Compare the major arguments of the liberalisms marxism and corporatism Essay
Compare the major arguments of the liberalisms Marxism and Corporatism
The three political economic ideologies have been used to shape he world’s economic and political situations in different ways. This particular essay shall focus on the underlying principles of each these ideologies.
The term liberalism has been used to convey various meanings, which essentially revolve around individual freedom. Basically the key words in liberalism are freedom and equality. It is worthy noting that the people to formulate individual liberty were the ancient Greeks. Further liberalism gained popularity in the western Age of enlightenment. Liberalism therefore refers to ideas and theories that consider the individual freedom. It emphasizes on individual rights and equal opportunities. Various forms of liberalism propose universal principles: freedom of thought, freedom of speech, limitation of the power of the government, proper rule of law, mixed economy, transparent system of government, indivijdual property free private enterprise, and free economy.
Most governments that have adopted this ideology have enhanced liberal democracy through open and fair elections where all citizens are considered to possess equal rights. A state of perfect freedom should order their actions properly as they think fit without necessarily depending on the will of any other man (Martin 100). The classical liberalism support inequality that result from the free market competition. The social liberalism advocates that the government control and protect human rights. Therefore they support the provision of: universal education, housing for the homeless, medical care and security. Major movements towards this arose during the renaissance period, in which the humanism movement challenged the authority of the established church. Further the French revolution overthrew the monarch aristocratic social order and an established roman catholic church. Napoleon Bonaparte led the French revolution whose main agenda was the declaration and recognition of human rights. Other counties followed this type of ideology, as it was believed to add democracy.
Liberalism also advocated for liberal parries, parliamentary government, increased representation, and economic liberation restriction of ownership and ending of federal privileges. Liberal parties that began revolutions against the govennment rescued Russia, which faced economic failure and military defeat. Another example of liberal revolution was experienced in Ecuador where Eloy Alfaro in 1885, led a ‘radical liberal’ revolution that secularized the state opened marriage laws, engaged in the development of infrastructure and the economy. Therefore liberal democracy enhances the checks and balances intended to limit the power of the government by dividing those powers among several branches. The liberals also the removal of the bureaucratic systems of administration (in order reduce the amount spent in this long bureaucrats), elimination of tax rate of over 100% so as to allow the poor to keep the little they earn. The best method to administer is through universal welfare consideration, which consequently reduces dependency of the people in the government.
This is a theory that considers the society to be divided into strata. It is a theory and a political practice that face its tenets on socialism or communism. The major proponent of this theory, Karl Marx, observes that the society is being determined by the material distribution creating different classes. Karl Marx discourages the existence of a capitalistic society; rather he affirms that the capitalistic society should be replaced with socialistic society (Marx 45). Under this ideology the have three major classes: lower, middle and upper.
The capitalist society is characterized by free market economy, private property, parliamentary democracy, monopolistic tendencies and warfare. In this ideology parliament is supposed to pass a law to protect wealthy and the wealthy. The ideology also is usually enhanced by threats of war by the capitalists aimed at controlling people. The underlying principles of socialism include: decentralized planned economy, common property ownership, and democracy. All this can be achieved through class-consciousness who should struggle to end the destructive nature of capitalism for success.
The end result of such a struggle is that the classes are eliminated; no government; no nation and no money.
This ideology has been practiced in North Korea inn which emphasis is laid on common ownership and democratic control of the means of production. This eliminates struggle for materials and as such the capitalists liberate people from exploitation.
This is a 19th century theory that came as a reaction to the competition and class conflict of the capitalist society. Corporatist structures are applied to authoritarian rule in order to trim down the powers of few individuals to end up with state and corporate merger leadership. In this theory an ideal corporate state is described to be that of group ruling. This means that the theory and practice organizes a state into corporations that are subordinate to the state.
This theory and practice alludes to both liberalism and Marxism. Turkey is a typical example of a country that has practiced solidarity for of corporatism in which the government is characterized by culturally pluralistic rule. The people are meant to believe in idea given to the to be true (Draper 68). In Turkey Kemalism is preserved as the noble form of leadership in the country. This is done through legal and constitutional and social ways: Kemal is regarded as the eternal chief, grand leader and the father of all. This type of ideology requires that mass follows without much questions.
Draper, H. the adventures of the communist manifesto centre for socialist history.
MARTIN, B. French liberal thought in eighteenth century, London; new ed. 1954.
Marx K. a contribution to the critique of political economy. Moscow: Progress Publisher,