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Domestic Violence ams Child Abuse



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    Introduction of youths to forceful conduct at home and misuse is a kind of child mishandle with short-and whole deal direct and mental prosperity influence. (Allen, Wolf, Bybee, & Sullivan, 2003) further said that in any case, the prosperity of teenagers isn’t unaffected and detached from the psychological state of the family.

    Therapeutic administrations specialists are generally unverifiable about how to respond to harsh conduct at home and are particularly indistinguishable about best practice as for youths’ introduction and their part in a multiagency reaction. (Kimball, 2016) claims there is directly great affirmation that seeing forceful conduct at home can have troublesome outcomes for adolescents.

    The fact of the matter is to display the socio-measurement compares of children seeing nearby violence and its association with youth mental clutters. (Lepistö, Luukkaala, & Paavilainen, 2011) states the factors self-rulingly associated with a more vital likelihood of an adolescent seeing injurious conduct at home were: more settled age gathering, mixed ethnicity, physical perplexity, a couple of adolescents in family, isolated watchmen, living in rented settlement, poor neighborhoods, the mother’s enthusiastic state and family brokenness.

    Seeing outrageous forceful conduct at home almost tripled the likelihood of children having lead issue yet was not self-governingly associated with energetic disarranges. After all the information I’ve required through my research all the information was set on the percentile of people who were affected by DV.

    But My research focuses on both quantitative and qualitative research mainly qualitative research because I want to know how witnessing DV affects the emotions and behavior of the adolescents not just the number of adolescents affected. I believe that from constantly witnessing DV this causes the adolescents to behave negatively and show no remorse for their behavior because they feel as if they weren’t taught any better.

    Literature Review

    “Domestic violence and child maltreatment are considered not only a worldwide public health problem but also a major violation of children’s heights.” (Volkl-Kernstock, 2016) One of the honest to goodness enlightenments for intergenerational transmission of mercilessness is that adolescents may show or copy the convincing practices they find in their kin (Bandura, 1973).

    By definition, forceful conduct at home joins not simply physical abuse, yet eager abuse, sexual abuse and abuse of property and pets excessively. Experiencing this kind of violence whether the loss is a man, woman or child is possibly unsafe by those shocked and regularly leaves a setback with a sentiment of shortcoming, frailty, vulnerability and wretchedness. Both female and male patients were most frequently affected by domestic violence between 11 and 15 years of age.

    Female and male patients were most frequently affected by emotional violence. Generally, the harmful lead at home creating has given wary idea to the encounters and needs of young people who witness their moms being abused. It is winding up logically clear that despite when youths are not the quick setbacks of physical snare, seeing abuse against their mothers builds up a kind of energetic damage that warrants advance thought. (Allen, N. E., Wolf, A. M., Bybee, D. I., and Sullivan, C. M, 2003).

    As shown by WHO, a normal 31 000 children younger than 15 years kicked the can all around due to nearby brutality in 2002. (Sariola, 2011). (Uutela, 2011) Then once more, it has been assessed that one million children are each year subjected to different sorts of abuse in their families . (Sariola and Uutela,2011) assumed that in Finland 19% of each youth younger than 15 years had been subjected to delicate private brutality in the past a year while 5% had been setbacks of outrageous viciousness.

    A creating grouping of composing exhibits that adolescents who witness abuse against their mothers, despite when they are not themselves the destinations of violence, are in risk for maladjustment when stood out from youths that have not been introduced to harsh conduct at home (Rossman, 2001; Tomkins et al., 1994; see in like manner Onyskiw, 2003).

    Oppressive conduct at home is represented to be high during the early extended lengths of marriage where the women are well while in transit to be mothers of young children are pregnant (O’Leary, 1997 & Fantuzzo, Boruch, Beriama, Atkins and Marcus, 1997). Among the women who experience harsh conduct at home, thirty-five percent of them encounter brutality of extraordinary nature, i.e, sexual and physical violence. Despite seeing violence, kids have every now and again been in a family air of weight, threatening, and control, possibly including energetic and money related abuse and compelled social restriction.

    As criminologists observe, the people who witness violence as adolescents will likely breeze up in harming conditions as adults (Arbetter 1995; Miller et al. 1991; Purvin 2003). As demonstrated by Agnew (2002), seeing violence can be viewed as a kind of vicarious abuse, which has been observed to be vehemently related to offense.

    Simply being revealed to viciousness assembles the peril of masking (uneasiness and downfall) and externalizing conduct (ill will and bad behavior). Masking practices would assemble the danger of misuse while externalizing rehearses increase the likelihood criminal practices (Kernic et al. 2003).

    Research on kids introduced to IPV has extended exponentially over the span of the most recent two decades, yet most records of their experiences have been represented by mothers rather than youths themselves. Experiences of fierceness among youths are getting the opportunity to be logically ordinary. Past examinations have outlined a sensible association between propose accessory violence and adolescent abuse.

    Forceful conduct at home in like manner tends to raise; the brutality starts truly delicate and after that grows dynamically more horrendous, and those seeing private viciousness improvement toward getting to be setbacks of violence.(McGuigan and Pratt, 2010)found that oppressive conduct at home in the gathering of a half year old child tripled the risk of physical abuse and duplicated the peril of mental abuse and negligence in the underlying 5 years of a tyke’s life.

    Additionally, experiences of violence tend to be passed down from parent to kid, and the misused every now and again transforms into the abuser. Bits of knowledge certify that the rate of oppressive conduct at home as it relates to the energetic, physical and sexual mercilessness in the lives of youths is a veritable general prosperity problem. (i.e: Children from homes where forceful conduct at home happens are physically or unequivocally mauled and moreover really expelled at a rate 15 times that of the national ordinary.

    Mental abuse is a case of direct that ambushes a tyke’s energetic progression and feeling of confidence. Mental abuse consolidates excessive, mighty or over the top demands that place wants on a youth past his or her capacity. Steady confining, undermining, examining, putting down, annoying, dismissing and nudging are a segment of the structures these verbal ambushes can take.

    Mental abuse moreover consolidates failure to give the psychological maintaining essential to a tyke’s psychological improvement and headway – giving no fondness, support or bearing (Nguyen, T., and Larsen, S, 2011). (Meichenbaum,1994) found that approximately, 45-70% of battered women in covers nitty gritty the closeness of children in the home in the midst of viciousness scenes.

    Posterity of every single budgetary class, races, religions, ethnic establishments, and sexual presentations, witness and are in this way setbacks of damaging conduct at home/adolescent abuse each day in the United States. In the year 2004, there was an ordinary of 5 youth passings for consistently in the United States, executed by gatekeepers or conceivably parental figures. The disclosures are presented under the genuine subjects of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). This is the attestation that each child has basic thing rights.

    These consolidate the benefit to life, survival and advancement, assurance from fierceness, abuse or negligence, a preparation that engages youths to fulfill their potential, be raised by, or have a relationship with their people, express their appraisals and be checked out. In a national investigation of in excess of 6,000 American families, it was assessed that between 53% what’s more, 70% of male batterers who trapped their life partners in like manner routinely mistreated their adolescents.

    Other research suggests that women who have been battered by their life partners were twice as likely as different women to mistreat a tyke. (Find later and Kelly, 1999) found demonstrate that exhibited that State associations definite around 211,000 substantiated cases of adolescent physical abuse besides, 128,000 examples of tyke sexual abuse, in homes where forceful conduct at home was furthermore known to exist.

    Nevertheless, authorities have found that children respond to harsh conduct at home as curiously, as their individual fingerprints. Characteristics, for instance, ordinary or superior to expected academic progression, social aptitudes, certainty, self-reasonability, drawing in quality to other individuals in both personality and appearance, particular capacities, religious affiliations, money related preferred standpoint, incredible mentoring and contact with people and circumstances that are sure, all assistance in the probability of a more constructive headway result for adolescents who witness neighborhood violence.

    Juvenile’s perspective toward violence in the house is constantly unique, since youngsters are not disconnected spectators, flawless by the furious events. The examination by (Paavilainen et al, 2013) exhibited that youngsters have oftentimes encountered various sorts of abuse and that they believe that its difficult to separate between them. Mauled youngsters are constrained to live in a condition, which results in various setbacks and negative feelings.

    The psychological and energetic issues, the mental working issues and also the more drawn out term developmental issues are inside and out enhanced or reduced by different mitigating factors including: paying little mind to whether the child has moreover been a setback of physical, sexual abuse and in addition ignore, an adolescent’s age and sexual introduction at the time that he/she saw the forceful conduct at home, the proportion of time that has gone since seeing viciousness, where the tyke is living (i.e. is the guilty parties closeness still a risk (saw or something unique) to the youth).

    (Fantuzzo and Mohr,1999) and (Carteret al,1999) have each and every made thinking and capabilities about the distinctive stages. Program ramifications for mental and physical misuse and mental what’s progressively, advanced execution was coordinated by the proportion of adolescent prologue to forceful conduct at home; there were colossal incredible program impacts for young people with higher, anyway not cut down levels of introduction to family unit violence.

    There were no coordinated or essential ramifications for sexual violence misuse and execution or computerized abuse. The revelations recommend that a dating abuse evasion program expected for youngsters exhibited to harsh conduct at home can have basic useful results.

    Infant kids and children who witness violence show outrageous crabbiness, undeveloped lead, rest aggravations, excited anguish, fears of being far off from every other person, and backslide in toileting and tongue. Preschool children may make enuresis and talk inadequacies. Seeing forceful conduct at home in the midst of the infant youngster little child arrange, interferes with a child’s average change of trust and later exploratory practices, which incite the progression of autonomy.

    Teenagers settled in a home where damaging conduct at home exists go up against the issue of endeavoring to blend in with their partners while keeping their home life undisclosed. The outcome can be adolescents that for reasons unknown make sense of how to shape trusting, persevering associations, or youths who end up in unpleasant associations themselves (either as the guilty party regularly by virtue of folks and also the setback simply more often by virtue of female young people who witness harsh conduct at home in the home.).

    Besides, adolescents defy unclear issues from more energetic children in an unforgiving family that is feeling ruined and separated, parentification, lead tribulations, extend related therapeutic and mental wellbeing issues, and difficulties in school. Youngsters who encounter abuse in ruthlessness homes will most likely take part in medicine and alcohol abuse, smoking, risky sexual lead, and intense, threatening to social direct.

    It is estimated by research studies (Carlson, 1984; Holden, 1998, 2003; Straus, 1992) that between three and 17.8 million children are exposed to at least one incident of domestic violence each year and yet it is only since 30 years that studies have exposure to domestic violence, resulting in a depth of empirical knowledge about its prevalence and impact on its youngest victims, (Holt, Buckley & Whelan, 2008; Hague & Mullender, 2006; Hazen, Connolly, Kelleher, Barth, & Landsverk, 2006).

    Before then, children were thought to be disconnected from the abusive settings and as such were labelled points has changed over time with more studies (McIntosh, 2002; Mullender et al., 2002) demonstrating that children are affected as witnesses of parental violence. According to (Holt et al, 2008) & (Levendosky, Huth-Bocks, Semel 2002), adolescence mark the point when the impact of domestic violence extends beyond the boundary of the family, with difficulty forming health intimate relationships with peers due to the models they experienced in their families.

    Research suggests exposed adolescents are less likely to have a secure attachment style and more likely to have an avoidant attachment style, indicating perhaps that they no longer feel trust in intimate relationships. Usually when an adolescent is mistreated during their childhood it is a very risky chance of becoming antisocial later in life. An adolescent can be violated in many of ways in school such as sexual abuse or assault with and without the physical contact taking place by an adult/child between an adult/child even just witnessing it going on.

    According to (Lepistö,2011) In spite of WHO an estimated 31,00 children under the age of 15 years died globally because of domestic violence in 2002. There are never inactive attitudes from adolescents in home from the fact the adolescents are not indifferent bystanders, untouched by the violent events. An abused adolescent(s) is imposed to live in such situations which causes multiple losses and negative emotions.

    “A punch only lasts a fraction of a second but waiting to get punched may hang in the air for years” (Lepistö,2011). Many abused adolescents have reported that their biggest fears are not being hit nut the constant threat of being attacked. “In addition, experience of violence tends to be passed down from parent to child, and the abused often becomes the abuser” (Paavilainen, 2011).

    (O’Keefe, 1996) found that both parent-child violence and witnessing DV predicted adolescent male and female internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in a sample of 935 high schools’ students representing a diverse ethnic and socioeconomic status population. In contrast, in a group of 101 adolescents in residential treatments or shelters, (Carlson, 1990) found that witnessing DV only had a modest impact on adolescent male functioning and was unrelated to female functioning. Many factors such as maternal social support and life stress were seen to have significant effects on children’s functioning (Levendosky & Graham-Bermann, 2000, 2001).

    While an adolescent, the impact of DV can affect them beyond the border of family and their intimate relationships, close friends and dating partners can also be affected. Adolescents coming from families affected by DV can have difficulties forming healthy intimate relationships with peers due to the exemplary they witness in their families. (Wekerle and Wolfe, 1998) found that an adolescent witnessing or experiencing family violence was the best predictor of adolescent male abusive behavior in a close relationship with a girl.

    Research Method

    “Research methodology is a logical and systematic search for new and useful information on a particular topic” (Rajaseka,2006). For this research study, I will be using the qualitative research method. My study focuses on the way teens feelings or lifestyles are affected by witnessing domestic violence.

    Rajaseka also states qualitative research gathers “non-numerical” data and focuses of data that would provide insights into certain problems such as the one I am researching. “Qualitative research uses a naturalistic approach that seeks to understand phenomena in context-specific settings, such as ‘real world setting where the researcher does not attempt to manipulate the phenomenon of interest’” (Patton, 2001). A unique quality about using qualitative research is that it gives an intellectual image about what the research is studying.

    I chose the qualitative method because I can question my participants using open-ended questions and get their insights without them being offended.


    The participants that I will be using are those in my Facebook groups containing whether they were victims of domestic violence or still are going through domestic violence. I will be sending out survey to my group members and wait for their response to my 10 questions that I have put inside of my survey. Within each of the groups contain 500 members or more and I joined 3 of these groups which would be adding up to a total of 1,500 or more participants.


    The materials I will be using are my computer to make and type up my survey, google forms to create my survey because I found it easier for me to better demonstrate my questions. I will be using Facebook to send out the survey and I will also be using Microsoft Word to type up the results of my survey and to also type up my research paper.


    My procedures to gaining the information was slightly easy. First, I had to sit and think what some good questions would be to ask people who were affected by domestic violence without offending them. Next, I had to make the questions understandable and put them inside of a survey.

    I join groups containing people that’s relevant to my research topic and wait for their approval. After, I send out my survey to the people within the groups and I sit and wait for their responses. Lastly, I come back to my research paper fill in my results of the survey and finish typing up my research paper using the results of my participants who responded to my survey.


    1. Allen, N. E., Wolf, A. M., Bybee, D. I., & Sullivan, C. M. (2003). Diversity of Children’s Immediate Coping Responses to Witnessing Domestic Violence. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 3(1/2), 123–147. Retrieved from
    2. Chanmugam, A. (2014). Got One Another’s Backs: Mother-Teen Relationships in Families Escaping Intimate Partner Violence. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 24(7), 811–827.
    3. Foshee, V., Benefield, T., Dixon, K., Chang, L.-Y., Senkomago, V., Ennett, S., … Bowling, J. (2015). The Effects of Moms and Teens for Safe Dates: A Dating Abuse Prevention Program for Adolescents Exposed to Domestic Violence. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 44(5), 995–1010.
    4. I. P., S. (2017). Children Affected by Domestic Violence: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Golafshani, N. (2003). Understanding Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research. The Qualitative Report, 8(4), 597-606. Retrieved from
    5. Rajagiri Journal of Social Development, 9(1), 37–46. Retrieved from
    6. Jankowski, M. K., Leitenberg, H., Henning, K., & Coffey, P. (1999). Intergenerational Transmission of Dating Aggression as a Function of Witnessing Only Same Sex Parents vs. Opposite Sex Parents vs. Both Parents as Perpetrators of Domestic Violence. Journal of Family Violence, 14(3), 267–279. Retrieved from
    7. Kimball, E. (2016). Edleson Revisited: Reviewing Children’s Witnessing of Domestic Violence 15 Years Later. Journal of Family Violence, 31(5), 625–637.
    8. Latip, R. A. (2014). Hearing Young People Talk about Witnessing Domestic Violence. Child & Family Social Work, 19(1), 121–122.
    9. Lepistö, S., Luukkaala, T., & Paavilainen, E. (2011). Witnessing and experiencing domestic violence: a descriptive study of adolescents. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 25(1), 70–80.
    10. Maji, S. (2018). Health consequences of witnessing domestic violence among children: A review. Indian Journal of Health & Wellbeing, 9(1), 66–69. Retrieved from
    11. Martin, C., Houston, A., Mmari, K., & Decker, M. (2012). Urban Teens and Young Adults Describe Drama, Disrespect, Dating Violence and Help-Seeking Preferences. Maternal & Child Health Journal, 16(5), 957–966.
    12. McGavock, L., & Spratt, T. (2017). Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: Using Adverse Childhood Experience Scores to Inform Service Response. British Journal of Social Work, 47(4), 1128–1146.
    13. Mustanoja, S., Luukkonen, A.-H., Hakko, H., Räsänen, P., Säävälä, H., & Riala, K. (2011). Is Exposure to Domestic Violence and Violent Crime Associated with Bullying Behaviour Among Underage Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients? Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 42(4), 495–506.
    14. Nguyen, T., & Larsen, S. (2011). Domestic Violence is Child Abuse: Prevalence of Witnessing Parental Violence. Journal of Indian Association for Child & Adolescent Mental Health, 7(4), 107–122. Retrieved from
    15. Payne, B. K., Triplett, R. A., & Higgins, G. E. (2011). The Relationship Between Self-Control, Witnessing Domestic Violence, and Subsequent Violence. Deviant Behavior, 32(9), 769–789.
    16. Shrivastava, M., Shah, N., & Navaid, S. (2018). Assessment of change in knowledge about research methods among delegates attending research methodology workshop. Perspectives in Clinical Research, 9(2), 83–90.[_]41_17
    17. Völkl-Kernstock, S., Huemer, J., Jandl-Jager, E., Abensberg-Traun, M., Marecek, S., Pellegrini, E., … Skala, K. (2016). Experiences of Domestic and School Violence Among Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 47(5), 691–695.

    Domestic Violence ams Child Abuse. (2021, Jul 25). Retrieved from

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