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Determination Of Speed Of Sound Using Empirical Equations Biology

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Acoustic sound, pilotage and ranging is normally used for submerged measuring applications. The most popular underwater applications utilizing acoustic echo sounder is bathymetry surveying, which echo sounder is used to a measured deepness. Depths in acoustic echo sounder are computed based on sonar equation. In sonar equation, elapsed clip from a detector conveying echo sounders wave to the underside and reflected back to the detector were measured. The chief parametric quantity lending in calculation of deepness utilizing acoustic echo sounders are travel clip and velocity of sound ( SOS ) .

If SOS is accurately known, deepness can be accurately determined. However, SOS values are subjected to temperature, salt and denseness. There are assorted equipments and expression can be used to find SOS accurately. This paper will discourse on field observation of SOS with specific types of H2O classs ( sea H2O, estuary and fresh H2O ) and compare the value between computed SOS utilizing empirical equations and observed SOS.

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Keywords- Speed of Sound ( SOS ) ; Acoustic SONAR ; Empirical Equations ; SVP.

Introduction

In hydrographic surveying, plumbing is the most popular technique being used in depth measuring. This technique normally called sounding. Sounding can be carried out utilizing assorted methods and system such as the mechanical method ( Lead line and sounding pole ) and acoustic method such as a individual beam reverberation sounder ( SBES ) and multi beam reverberation sounder ( MBES ) . Several books explicate more inside informations on these methods and systems. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 9 ] [ 10 ]

Figure 1. Depth measuring utilizing an acoustic echo sounder rules

Most of the hydrographic equipments used sonar rule in mensurating deepness. Fig. 1 shows the basic rule of depth measuring utilizing acoustic echo sounder.

In depth finding utilizing acoustic echo sounder, travel clip of acoustic echo sounder transmitted from a transducer to the bottom surface and reflected back are measured. By utilizing following equation deepnesss can easy be computed:

( 1 )

From the ( 1 ) , it clearly shows that travel clip and velocity of sound are the major parts to find an accurate deepness. Travel clip of acoustic echo sounder can be accurately recorded by echo sounder. However, velocity of sound may be measured accurately utilizing direct ( Velocity profiler or Conductivity, Temperature and Depth detector ) or indirect method ( saloon cheque and empirical expression ) . Therefore, the velocity of sound demands to be determined accurately to guarantee accurate computed deepness.

Speed of sound in H2O is variable due to temperature, salt and denseness. [ 1 ] [ 6 ] . in the other words, value of velocity of sound is non consistent when propagate through different types of H2O classs. Study of velocity of sound is of import as most of the echo sounder equipments are required to put the true value of velocity of sound during operations. The purpose of this survey was to place the value of velocity of sound at assorted types of H2O classs ( sea H2O, estuary and fresh H2O ) and eventually compare the ascertained values with ensuing values utilizing empirical equations.

Study location

This survey was carried out at three different locations based on the purpose of the survey. For sea H2O observation, analyze country was located at Pantai Marang, Terengganu ( Fig. 2 ( a ) ) as this location is regarded as an unfastened sea and facing to the South China Sea. Taman Tasik Shah Alam, Selangor ( Fig. 2 ( B ) ) was chosen as this semisynthetic lake contains of strictly fresh H2O. Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu ( Fig. 2 ( degree Celsius ) ) for estuary observation country was selected due to the oral cavity of river was expected to hold its ain tidal prism.

The points marked on the map where the approximative locations for velocity of sound observations. The points were located by utilizing a handheld GPS.

Figure 2. Study Area ( Google Earth & A ; Google Map )

Field observation and calculation

In order to obtain velocity of sound at the survey country, the flow chart of field observation was constructed and shown at Fig. 3. There were three different selected locations for three types of H2O classs such as a sea H2O, fresh H2O and estuarine site. First, informations were collected at sea H2O at 10 different points. The intent of roll uping informations at assorted points was to happen the mean sound speed value for each H2O class. The 2nd informations aggregation was at estuarine site and followed by fresh H2O. For fresh H2O, the observation was conducted at two different clip zones: dark and daylight. These observations were merely conducted for fresh H2O to place the consequence on velocity of sound at a different temperatures at the H2O surface.

Figure 3. Filed Observation Method

Speed of sound informations was measured utilizing portable sound speed profiler ( Digibar Pro ) developed by ODOM at all proposed locations. The investigation was set in clip informations acquisition manner and lowered the investigation from the surface bed to the bottom bed ( Fig 4. )

Figure 4. Stairss in take downing investigation

The value of velocity of sound can be determined by an empirical expression, utilizing Density or Depth ( D ) , Temperature ( T ) and Salinity ( S ) information. All these values can be measured or reciprocally deliberate utilizing different types of equipments. In this survey, the value of denseness, temperature, salt reciprocally calculated utilizing sound speed profiler ( SVP ) equipment. There are several Numberss of equations available to cipher the velocity of sound in H2O from the less accurate ( simples equation ) to the most accurate ( complicated equations ) . The most popular and accurate equation for ciphering sound speed are Chin and Millero ( 1977 ) , Del Grosso ( 1974 ) , Makenzie ( 1981 ) and Medwin ( 1975 ) [ 1 ] . In this survey, velocity of sound was estimated based on simple equation ( Del Grosso, Mackenzie and Medwin ) non a complicated equation ( Chin and Millero ) .

Del Grosso ( 1974 ) equation.

Del Grosso equation has a more restricted scope of cogency. Range of cogency for temperature is from 0 to 30 A°C, salt 30 to 40 parts per 1000, force per unit area 0 to 1000 kg/cm2. This equation used as an option to UNESCO algorithm. Following equation already reformulated for new 1990 International Temperature Scale [ 12 ] and their version is:

degree Celsius ( S, T, P ) = C000 +a?†CT +a?†CS +a?†CP +a?†CSTP ( 2 )

Where,

a?†CT ( T ) = CT1T + CT2T2 + CT3T3

a?†CS ( S ) = CS1S + CS2S2

a?†CP ( P ) = CP1P + CP2P2 + CP3P3

a?†CSTP ( S, T, P ) = CTPTP + CT3PT3P + CTP2TP2 + CT2P2T2P2 + CTP3TP3 +CSTST + CST2ST2 + CSTPSTP + CS2TPS2TP + CS2P2S2P2

* T = temperature in grades Celsius, S = salt in Practical Salinity Units, P = force per unit area in kg/cm2

The coefficients value of the Del Grosso equations are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Coefficient IN THE DEL GROSSO EQUATION FOR CALCULATING SPEED OF SOUND

Coefficients

Numeric values

C000

1402.392

CT1

5.01E+00

CT2

-5.51E-02

CT3

2.22E-04

CS1

1.33E+00

CS2

1.29E-04

CP1

0.1560592

CP2

2.45E-05

CP3

-8.83E-09

Central time

-1.28E-02

CTP

6.35E-03

CT2P2

2.66E-08

CTP2

-1.59E-06

CTP3

5.22E-10

CT3P

-4.38E-07

CS2P2

-1.62E-09

CST2

9.69E-05

CS2TP

4.86E-06

CSTP

-3.41E-04

Mackenzie ( 1981 ) equation.

Mackenzie ‘s equation is simpler compared to Del Grosso equation but still has a restricted in a scope of cogency. This equation used a map of temperature, salt and deepness. The different between Mackenzie, Chen & A ; Millero and Del Grosso is utilizations of deepness in the equation. Range of cogency for temperature is from 2 to 30 A°C, salt 25 to 40 parts per 1000, depth 0 to 8000m.

degree Celsius ( D, S, T ) = 1448.96 + 4.591T – 5.304 ten 10-2T2 +

2.374 ten 10-4T3 + 1.340 ( S-35 ) + ( 3 )

1.630 ten 10-2D + 1.675 ten 10-7D2 –

10-2T ( S – 35 ) – 7.139 ten 10-13TD3

*T = temperature in grades Celsius, S = salt in parts per 1000, D = deepness in metres

Medwin ( 1975 ) equation.

This equation is the simplest equation in calculating velocity of sound. Medwin equation is given as:

degree Celsiuss = 1449.2 + 4.6T a?’ 0.055T 2 + 0.00029 T 3 +

( 1.34 a?’ 0.010T ) ( S a?’ 35 ) + 0.016 D ( 4 )

*T = temperature in grades Celsius, S = salt in parts per 1000, D = deepness in meters

This equation is valid for realistic combinations of Temperature, Salinity and Depth. The scope of cogency of Medwin equation in the scopes, temperature 0 to 35 A°C, salt 0 to 40 parts per 1000 and deepness 0 to 1000 m. By utilizing this equation all the parametric quantities must be measured accurately [ 1 ] .

Speed of sound utilizing svp

Speed of sound at sea H2O

TABLE 2.VALUE OF SPEED OF SOUND AT SEA WATER USING SOUND VELOCITY PROFILER EQUIPMENT

Depth

Sos

Salt

Temp

A

( m/s )

( ppt )

( OC )

0

1546

30.7

33

0.5

1546

30.6

33

1

1546.1

30.3

33

1.5

1546.1

30.2

33

2

1546.1

30.2

33

2.5

1546.1

30.3

33

3

1546.1

30.3

33

3.5

1546.1

30.3

33

4

1546.1

30.2

33

4.5

1546.1

30

33

5

1546.1

29.8

33

5.5

1546.2

29.9

33

6

1546.2

30.1

33

Average

1546.1

30.2

33

Table 2 shows the consequences of mean velocity of sound value straight measured at the sea H2O depth 0- 6 metres utilizing sound speed profiler. The velocity of sound every deepness shown at the tabular array 2 is based on the mean value of 10 different points of observations at the survey country. The consequence shows that there is no important increase of velocity of sound within the deepness of 0-6 metres at sea H2O. The mean value of velocity of sound at a saltwater site is 1546.1 m/s with regard to the mean temperature of 33oC and the norm of salt of 30.2 ppt.

Speed of sound at Estuarial site

Table 3. VALUE OF SPEED OF SOUND AT ESTUARIAL SITE USING SOUND VELOCITY PROFILER EQUIPMENT

Depth

Sos

Salt

Temp

A

( m/s )

( ppt )

( OC )

0

1523.1

13.4

30

0.5

1523.4

13.7

30

1

1525.1

15.4

30

1.5

1526.9

17.7

30

2

1531.6

21.6

30

2.5

1533.9

24.2

30

3

1536.5

26.4

30

3.5

1537.7

27.8

30

4

1539.6

29.7

30

4.5

1540

29.6

30

5

1541

30.3

30

5.5

1541.3

30.9

30

6

1541.5

30.9

30

Average

1534

24.0

30

The mean value of velocity of sound at estuarine site from depth 0-6 metres is 1534 m/s as shown at Table 3. The velocity of sound for every deepness is based on the mean value of 10 different points of observations at the survey country. From the consequences, velocity of sound is significantly increased when the H2O deepness and salt of the H2O addition. This is the apparent to tidal prism happenings. However, the value of temperature is staying changeless at 30oC at all deepness.

Speed of sound at fresh H2O

Table 4. VALUE OF SPEED OF SOUND AT FRESH WATER USING SOUND VELOCITY PROFILER EQUIPMENT

Depth

Sos

Salt

Temp

A

( m/s )

( ppt )

( OC )

0

1515.7

0

33

0.5

1515.7

0

33

1

1516.2

0

33

1.5

1516.5

0.2

33

2

1516.8

0.7

33

2.5

1517.3

1.7

33

3

1517.9

1.8

33

3.5

1518

1.8

33

Average

1517

0.8

33

In Table 4, the consequences show mean value of velocity of sound straight measured at the fresh H2O for deepness at scope 0-3.5 metres. The velocity of sound every deepness is based on the mean value of 7 different points at twenty-four hours and dark observations. From the consequence, it shows that the velocity of sound is increased around 0.1-0.5 m/s at the scope of depth 0-3.5meters. The mean value of velocity of sound at fresh H2O is 1517 m/s with regard to the mean temperature of 33oC and the norm of salt of 0.8 ppt.

velocity of sound based on empirical equations

Table 5 shows the value of velocity of sound at three different empirical equations and differences with the value straight collected utilizing SVP at sea H2O, estuarine site and fresh H2O. From this tabular array 5 ( a ) , the difference value of velocity of sound calculated utilizing empirical equation and value from SVP at the scope 0.2-0.5 m/s at sea H2O. Del Grosso equations showed the highest differences meanwhile Medwin equation showed the lowest difference at sea H2O.

Table 5 ( B ) shows, the differences value of velocity of sound calculated utilizing empirical equations and direct measuring utilizing SVP at estuarine site. There is no important difference in footings of velocity of sound between calculated utilizing empirical equations and straight measured.

At the fresh H2O, value of velocity of sound utilizing Del Grosso equation and value from SVP has the same value of 1516.7 m/s. However, by utilizing Medwin and Mackenzie equations, the value of differences between calculated and direct measuring is at the scope 0.1-0.3m/s as shown at Table 5 ( degree Celsius ) .

Table 5: COMPARISON VALUE OF SPEED OF SOUND USING EQUATIONS AND SVP AT ( a ) SEA WATER ( B ) ESTUARIAL SITE ( degree Celsius ) FRESH WATER

( a )

Equation

Sos

SOS ( SVP )

DIFF

A

( m/s )

( m/s )

( m/s )

Del Grosso

1546.6

1546.1

0.5

Mackenzie

1546.5

1546.1

0.4

Medwin

1546.3

1546.1

0.2

( B )

Equation

Sos

SOS ( SVP )

DIFF

A

( m/s )

( m/s )

( m/s )

Del Grosso

1534.1

1534

0.1

Mackenzie

1534.1

1534

0.1

Medwin

1534.2

1534

0.2

( degree Celsius )

Equation

Sos

SOS ( SVP )

DIFF

A

( m/s )

( m/s )

( m/s )

Del Grosso

1516.7

1516.7

0

Mackenzie

1517

1516.7

0.3

Medwin

1516.6

1516.7

0.1

Decision

Value of velocity of sound at sea H2O, estuarine site and fresh H2O was discussed and presented in this paper. These consequences of survey give utile information for preliminary phase for sounding intents. With this value, hydrographer will salvage clip in choosing suited velocity of sound in graduating echo sounder equipment. It can be concluded that the value of velocity of sound for sea H2O is 1546 m/s, estuarine site is 1534 m/s and fresh H2O is 1517 m/s. From this survey, salt is the major part in the finding of velocity of sound at the survey country. These findings are valid for the country such as where the observations were made and likely valid for non-extreme clime alteration states.

Cite this Determination Of Speed Of Sound Using Empirical Equations Biology

Determination Of Speed Of Sound Using Empirical Equations Biology. (2017, Jul 13). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/determination-of-speed-of-sound-using-empirical-equations-biology-essay-essay/

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