chance there is to make sure they have the correct support so they don’t get left behind. Most importantly for children’s speech, language and communication which in turn underpin so many other areas of children’s development. It can cause risks if not recognised soon enough such as children not fulfilling their potential; they may experience problems with learning and understanding information. They may struggle to be independent and may have a sense of isolation.

They could become withdrawn and have difficulty in or loss of interest in making and keeping friendships, they may also have a lack of motivation and depression. Low self-esteem and confidence could set in and an inability to express feelings appropriately, also a possible regression of behaviour and separation anxiety. They may even show anti-social behaviour. Q4. 2 Explain how multi-agency teams work together to support speech, language and communication. A4. Multi-agency team’s work together to support children and young people with speech, language and communication by firstly the parent/carer visiting the GP or a health visitor, a referral will then be made initially to check vision and hearing to see if there is a problem there. In other cases a referral may be made directly to speech and language services. For some children if communication difficulties are linked to other learning difficulties, an assessment by an educational psychiatrist may be required. Speech therapy may be required by a speech therapist at regular intervals.

Once established what type of support is needed then all professionals, parents and carers need to work together. Q4. 3 Explain how play and activities are used to support the development of speech, language and communication. A4. 3 Speech and language is not something that is natural to everyone, it needs encouraging gently by others around them, by copying what is said and done. This is usually encouraged by means of interesting things that the child shows interest in, it can then be fun for the child and they learn how to communicate at the same time.

I believe in the concept that Children learn through play. There are five main types of play used for help with speech and language firstly you have the use of puppets, dolls, cuddly toys. When a child first starts getting interested in talking they begin to role play e. g. giving a doll a cup of tea. This is an indication that they are ready to use new words, so encourage this by saying the word e. g. “cup” or “doll”. This can only be done if you follow the child’s interests. Secondly you have role play and dressing up is another way of encourage speech and communication.

Adults can play alongside them to encourage them with their speech and communication skills. Thirdly you have books which are a great way of expressing themselves and letting everyone know their interests. You can usually find books of interest to everyone as most groups have a wide and varied range of books. If a child says one word per page e. g. “car” then you could say “blue car” so you are adding one more word than they are saying, this encourages the child to add another word when talking.

You would then add another word when the child is using two words. Books are good for increasing vocabulary and for them to learn new words. You can get books that have sounds such as Ladybird Big Noisy Book: Emergency, this encourages the children to press the buttons and for a siren to come on this keeps their attention. This also encourages the child to point or just vocalise. The fourth type of play is nursery rhymes, songs and musical instruments which are also good for communication skills.

This encourages children to listen, sing and communicate; this can be through using their hands to start off with and eventually hands and singing. Musical instruments can be good for the children to practice repeating different sounds that are made or making the sounds louder or quieter. And lastly blowing bubbles this activity is good to enable the child to point to different things that the bubbles are hitting, they show interest and can start by making simple words such as “gone” when the bubble has burst because it is fun and stimulating for the child.

In my childcare setting in my home I use these all daily I have a reading corner which is a big circus tent with a book shelf and is full of puppets children in my setting love going in there at any age and getting the books out and looking through the pages and playing with the puppets. I also regularly get out my box of musical instruments and sing nursery rhymes with the children. I have a dressing up rack and lots of play home and food items the children love playing with.

Lastly once a day we have a boogie and turn on the bubble machine and all the children love counting how many they can pop and love telling me if one has landed on their head. Understand the potential effects of transitions on children and young people’s development Q5. 1 Explain how different types of transitions can affect children and young people’s development. A5. 1 children and young people are most likely to have at least one type of transition in their childhood if not more; these are basically events that can affect development.

Examples of these transitions are changes to family structure which can be a new baby, parental separation, new step parents, new siblings, and another member of the family such as grandparents coming to live with them. Moving home can be quite a common transition and Illness and bereavement. Sometimes children have to be with a new/ additional primary carer such as childminder, starting at pre-school, moving into foster care and moving into adoptive care. Sometimes children have to move setting which can be distressing.

Another type of transition is admission into institution such as hospitals, youth offenders, boarding school and children’s home. More commonly with older children they can have changes to body such as puberty but all children can have body changes such as scarring, accidents and chronic illness. Q5. 2 Evaluate the effect on children and young people of having positive relationships during periods of transition. A5. 2 it’s very important that children have positive relationships in periods of transition this is because there are several side effects of transition and it can help considerably having someone supporting them during the process.

Side effects such as regression, aggression, withdrawal, clinginess, illness, extroverted behaviours, sleeplessness, lack of concentration, depression, food issues, behaviour and self-harm. Parent are one of the most important relationships in this time but as separation anxiety can happen the children and young people will need a strong relationship with someone within the setting they are in. Most settings even hospitals and social care are using a key person system which means that this person will be their prime carer which helps children with their continuity of care and makes them feel safe.

Cite this Child Development and Periods of Transition

Child Development and Periods of Transition. (2016, Nov 27). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/child-development-and-periods-of-transition/

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