Great Britain did not agree with this policy but t kept Europe out of war until World War 1 100 years later. 3. Discuss the main ideologies of change in the first half of the 1 9th century. Which was the most powerful and why? Conservatives believed society should have order, and that tradition maintains order. Liberals believed people should be as free from restraint as possible. Supporters were mostly middle class workers who believed in laissez-fairer, no government interference except for defense, police and public works, and civil liberties for all.
Socialists believed that human cooperation is superior to competition. They sought government assistance to solve social problems. Nationalism was the strongest ideology because it comes out when a population , invariably led by intellectuals, perceive a common enemy that they can unite against. 4. What accounted for the July Revolution in France? Explain the division of opinion in groups that favored the revolution. How was that conflict resolved? What was the effect of the July Revolution on Great Britain? He July Revolution was caused by the middle class’s opposition to King Charles Ax’s government.
The first group that favored the revolution were those who critiqued the imposition of the death anally for anyone profaning the Eucharist accused the King of complying with the Catholic Church and by doing so they were not guaranteeing religious equality. The second group that favored the revolution were significantly opportunistic. This is because of the provision for financial indemnities (or security) for property confiscated during the first empire of Napoleon. After Charles X issued the Four Ordinances, liberals were outraged and he went into exile in England.
A constitutional monarchy was created under Louis Philippe. This year saw the election of Great Britain, the Great Reform Bill which was an effort to reform Parliament. Historian believed that the July Revolution influenced the voting but it was actually the result of a series of events different from those that occurred on the Continent. 5. What attitudes were emerging among the working people of Britain and France? What avenues were open to them for the improvement of their position? The practice of confection in France caused the division of labor.
Less skill was was being required by workers and therefore the skilled were being replaced by the less skilled due to their willingness to work for lower wages. These workers who were proud of their skills and frustrated by their social and economic expectations became the most radical political element in the European working class. Chartist was introduced and a Charter was issued with 6 specific reforms. Eventually several of these became laws. Continental working class observers saw that Chartist was the mass movement that workers must adopt to improve their situation. 6.
Why did revolutions break out in so many different places at once in Europe in 1848? What can be said in general about these revolutions? The causes of these revolts were the emends for constitutional government, peasant opposition to the manorial system in Central Europe, suppression of native languages like Czech, and of course nationalism. Especially among Germans, Hungarian, Italians and Czech. The revolution of 1848 began in France as a protest against voting restrictions, political corruption, and economic conditions. The French king abdicated and a new liberal government was set up.
So in France the main cause was social, against a conservative government. But as the revolts spread to central Europe it came to be nationalistic. The Italians wanted to rive their Austrian rulers from north Italy. The Hungarian and Czech wanted political power. In the German Confederation workers demanded social reform. So the revolution of 1 848 was political and social. For the most part the liberal cause failed. The revolutions were unsuccessful. However European rulers became more sensitive to the demands of nationalists and began experimenting with more liberal forms of government.
Identifications: Enclosure laws- British landlords consolidated or fenced in common lands to increase the production of cash crops. The Enclosure Acts led to an increase n the size of farms held by large landowners. Bank of England- The Bank of England lent money to the government in exchange for the distribution of paper banknotes, which eventually replaced gold and silver currency. This process created the idea of a national debt separate from the monarch’s personal debts. Military and government expenditures would continue to rise.
John Law’s “bubble”- John Law organized French central bank and the Mississippi Company which had a monopoly of trade with Louisiana. John Law was allowed to assume the entire government debt with this company. Bonds ere issued and a plan to eliminate the debt and establish tax reform was created. Speculation and prices rose, causing the Mississippi Bubble to burst. The “putting-out” or “domestic system”- a system in which a merchant- capitalist entrepreneur bought the raw materials, and put them out to rural workers, who wove it into cloth.
The entrepreneur sold the finished product, made a profit, and used it to manufacture more. Richard Rightist’s Water Frame- powered by horse or water; turned out yarn much faster than cotton spinning wheels; led to the development Of mechanized looms Samuel Compton- developed an alternative technique for a spinning machine, but required more power than a human arm could supply so spinning was gradually concentrated in factories Thomas Newcomer-He invented the first primitive steam engine, but it was extremely inefficient.
It worked by burning coal to produce steam, which was used to operate a pump. Many English and Scottish mines used this engine successfully despite its inefficiency. James Watt and the rotary engine- Watt developed a rotary engine that could turn a shaft and drive machinery. Steam power could now e applied to spinning and weaving and thus used in cotton mills. Factories no longer had to be located near rivers since the steam engines were powered by coal. George Stephenson Rocket- The first successful locomotive for the first modern railways.
Great Exhibition of 1851, the Crystal Palace- Britain’s Great Exhibition of 1 851, an industrial fair, was held in the Crystal Palace, a tribute to British engineering skills. The exhibition was not only a symbol of British success, but also a symbol of how the Industrial Revolution achieved human domination over nature. Samuel Slater- embodied spinning jenny and water frame to make spinning mule Ireland’s Great Hunger- Caused due to a fungus that ravaged the potato population, leaving millions Of Irish starving. In this time, the Irish emigrated to many parts of the world, especially Britain and the united States.
This caused a major decline in Ireland’s population. Poor Law Commissioners- They wrote detailed reports of the conditions of cities during the revolution. Edwin Chadwick was one of them. Edwin Chadwick- Chadwick was a civil servant dedicated to eliminating poverty in urban areas. As part of the Poor Law Commission, he studied living conditions of the working classes and concluded that filth led to disease. His concern for public health and sanitation led to Britain’s Public Health Act. Barclay and Lloyd- bankers and examples of religious minority manufacturers who were successful.
They were Quakers. “new elites”- The new generation of entrepreneurs came from the middle classes and grew especially as sons inherited businesses from their fathers. Bankers and factory owners would gradually merge with the landed aristocrats as they bought great estates and gained social respectability. Irking class- The working class of the nineteenth century was made up of different groups including craftspeople, coal miners, and factory workers. Factory workers would eventually form an industrial proletariat. Factory workers and miners faced dangerous working conditions.
Women and children were employed in both. Child labor- Children were an important part of the workforce due to their small size, delicate touch, and cheap supply of labor. Children worked long hours under strict discipline and received inadequate food and recreation. Although economic liberals and industrialists were against government intervention in economic matters, legislation was passed to end the abuse. However, it primarily affected child labor in factories and mines, not small workshops and nonfactual trades. Overproduction and cyclical depressions- Overproduction furthered economic hardship. Economic depressions brought high unemployment and increased social tensions. Cyclical depressions were especially hard in towns who depended on one industry. Trades unions- Trade unions were formed by skilled workers to preserve their own workers’ positions by limiting entry into heir trade and to gain benefits from employers. When it came to struggling with employers, these trade unions only cared about making gains in their own trades.
Strikes led Parliament to repeal the Combination Acts in 1824. Combination Acts- British laws passed in 1799 that outlawed unions and strikes, favoring capitalist business people over skilled artisans. Bitterly resented and widely disregarded by many craft guilds, the acts were repealed by Parliament in 1824. Robert Owen- Robert Owen was a cotton magnate and social reformer who believed in the creation of voluntary associations that loud demonstrate to others the benefits of cooperative rather than competitive learning.
He formed the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union. He planned to initiate a general strike but did not have the support. Latitudes- The Latitudes were skilled craftspeople who attacked the machines they believed threatened their profession. These attacks failed to stop industrialization, but the inability of British troops to stop them provides evidence of the support they had. Chartist- Chartist got its name from the People’s Charter.