Entrepreneurship is one of a major factor act uponing the economic system of states in footings of international trade, substructure, employment and life criterions every bit good as capital growing. It besides reflects the effectivity of authorities policies. The degree of entrepreneurial activity non merely interacts with the above factors, but besides with cultural, geographical factors, and ordinances. Personality features, behaviour and motive are besides the major elements which should be taken into consideration.
‘There are many determiners of being or going freelance which are dealt with in the literature, such as employment position, minority behavior, immigrant behavior, household house consequence and attitudinal effects ‘ ( Freytak & A ; Thurik, 2007, P.120 ) ) . Entrepreneurship besides relates to some other factors such as national policies ( revenue enhancement, ordinances, easiness of making concern ) , entrepreneurship finance ( Bankss, authorities support ) , economic fortunes ( economic freedom ) , selling ( fight ) , cultural ( living manner, historic background ) , public bureau aid ( authorities support ) , personality ( attitude to hazard ) and expertness etc.
The assignment compares the degree of entrepreneurial activity between US, China and Hong Kong as these three locations have contrasting features with regard to all these different facets. They besides have similarities which relate to entrepreneurial activity. Harmonizing to GEM Report 2007, the Early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity ( TEA ) was 9.6 % in US, 16.4 % in China and 10 % in Hong Kong. All the factors have mentioned supra have major consequence on the TEA degrees, the assignment will detect and compare the ground why they are act uponing TEA in these states, and it will categorise the factors which act uponing the degree of entrepreneurial activity into 5 major subdivisions: cultural factors, authorities policies, geographical factors, economic system, instruction and preparation.
Culture is ‘the imposts, establishments and accomplishments of a peculiar state, people or group ‘ ( Oxford English Dictionary online ) . Culture has a important influence on people and state ‘s attitude and behaviour, personality ‘s features and motive, perceptual experience, psychological science every bit good as life manner. It consists of history, tradition, literature, instruction, doctrine, societal construction and society etc.
In GEM Global Report 2008, it states that each person has different degree of fright of failure, perceptual experience towards entrepreneurship every bit good as willingness of people to take hazard. As all states have different historical background, people ‘s attitude and behaviour differ in different states because of the different environments in which they have grown up. These are affected by the state ‘s civilization and the effectivity of the societies.
United State is a top prima state in the universe with 300 1000000s of population ( U.S. Census Bureau ) , it combines with many different states of people, and therefore it mixes with all different civilizations. US people are extremely credence of varies inventions, civilizations and hazards as they have been a multi-nations state since 18th century, and these make a welcome and unfastened credence atmosphere and environment for all different sort of concern invention. They are open-minded people with high motive, positive perceptual experience of hazard, fright of failure and entrepreneurship.
‘U.S. people chase of apparently impossible dreams, restlessness with clip, credence of errors and machination with what ‘s new ‘ ( Hammond and Morrision 1996 ) . US people besides think that going enterpriser is a societally sanctioned and appropriate mercantile establishment for their achievement motive. Since U.S. people have all these positive features, it does assist and promote the entrepreneurship activities in the state, in GEM Report 2008, per centum of fright of failure would forestall get downing a concern in U.S was 44 % while comparing Hong Kong was 37 % in 2007. Percentage of entrepreneurship considered as desirable calling pick in U.S was 63 % while Hong Kong was 66 % .
In Hong Kong, people by and large work hard, long hours and are more productive in order to acquire in front. Hong Kong people are a particular group of people as they have mix personality features which influence by the Chinese civilization and besides British civilization as she was a British settlement for 155 old ages. Hong Kong people can be characterized as strong aspirations and aspirations for wealth, social pragmatism and Chinese values and work ethic like traditional Chinese ; they can besides be characterized every bit open-minded as strong perceptual experience of equal chance and willingness to accommodate like western people. ‘Hong Kong ‘s civilization is extremely supportive of success achieved through autonomy, liberty, personal enterprise – where the person has ultimate duty for pull offing his or her ain life – and entrepreneurial hazard taking ‘ ( GEM Report Hong Kong 2007, P.40 ) .
Hong Kong people are a group of ‘fast-turning ‘ people in footings of concern invention, life every bit good as working. Hong Kong is a good known efficient metropolis in the universe. It is one of the universe taking fiscal centres and Four Asiatic Tigers, these places have act uponing most of persons to set up a basic fiscal construct and the sense of globalisation, nevertheless, on the other manus, it besides gives a force per unit area environment to people by being a competitory market.
Therefore, by catching up the velocity and procuring their life criterion in this fast changing universe, Hong Kong people walk fast, work fast and alter fast. Harmonizing to The World Competitiveness Yearbook 2009, Hong Kong has the best overall ranking on concern efficiency in the universe, particularly on flexibleness and adaptability, when comparing US and China is in the place of 16 and 37 representatively.
As a multicultural state, Hong Kong people have good perceptual experience of varies concern inventions ; they have evolved into their ain trade name by comprehending the thoughts from other states. Their life manner besides has been significantly act uponing by other states and civilization, for illustration, manner, eating, engineering and place. They would wish to demo they are a group of new manner people, by making this, they keep seeking new merchandises and services to catch the top manner. Therefore, it gives tonss of chances for making different fluctuation of concern, for illustration, eating houses, decorative and high engineering merchandises.
Even though Hong Kong has been a settlement of Britain for so many old ages, most people are still Chinese like. Chinese people frequently put household and money as the first two precedence, they believe that running concern is the best manner to do money every bit good as addition a good repute for themselves and their households. In Chinese civilization, seniors in households are trusting that they can hold some wealth to go through on to their following coevals, i.e. concern, money and repute. Therefore, this traditional civilization does promote entrepreneurship activities in Hong Kong every bit good as China.
China is one of the powerful developing states in the universe with 1.3 billion populations which contains more than four 1000s old ages of history. Peoples in China are fasten with the Confucian civilization which asserts obedient, regard for parents and ascendants, hence, Chinese people are strongly respect for age and hierarchy, and besides put their households in the first precedence. They besides believe that difficult work and successful concern are the marks of repute. The civilization of societal and economic system were patriotism as most of the concern activities were province owned, ‘local authorities in rural countries constantly coordinated economic activities within their district as if it was a diversified concern corporation, with functionaries moving as the equivalent of a board of managers ‘ ( Li J & A ; Matlay H 2006, P248 – 262 ) .
People ‘s attitudes focus on follow the exact instructions from the top degrees of direction ; they ignore making any unneeded invention and thoughts themselves to cut down the opportunity of doing errors as their attitudes are highly inactive and Bolshevism, they motivate by the authorities, the province and moral to procure their occupations. Peoples accept the traditional bureaucratism since the hierarchal civilization feature ; they obey, regard and prolong this direction system without inquiry. The entrepreneurial activity was non really popular under this centralized and official clime.
However, follow by the economic development and globalisation, this phenomenon has been changed. Peoples start believing the realistic about the concern universe due to the market economic system and competition, and of class, the Chinese economic reforms in 1978 was besides a important factor of this changed. The activities of private enterprisers have increased because of the unfastened market. Young coevalss are non constraint by the civilization and household factors, they start accepting the planetary concern universe, instruction, substructure, net income and insecure occupations. They besides understand the of import of invention and creativeness in these competitory economic systems.
2. Government policies
The authorities policies play a major function in making and encouraging entrepreneurial activities across the state through concern ordinances such as concern start-up demands, revenue enhancement policy, the strength of right of first publication and hallmark protection, the grade of authorities support, ordinances, the extent of societal benefits, and of free trade and the easiness of making concern. Stel et Al ( 2007 ) suggest that low ordinance or high support path is the cardinal pick for the entrepreneurship policy shapers seeking to increase rates of new house formation and subsequent wealth creative activity.
Regulation systems differ from a state to another. In other words, some states have heavy ordinance system in which, for illustration, the process of set uping a new concern or shuting the concern could be at higher costs and clip consuming. On the other manus low ordinance system is less complicated and would be more encouraging and attractive for entrepreneurial activities. For case, get downing a concern demands vary between states, which likely gives advantages to some states over others in footings of concern creative activity.
Harmonizing to Stel et al. , ( 2007 ) paper, diminishing get down up barriers would hold a positive impact on nascent enterprisers. Therefore, get down up concern demands could play a important function in the entrepreneurship rate because people who want to get down an entrepreneurial concern would be more inclined to discontinue their undertaking if the start up demands were difficult for them to afford. To do it clearer, if the demands are non so demanding, people with advanced new thoughts would be more bucked up to set up their ain concern, which leads to a higher entrepreneurship rates.
Although revenue enhancement is a really of import beginning for the authorities, revenue enhancement policy should be given high considerations regard on entrepreneurial activities since it mostly influences the concern environment in footings of hard currency flow, operations and profitableness within a state.
Enterprises can engage more employees, expand their concerns and purchase more equipment if they could hold a sufficient hard currency flow, which means that they are able to heighten the quality, measure, efficiency and public presentation of their concern aims and operations every bit good as the ability of doing net income. Since revenue enhancement policy is really sensitive, policy shapers are required to seek a balance between the authorities involvements and the economic growing because promoting revenue enhancement system would pull more entrepreneurial activities which can lend to the national economic growing.
‘Wealth is created by Americans – by creativeness and endeavor and hazard pickings.
But authorities can make an environment where concerns and enterprisers and households can woolgather and boom ‘ ( President George W. Bush ) . US Government ever encourages entrepreneurial activities as she understands that the entrepreneurships and little concerns are the anchor of the US economic system. Harmonizing to the US Small Business Administration, the little concern population in the United State consists of some 6 million employer houses and 20 million non-employer houses – 26 million houses in 2005. By assisting these activities, US authorities has set a list of docket on revenue enhancement government, wellness attention, regulative and information on little concerns ( President George W. Bush ) .
United statess have developed a revenue enhancement policy which has encouraged entrepreneurial activities all around the state. This was chiefly by cutting the capital addition revenue enhancement rates from 49 % before 1977 to 15 % at the interim besides cut downing the top single fringy rates from 70 % prior to 1981 to about 38 % in 2007 ( Acs & A ; Szerb 2007, P.111 ) . The US authorities has besides taken action towards increasing little concern disbursals, simplified revenue enhancements for little concerns and for good repeals the decease revenue enhancement purpose to assist to assist little concerns. However, due to the recession economic system in US, entrepreneurial activities have much trouble than of all time in footings of funding, running costs and concern turnover.
Therefore, to promote the activities, President Obama has signed an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act on 17th February 2009 which purpose to let go of the force per unit area of the current concerns every bit good as maintain and promote people ‘s purpose going an enterpriser. The program includes ‘a series of revenue enhancement cuts for little concerns and revenue enhancement inducements to promote investings in little concerns ‘ ( The White House ) which for case, cut down the capital addition revenue enhancement to zero and let tax write-off on capital investing up to $ 250,000 ( USD ) in 2009 and which was $ 125,000 ( USD ) in 2008.
Hong Kong is a good known low revenue enhancement rates metropolis in the universe, she has no value- added, sale and capital additions revenue enhancement and her corporate revenue enhancement rate in 2008 was 16.5 % when comparing US and China was 40 % and 25 % representatively, it is amongst the lowest in the universe. She besides has a simple revenue enhancement system which attracts 3,237 oversea companies to put their regional central office in Hong Kong. In GEM Report, it agrees that the low corporate revenue enhancement was an of import factor in doing Hong Kong an attractive topographic point for concerns.
Follow by the economic reforms in 1978, China has been development from cardinal be aftering to a system of direction duty and answerability, opened market to the universe and going globalisation. The economic system has an astonishing growing in the past 30 old ages. Entrepreneurial activities were no longer township and village-based endeavors, or little family-based concerns ; alternatively, they become more public ownerships and affect a big volume of international concerns. The private concern in China is the fastest-growing sector of China ‘s economic system ( Entrepreneurship in China ) .
Her TEA was bit by bit increased from 10.5 % in 2003, 11.6 % in 2004 to 16.2 % in 2006 and 16.4 % in 2007. In order to pull more outside investors and enterprisers, many foreign companies were allowed to pay much lower rate due to revenue enhancement vacation and revenue enhancement rate grants provided to new companies in China ( Rowbotham B 2009 ) , the Corporate Tax rate in 2007 was 30 % .
However, Chinese authorities recognizes that this lower rate revenue enhancement policy really holding a important inauspicious impact towards the local concerns regard on equity, hard currency flow and motive etc, hence, the authorities has established a new revenue enhancement government which standardize the Corporate Tax at 25 % and which has been taken consequence on the 1st January 2008. The authorities besides applies a Value-added revenue enhancement of 17 % on imports and gross revenues of touchable goods which exclude basic nutrient and necessities, and besides there is a concern revenue enhancement of 3 % to 20 % applies on different sectors of concerns.
Copyright and hallmark protection
‘One of the ways entrepreneurial economic systems motivate people to go enterprisers is by giving their thoughts legal protection ‘ ( Acs & A ; Szerb 2007, P.116 ) . Innovation, creativeness and new thoughts are the kernel elements on the entrepreneurial activities when they start up a concern, hence, states should supply a assurance and secure environment to guarantee the flourish entrepreneurial activities and avoid these thoughts being stolen, copied or reproduced. Copyright, patent and hallmarks protects are necessary and indispensable statute laws to accomplish this intent. Copyright includes ‘literary, dramatic, musical, artistic and certain other rational plants ‘ ( United States Copyright Office ) , it constrains on the ‘the signifier of look instead than the capable affair of composing ‘ . Patent is a protection of any innovation and hallmark is a trade name, name or symbol of a good or concern which usage for identify and separate itself from one to another.
The most serious jobs of buccaneering are in the digital universe and the counterfeiting of different merchandises, and the jobs really have started in 1990s. Harmonizing to The Software & A ; Information Industry Association, the package industry loses $ 48 billion worldwide in 2007 due to piracy happening at corporations and other organisations ( SIIA Anti-piracy Year in Review ) . It is a serious and important impact to the industry and will probably to convey a concern to other industries and sectors about their assurance on rational affairs. There are one-third of broadband users pirate ( Survey, TorrentFreak 2009 ) , and this phenomena seems already has been accepted by the general users as they think that it is non a large issue because so many people are making it and he/she is non the lone 1.
So, authoritiess should non merely beef up on the action against the buccaneering manufacturer, but should really convey more positive signal to the populace every bit good as immature coevalss. On the other manus, the monetary value of the original package has to be adjusted as it is an highly of import factor which doing the buccaneering market expanded ( Lau K W, 2006 ) . It is apprehensible that the monetary value of original package are to be set at high degree to demo the quality and the value of the thoughts, nevertheless, if this scheme will do an opposite consequence which make immense losingss instead than gain a big border of net income as what they expected, so evidently they are destructing their original market themselves.
In US, the 1976 Copyright Act is the act which protects the original work of writing non being unauthorized published. The Act defines publication as ‘the distribution of transcripts or phonorecords of a work to the populace by sale or other transportation of ownership, or by rental, rental, or loaning. The offering to administer transcripts or phonorecords to a group of individuals for intents of farther distribution, public public presentation, or public show constitutes publication. A public public presentation or show of a work does non of itself constitute publication ‘ ( United States Copyright Office ) . The act really does cover all possible happening to protect the right of first publication proprietors and respectful of rational belongings.
The United States Patent and Trademark Office in US is the section which deals with the protections of patent and hallmark, it provides the service of protection, advice every bit good as ‘promotes the industrial and technological advancement of the state and strengthens the economic system ‘ ( General Information Concerning Patents ) . All these information can be accessed easy on their web sites with clear advice and processs of the applications. Even though there is still a big losingss in the package industry in US with $ 9.1 billion in 2007, she is still the lowest Personal computer package buccaneering rate in the universe with 20 % when compares with China is 82 % and Hong Kong is 51 % ( Piracy Study 2007, P.10-11 ) .
Lapp as US, Hong Kong has an single section to cover with rational belongings which is called Intellectual Property Department. However, Hong Kong has a serious buccaneering job and holding a loss of $ 180 million USD in 2006. It has stopped investors puting in Hong Kong particularly on the film and music sectors. Due to this job, the authorities has established the ‘Copyright Ordinance ‘ in 1997, the authorities amended and updated this statute law about every twelvemonth since so and take to command this buccaneering activities ( Tong ) . As a consequence, these activities have a somewhat decreased, harmonizing to Global PC Software Piracy Study, the buccaneering rates has decreased from 52 % in 2003 to 51 % in 2007 ( Piracy Study ) .
China besides has a serious job on this affair and she is one of the most piracy counties in the universe with the buccaneering rate every bit high as 82 % in 2007 ( Piracy Study ) . It has stopped some investors come ining into Chinese market, for case, Sony had announced that it decided to prorogue its China launch of the new Playstation 2 in December 2003, due to this job ( Sony pulls China ‘s PS2 launch ) . However, China really began the official right of first publication protection since 1068 and the formal legal right of first publication protection merely begins in twentieth century ( Zhang F and Xie D, P.1 ) , but harmonizing to the buccaneering rate in China presently, it seems that there is uneffective and rigorous plenty on working on this affair.
3. Economic factors
This is one of the biggest issues impacting entrepreneurial activity, both internal and external to the endeavor. Internally, the cost of running an endeavor in footings of stuffs and labour are the decisive factors act uponing the effectivity of operation within endeavors. Externally, market efficiency, economic freedom, market fight, the degree of employment and the handiness of support besides have major impact on entrepreneurial activity.
Entrepreneurial activities besides differ across states that have different degrees of economic development ( GEM 2007 ) . Normally what people expect that the relationship between entrepreneurial activities rate is negatively affected by a low degree of economic development. However, harmonizing to GEM study 2008, states with really low income per capita ( income per capita is used as a step of the economic development degree ) . This tendency could be caused employment scarceness or by really low pay employment in the state, which is non the instance in states with high income per capita.
Therefore, people within low income per capita would be more inclined to get down their ain concern in order to accomplish a better life. Wennekers et al 2005 pointed out that a high per centum of enterprisers in less developed states are more likely to prosecute in entrepreneurial activities out of necessity instead than working chances. He gives an illustration of Norway where the chance nascent entrepreneurship signifiers 99 % of the entire nascent entrepreneurship whereas it is below 60 % in states like South Africa, Brazil, Argentina and Chile. Iyigun and Owen 1998 assert that there is a negative relationship between the degree of economic development and self-employment activity rate in the labour force. In high economic development states, people would gain comparatively high incomes, which leads them non to put on the line losing their occupations to get down a new concern.
Since they consider they are in a safe state of affairs with their current well-paid occupations. Comparing states which are categorized with well- developed economic sciences, the GEM study 2008 shows that there are considerable differences in the entrepreneurial activity rates even among states that have similar degree of economic development.A When there is a really high degree of economic development it increases income and wealth among clients. Those clients would increase the demand for assortment and this would make new chances to be exploited by little concerns ( Jackson 1984 ) . Harmonizing to the information provided, good degree of economic development does non needfully play a positive function in finding the rate of entrepreneurial activity rate within a state.
This point is demonstrated when states with really low economic development have much higher entrepreneurial activities than those with higher degree of economic development. The subprime crisis, called the worst fiscal crisis since the one related to the Great Depression by taking economic experts, caused universe economic terror and a important diminution in economic activity. The subprime crisis impact timeline lists day of the months relevant to the creative activity of the United States lodging bubble and the 2005 lodging bubble explosion and the subprime mortgage crisis which developed during 2007 and 2008.
Actually, most states show a lessening in sensed chances for get downing a concern between 2007 and 2008. On the other manus, fright of failure among those who perceive good start-up chances has risen to some extent in 2008. As a consequence of the recession, enterprisers ‘ perceived chances for get downing a concern will be lower because of worsening demand for merchandises and therefore worsening expected returns, and lower supply of entrepreneurial finance caused by Bankss being more hazard averse.
Due to the fiscal crisis, the GDP in US has declined from 1.1 % in 2008 to -2.8 % in 2009 ( World Economic Outlook, April 2009 ) . Not surprisingly, the GEM Global Report 2009 shows that entrepreneurial activities in most states were decreased in 2009 due to the crisis, and of class, US is one of the affected state and her TEA has decreased from 10.8 % in 2008 to 8 % in 2009.
Support and funding
To obtain support is a first measure when get downing up a concern. Low cost capital, authorities support support and easy entree to bank loans would promote entrepreneurial activity. However, loaners such as Bankss and other private loaners become more cautiousness on loaning because of the experience of the recognition crunch. Lenders nowadays in US and worldwide go through each loan application as a bug scanning procedure, endeavors are no longer loan from them every bit easy as before, and it is important factors which stop enterprisers ‘ dreams come true. Due to the shortage in US, the authorities has cut the SBA ( Small Business Administration ) yearly loans from $ 20 billion to $ 10 billion this twelvemonth ( The White House ) . It seems there is no effectual to assist in this recession twelvemonth until the whole economic system acquiring better.
Lapp as remainder of the universe, Hong Kong has been serious affected by the fiscal crisis. The GDP in Hong Kong has declined in a big graduated table from 2.5 % in 2008 to -4.5 % in 2009 ( World Economic Outlook, April 2009 ) . The TEA in Hong Kong has aggressively declined from 10 % in 2008 to 1.6 % in 2009.
Support and funding
There are few different ways of raising fund for enterprisers in Hong Kong, but interestingly, non a concern loan from Bankss as Bankss in Hong Kong are non willing to loan for any little new venture due to put on the line concern. However, enterprisers are able to raise fund from Bankss as personal loan and utilizing recognition card, more frequently, people in Hong Kong normally raise financess from friends and household. The authorities besides provide SME Loan warrant strategy which intends to assist little and average endeavors.
China is one of the least affected states in the fiscal crisis, the GDP has somewhat decreased from 9 % in 2008 to 6.5 % in 2009. However, the TEA in China has increased from 16.4 % in 2008 to 18.8 % in 2009 and it is because of ‘the venture capital in China was traveling rapidly and appeared poised to catch Europe in the following few old ages in footings of financess invested ‘ ( GEM Report 2009 ) .
Support and funding
Lapp as Hong Kong, people in China are hard to acquire loans from Bankss for little new ventures due to put on the line concern ; people normally raise financess from friends and household. However, The Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Commerce ( MOC ) promulgated the ‘Notice on Issues Refering the Use and Management of the 2009 Particular Fundss for the Development of Small and Medium Commercial Enterprises ‘ ( Commercial Information Circulars ) which aims to assist and promote the development of entrepreneurial activity.
4. Education and preparation
Higher instruction and expertness are ever the indispensable elements in every section of concerns for guaranting the quality and fight. States with high degree of instruction system in norm would assist entrepreneurs to develop thoughts and assurance every bit good as heighten the economic system by traveling into high engineerings degree. Harmonizing to the GEM Report 2008, formal and informal entrepreneurial instruction and preparation does non run into the criterions required to assist economic growing in the foreseeable hereafter. Within the GEM study it has indicants that provide grounds to propose there is a direct correlativity between the degree of instruction within a peculiar state and its citizens ‘ entrepreneurial and economic success, For illustration, ‘among factor-driven states, the proportion of persons who had received any preparation in get downing a concern, either in school or after school ‘ .
The degree and quality of instruction person receives has an consequence on that persons ability and their practical capableness to win economically within their milieus, so, if person is born in Mongolia and receives small or no formal or informal instruction, they will hold a decreased chance of going entrepreneurial in their future life, as they will ne’er hold been taught the accomplishments necessary to win as an enterpriser in the hereafter. If you have non learnt the entrepreneurial accomplishments necessary to vie in the concern universe any thoughts you may hold, and would wish to develop economically, so it will hold a significantly reduced opportunity of success. ‘Entrepreneurs are non born, they are made. While their sensitivity may be of import it does non hold any significance in isolation from their experiences. It is non built-in within a individual, instead it exists in the interactions between people and with societal state of affairss ‘ ( Wickman P 2003, P.18 ) .
This is agreed with by Duening and his thoughts about implementation theory, what he said, “ is that anyone can be an enterpriser, but non everyone can be. If there is a tantrum between chances in the prevailing environment, and the accomplishments and resources available to the person, so success may be in the offing. If such a tantrum is non present, the draw a bead oning enterpriser may necessitate to wait for conditions to alter, or consequence alterations in personal accomplishments and resources ‘ ( Duening T 2008 ) .
There is a mandatory free instruction for US citizens until they reach the age of 18 to guarantee everyone has a chance to be educated and reach a degree of cognition. The authorities has spent 13.7 % of the authorities outgo in 2005 on the instruction ( UNESCO Institute for Statistics ) .
There is besides a 9 old ages free and mandatory instruction to guarantee people have reached certain degree of instruction, it besides has colleges for preparation in peculiar sectors. The authorities has spent 23 % of the authorities outgo in 2005 on the instruction ( UNESCO Institute for Statistics ) .
China has started supplying nine old ages free and mandatory instruction since 1986 which purposes to heighten the educational degree of the citizens. There was 13 % of authorities disbursement on instruction in 2000 ( UNESCO Institute for Statistics ) .
Overall, in my point of position, there are many factors which doing different degree of activities in entrepreneurship, i.e. cultural, economic sciences, psychological, personality and features, personal behavior and perceptual experience and the environment. It is hard to place any peculiar factor is the major or the lone factor act uponing the TEA in each state as all those factors are linked and related to each other. The figure of entrepreneurial activity is the consequence of the consequence when all these factors interacting with each other.