College Tuition Essay
STATISTICS PROJECT: Hypothesis Testing See my comments in red - College Tuition Essay introduction. Scoring last page. INTRODUCTION My topic is the average tuition cost of a 4-yr. public college. Since I will soon be transferring to a 4-yr. college, I thought this topic would be perfect. “The College Board” says that the average tuition cost of college is $5836 per year. I will be researching online the costs of different public colleges to test this claim.
I will be using the T-test for a mean, since my sample is going to be less than 30 and an unknown population standard deviation. I will also use Chi-Square Test of Independence. HYPOTHESIS I think the average cost of tuition is lower than the average stated by “The College Board”. Ho: mu >/= $5836. H1: mu< $5836 (Claim) DATA ANALYSIS I collected my data from various college websites. I looked up the cost of tuition per year and the number of students enrolled.
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Here is what I came up with: College Central Washington University University of Washington Washington State University Western Washington University Evergreen State University Eastern Washington University Peninsula College University of Oregon Portland State University Oregon State University Southern Oregon University Eastern Oregon University Western Oregon University Tuition $4392 $5985 $5888 $4356 $4590 $5904 $3639 $6174 $5208 $5604 $5233 $4500 $5763 Number of Students 10,200 25,469 18,432 13,000 4400 10,000 10,120 20,394 24,284 19,362 5000 3000 4500 University of Idaho Idaho State University $4410 $4400 11,739 13,000
There weren’t really any large gaps or outliers in the data that I collected. There was a gap between 5,000 – 10,000 students. But the rest was mostly consistent. The lowest tuition was $3639 from Peninsula College and the highest tuition was $6174 from the University of Oregon. Some of the websites were hard to find the information I wanted, but I eventually found it. Some of the websites were specific as to undergraduate or graduate and some probably contain both. I should have done further research to make sure that my numbers only contain undergraduates and not graduates. So, that is one possible mistake in the data collection.
You’ve explained your strengths and weaknesses in collection well. HYPOTHESIS TESTING T-Test for a Mean Step 1: State the hypothesis and identify the claim. I claim that the average cost of college tuition is less than $5836 per year as concluded from “The College Board”. At a=. 025, can it be concluded that the average is less than $5836 based on a sample of 15 colleges? H0: mu>/= $5836 H1: mu0) Step 2: Find the critical value: The critical value is 14. 449 since the degrees of freedom are (3-1)(4-1)=6. Step 3: Compute the test value. First we have to find the expected value: E1,1 = (6)(4)/15=1. 6 E2,1 = (3)(4)/15=. E3,1 = (6)(4)/15=1. 6 E1,2 = (6)(6)/15=2. 4 E2,2 = (3)(6)/15=1. 2 E3,2 = (6)(6)/15=2. 4 E1,3 = (6)(3)/15=1. 2 E2,3 = (3)(3)-15=. 6 E3,3 = (6)(3)/15=1. 2 E1,4 = (6)(2)/15=. 8 E2,4 = (3)(2)/15=. 4 E3,4 = (6)(2)/15=. 8 I did some spot checking and it looks good. I’m going to trust you on chi-square. The completed table is shown: Cost of Tuition $3500-4500 $4501-5500 $5501-6500 Total 3000-9,999 1 (1. 6) 2 (. 8) 1 (1. 6) 4 10,000-16,999 5 (2. 4) 0 (1. 2) 1 (2. 4) 6 Number of Students 17,000-23,999 0 (1. 2) 0 (. 6) 3 (1. 2) 3 Total 24,000-30,999 0 (. 8) 1 (. 4) 1 (. 8) 2 6 3 6 15 Then the test value is x? = ? (O-E)? /E = (1-1. 6)? 1. 6 + (5-2. 4)? /2. 4 + (0-1. 2)? /1. 2 + (0-. 8)? /. 8 + (2-. 8)? /. 8 + (01. 2)? /1. 2 + (0-. 6)? /. 6 + (1-. 4)? /. 4 + (1-1. 6)? /1. 6 + (1-2. 4)? /2. 4 + (3-1. 2)? /1. 2 + (1. 8)? /. 8 = 13. 333 Step 4: Make the decision to reject or not to reject the null hypothesis. Do not reject the null hypothesis since 13. 333 is less than 14. 449. Step 5: Summarize the results. There is not enough evidence to support the claim that the cost of tuition is dependent on the number of students that attend the college. SUMMARY My first hypothesis test about the tuition cost of 4-year universities being less than the average was correct.
The average as stated by “The College Board” said that the tuition was $5836 per year. I thought that was a little high. The average tuition of the fifteen colleges that I researched was $5069. 73. Maybe if I would have researched colleges all around the country instead of just our surrounding states I would have come up with different numbers. Another thing that may have caused this test to be a little off was that when I was collecting data, some of the costs of tuition may include other fees and some may not. When I looked them up, some fees were listed separately and some were not.
This could have lead to a Type I error where the null hypothesis was true and it was rejected. Good note on the possibility of a Type I error. My second hypothesis test about whether the cost of tuition is dependant on the number of students that attend the college was rejected. I thought that the fewer the students that attend a specific college, that tuition would be cheaper, but that wasn’t the case. One main problem I can see with colleting my data is that on the college websites for the number of students, some said “over” or “approximately”. So, these weren’t the exact numbers of students enrolled.
Also, as stated earlier, some of the students could be undergraduates or graduates. Some of the websites didn’t list them separately. Tuition is higher for graduates, so they should not have been included in this study and it would have thrown off the number of students. So, these may have affected the outcome a little, but I don’t’ think enough for it to change the hypothesis. Small differences, including rounding, can really throw off your test value in this type of test. It would have also been interesting to test to see whether the tuition is higher in urban areas where more people live verses rural areas where there are not as any people. I would be inclined to say that this is true, but it would need to be tested further to say for sure. It would also be interesting to do this same testing for private colleges to see if they have the same results. I thought this was fun to come up with our own hypothesis and try to prove ourselves right or wrong using what we have learned all quarter. It was a good test of our skills and it made me get a better understanding of how the formulas really work rather than just doing the homework examples in the book. Excellent summary/critique and project overall.
I’ve been teaching this class for over 8 years and your project is one of the best. Can I please use this as a sample? Grading Rubric Statistics Project, Spring 2007 Objective Met (C, B-) Exceeded (B, B+) Outstanding (A-, A) Hypothesis and Proposal 10 points Statement of hypothesis in Statement of hypothesis in words and symbols. words or symbols, type of Description of test you’ll test you plan to use. use and how you plan to implement it. Brief description the data Description and set including outliers, gaps, interpretation of data set and other observations. (what and why).
Statement of hypothesis in words and symbols, including motivation. Type of hypothesis test and plans for implementation. Description and interpretation of data set. Discussion of potential problems including how data could be improved. Score 10 Written Project: Data Analysis 15 points 15 Written Project: Hypothesis Testing Conduct a mathematically accurate hypothesis test. and Confidence Intervals 30 points Conduct two (or more) Conduct two mathematically correct mathematically correct hypothesis tests that allow hypothesis tests or one test you to draw meaningful and one confidence interval conclusions.
Explain outcome of hypothesis testing, discuss possibility of Type I or Type II errors. Explore areas of strength and weakness by making suggestions for improvement and proposing further research. Interpret outcome of hypothesis testing and possibility of Type I or II errors. Explain errors. Draw connections between hypothesis tests, data collection. Discuss areas of strength and weakness. Project is accurate, creative, and well-presented. Hypothesis testing done at mastery level with meaningful connections throughout and a thorough summary and recommendation (I was “wowed”) 29
Written Project: Summary and SelfRe-iterate outcome of Critique hypothesis testing. Identify 25 points areas of strength and weakness. 25 Overall Subjective Component 10 points Project is mathematically and grammatically correct. Displays adequate understanding of hypothesis testing. Project is accurate, interesting, and wellpresented. Displays mastery of hypothesis testing. 10 Draft and Edits 10 points Overall Score Draft in by due date = 5 points Draft submitted and constructive review of one other classmate’s done by due dates = 10 points 10 99 Written by Angela Redmon. Last updated 07/12/06.