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Formulation and Characterization of Microemulsion System

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Formulation of a new oil-in-water ( o/w ) microemulsion composed of Castor oil/Tween 80/Ethanol/Phosphate buffer for heightening the lading capacity of an anti-inflammatory drug Feldene has been accomplished. The pseudo-ternary stage diagram has been delineated at changeless surfactant/cosurfactant ratio ( 1:2 ). The internal construction of so created four-component system was elucidated by agencies of an analysis of isotropous country magnitudes in the stage diagram. Conductivity ( ? ), kinematic viscousness ( kh ) and surface tenseness ( g ) surveies with the fluctuation in? tungsten ( weight fraction of aqueous stage ) show the happening of structural alterations from water-in-oil ( w/o ) microemulsion to oil-in-water ( o/w ).

Along with the solubility and divider surveies of Feldene in microemulsion constituents, the alterations in the microstructure of the microemulsion after incorporation of drug have been evaluated utilizing pH, ?, g, kh and denseness surveies. Piroxicam, a ailing H2O soluble drug, displayed high solubility ( 1.0 % ) in an optimal microemulsion preparation utilizing Ethanol ( 55.0 % ), Tween 80 ( 26.5 % ), Castor oil ( 7.5 % ), and Phosphate buffer ( 11.0 % ). The consequences have shown that the microemulsion remained stable after the incorporation of Feldene.

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Fluorescence spectra analysis taking pyrene as fluorescent investigation was performed and the consequences showed that pyrene was wholly solubilized in the oil stages of the bicontinuous microemulsions. The fluorescence spectrum of exemplary drug Feldene was used to examine the intramicellar part of nonionized microemulsion. The consequences showed that the Feldene was localized in the interfacial movie of microemulsion systems more profoundly in the palisade bed with ethyl alcohol as the co-surfactant.

Keywords: Microemulsion ; Piroxicam ; Isotropic country ; Spectroscopy ; Structural alterations


Piroxicam is a non-steroid anti-inflammatory compound with analgetic and antipyretic effects, used for the intervention of rheumatoid arthritis, degenerative arthritis and traumatic bruises. However, it has been associated with GI side effects. It is possible to minimise these jobs by developing drug bearers to forestall the direct contact of drug with stomachic mucosal or that allow the topical disposal of drug ( 1, 2 ).

Microemulsions are optically isotropous, crystalline and thermodynamically stable homogenous solutions of oil and H2O, stabilized by add-on of a surfactant and normally a cosurfactant ( 3, 4 ). These constructions have been well investigated as drug bringing and bearer system for a broad scope of drugs including anodynes and anti-inflammatory and besides used to fade out lipotropic drugs in aqueous medium or hydrophilic drugs in lipotropic medium ( 4, 5 ).

Oil in H2O microemulsions have been described as a reservoir system that can suppress drug release, increasing the topical consequence ( 6 ). Several mechanisms have been proposed to explicate the advantages of microemulsion or the transdermic bringing of drugs ( 7 ). First, a big sum of drug can be incorporated in the preparation due to the high solubilizing capacity, with increased thermodynamic activity towards the tegument. Second, the pervasion rate of a drug from microemulsion may be increased, since the affinity of the drug to the internal stage in microemulsion can be easy modified, to prefer breakdown, utilizing different internal stages and altering the composing of the microemulsion. Third, the wetting agent and cosurfactant used in the microemulsion may cut down the assorted diffusional barrier by moving as incursion foils ( 8, 9 ).

For the choice of constituents of a biocompatible microemulsion system, the usage of non-ionic wetting agents has been widely accepted, since these are compatible and retain its public-service corporation over a wide scope of pH values and may impact the tegument barrier map ( 10-12 ).

Microemulsion comprises different constructions ( water-in-oil ( w/o ), oil-in-water ( o/w ) and bicontinuous ) and these aid in let go ofing the drug ( 13, 14 ). It is necessary to qualify the microstructure of pure and drug-loaded microemulsion. The alterations in the internal construction of a microemulsion can be monitored by analysing conduction, viscousness, denseness, surface tenseness and the fluorescence investigation surveies, etc. ( 15-17 ). The integrated drug may or may non act upon the microstructure. o/w and w/o microemulsions may demo different behaviour for the release of both hydrophilic and lipotropic drugs.

In the present work, an effort has been made to build a microemulsion system, for ailing H2O soluble non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug Feldene, consisting Castor oil, a non-ionic wetting agent Tween 80, a short concatenation alkanol cosurfactant ( ethyl alcohol ) and phosphate buffer ( PB ) pH 7.4. The pseudo-ternary stage diagram has been constructed for the chosen system at a changeless wetting agent: cosurfactant ratio ( 1:2 ). The ground for the choice of the peculiar oil chosen was that the Castor oil has a hydroxyl group in add-on to unsaturation, doing it more polar. Ricinoleic acid is the chief constituent of Castor oil and it exerts anti-inflammatory effects ( 18 ). Polyoxyethylene fatty acid, stearic acid, oleic acid are used in emulsifiers in oil/water type pick and lotions.

Conductivity, viscousness, surface tenseness and the fluorescence behaviour of the pyrene is employed to look into the gradual alterations happening in the microstructure of microemulsion. Pyrene is popular fluorescent investigation which is used to analyze the microheterogeneous media. The fluorescence spectrum of Pyrene was used to feel the micropolarity of the o/w microemulsion. In this survey, it is analyzed that how stableness, optical texture and microstructure of microemulsion preparation, is influenced by Feldene. To better the solubility of Feldene, an attempt has been made to develop an optimal o/w microemulsion. It is hence expected that the usage of microemulsion preparation may heighten the solubility of Feldene and forestall its debasement.

Materials and Methods


Tween 80 ( polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate ), absolute ethyl alcohol ( 99.8? % ) and castor oil were purchased from Fluka. Pyrene ( 98 % ) was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. Piroxicam was liberally provided by “ Amson Vaccines & A ; Pharma ( PVT ) Ltd ” and used without farther purification. Phosphate buffer ( 0.01 M, pH 7.4 ) was used as the hydrophilic stage. Buffers were prepared utilizing NaH2PO4/Na2HPO4. 0.1M NaOH and HCl were used to keep the pH of the solution.


Microemulsion Preparation

The pseudo-ternary stage diagram was mapped ( as shown in Fig. 1 ) utilizing oil ( Castor oil ), surfactant ( Tween 80 ; HLB = 15 ), cosurfactant ( ethyl alcohol ) and aqueous stage PB ( pH 7.4 ) at 25±0.01? C with changeless wetting agent: cosurfactant mass ratio ( 1:2 ). The temperature was kept at 25±0.01? C and was maintained by a Lauda M-20 thermoregulator. Castor oil was foremost assorted with Tween 80/ethanol mixture ; PB was so added to obtain the coveted microemulsion composings. Transparent, single-phase mixtures were designated as microemulsions. All the samples were stable for over 10 months, staying clear and transparent.

Drug incorporation in Microemulsion

Eight microemulsions differing from each other by Fw, were selected from the single-phase part of stage diagram ( Fig. 2 ) with composings mentioned in tabular array I, to analyze their possible as drug bringing system. All of them show stableness over 10 months and remain clear and crystalline. Piroxicam was dissolved into the pre-weight oil constituent of the system at a concentration of 1 % ( w/w ) under stirring followed by add-on of staying constituents.

Microemulsion Characterization

Optical Transparency

The homogeneousness and optical symmetry of pure and drug loaded microemulsions were examined by a Polarimeter ( ATAGO, AP-100 Automatic Polarimeter ) and ocular scrutiny at room temperature.


Thermodynamic stableness of pure and drug-loaded microemulsions was tested by transporting out centrifugation at 5500 revolutions per minute for 20 min utilizing ( Hermle Z200 ) extractor.

Surface Tension

Surface Tension measurings were made at 25 ±0.010C under atmospheric force per unit area by Torsion Balance ( White Elec. Inst. Co. Ltd. ) equipped with a pealing holding perimeter of 4.0 centimeter. The experimental mistake was about ±0.05 mNm-1.

Density and Specific Gravity

Densities and Specific Gravity of pure and drug loaded microemulsions were measured by doing usage of an Anton Paar ( Model DMA 5000 ) denseness metre at 25 ±0.01? C. The denseness metre was calibrated before and after each set of denseness measuring utilizing the denseness of air and pure H2O.

Refractive Index

The refractile indices of the preparations were determined utilizing a refractometer ( ATAGO, RX-5000 ) by puting 1 bead of solution on the slide.


The evident pH of all the selected microemulsions and the drug loaded microemulsion was determined utilizing a pH Meter ( WTW 82362 Weilheim ) fitted with a pH electrode ( WTW A061414035 ). The temperature was maintained at 25±0.01? C by a Lauda M-20 thermoregulator.

Conduction Measurements

The consequence of the sum of H2O stage of microemulsion was monitored quantitatively by mensurating the electrical conduction. The electric conduction ( ? ) was measured by agencies of a Microprocessor Conductivity Meter ( WTW 82362 Weilheim ) fitted with an electrode ( WTW 06140418 ) holding a cell invariable of 1.0 cm-1. The temperature was kept at 25±0.01? C and was maintained by a Lauda M-20 thermoregulator. Conduction measurings were carried out by titration of oil and surfactant/cosurfactant mixture with buffer ( along the dilution line AB in Fig. 1 ). Further the conduction of selected and drug loaded microemulsions was besides measured. The mistake bound of conductance measurings was ±0.02? scm-1.

Viscosity Measurements

Viscosities were measured with graduated Ubbelhode viscosimeter at 25±0.1? C. For each measuring, the viscosimeter was washed, rinsed and vacuum dried. To follow the syrupy behaviour of the microemulsions, flow clip was measured for all the selected and drug-loaded microemulsions ( 1 wt % drug ). The mistake bound of viscousnesss measurings was ±3 %.

Absorption and Steady-State Emission Measurements

The soaking up and steady-state fluorescence spectra were recorded utilizing a Perkin Elmer Lambda 20 spectrophotometer and a Perkin Elmer LS 55 luminescence spectrometer, severally, both with an external temperature controlled cell holder at a temperature of 25.0±0.1 & A ; deg ; C. The fluorescence emanation spectrum of pyrene ( excitement at 340 nanometer ) was used to obtain the ratio of strengths of the first to the 3rd vibronic extremums ( I1/I3 ). Good declaration of the sets was obtained at the slit breadth ( ex. 5.0nm, mutton quad. 5.0 nanometer ). The scan scope used was from 350-500 nanometer. The Photo Multiplier tubing electromotive force was kept at 665V. The concentration of pyrene was 1.0? M. The strengths for I1 and I3 are taken at 373 and 384 nanometer, severally. The fluorescence emanation spectrum of Feldene at? exc 370 nanometer was obtained where the emanation and excitement slits were fixed at. 7.0 nanometer. The scan scope used was from 390-650 nanometer. The concentration of Feldene was 10.0? M.

To quantify the solubilization of Feldene in micellar media of Tween 80-Ethanol system, differential optical density measurings were made in such a manner that drug ( Feldene ) solution of a peculiar concentration ( 1.0-10-5M ) was kept on mention side and the Tween 80-Ethanol-Piroxicam solution on the sample side in the spectrophotometer.

Partition Coefficients

Oil/buffer divider coefficient was determined by fade outing 20 mg Feldene in 2ml Castor Oil. Buffer was added in 1:1 ratio ( v/v ). The mixture was shaken for 10 min and centrifuged for 2 hours. The two beds were separated and the content of Feldene in aqueous bed ( PB ) was assayed by UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 371 nanometer. The concluding content of drug in the lipotropic stage was calculated by deducting the content of Feldene in aqueous stage from initial laden content of drug in the lipotropic stage. Further, the consequence of presence of Tween 80 and ethanol on the divider of Feldene in oil/buffer was studied by adding 5 % ( w/v ) of each Tween 80 and ethyl alcohol.

Consequences and Discussion

In the present system, microemulsion was prepared utilizing Castor oil ( fatty acid ), which induces extremely permeable tracts in the stratum horny layer ( 18-20 ). Tween-80 is a widely accepted non-ionic wetting agent, used in many pharmaceutical preparations ( 21-23 ). The cosurfactant ( ethyl alcohol ) is used to analyze the one stage microemulsion part. The presence of intoxicant overcomes the demand for any extra input of energy. These belongingss make the constituents utile as vehicles for drug bringing ( 24-26 ).

In the absence of aqueous stage, a solution-like greasy stage dwelling merely of wetting agent, oil, and ethanol exists. Ethanol interacts with the ethoxylated caput groups of the Tween 80 by H bonding and affects its critical wadding parametric quantity ( CPP ). When H2O is increasingly added to the dressed ore it facilitates the organisation of the hydrated caput groups of the wetting agent into a polar nucleus while the fatty acid dress suits are immersed in the oil uninterrupted stage. The ethanol suppresses formation of lyotropic liquid crystals. Any free aqueous stage is entrapped in the microstructures. Therefore, w/o microstructures are formed. Upon farther dilution, the reversed nanostructures grow and convert into a bicontinuous stage and eventually invert into o/w microstructures without stage separation.

Phase Surveies

Fig. 1 shows the pseudo-ternary stage diagram and country of being of microemulsion for Tween-80/ethanol/castor oil/phosphate buffer. Microemulsion in the present survey formed spontaneously at ambient temperature when their constituents were brought in contact.

Phase behavior probes of this system demonstrated the suited attack of finding the H2O stage, oil stage, surfactant concentration, and cosurfactant concentration with which the transparent, 1-phase low-viscous microemulsion system was formed. The stage behaviour, as shown by figure 1, manifests a two-phase part, a three-phase part and a big single-phase part which bit by bit and continuously transformed from buffer rich side of binary solution ( buffer/surfactant micellar stage ) of pseudo-ternary stage diagram towards the oil rich part. This stresses a uninterrupted passage from a H2O rich composings to oil swollen micelles.

The stage survey revealed that the maximal proportion of oil was incorporated in microemulsion systems when the surfactant-to-cosurfactant ratio was 1:2. From a preparation point of view, the increased oil content in microemulsions may supply a greater chance for the solubilization of Feldene. Eight microemulsions ( 1-8 ) were selected from the single-phase isotropic part ( Fig. 2 ), with composings mentioned in tabular array I. Selected Microemulsion ( ME ) was farther analyzed by conduction, viscousness, denseness, surface tenseness, refractile index and pH. The values of measured parametric quantities have been presented in table II.

Conduction Measurements

Conductometry is a utile tool to measure microemulsion construction. Conductivity surveies have explained the being of a characteristic zone with an isotropous microemulsion sphere in a continuum. Determination of electric conduction ( s ) as a map of weight fraction of aqueous constituent Fw ( % wt ) for the oil, surfactant/cosurfactant mixture along the dilution line AB ( shown in Fig. 2 ) has been carried out. The consequences of fluctuation of s V Fw ( % wt ) are shown in Fig. 3 ( a ). The behavior exhibits profile feature of percolative conduction ( 27-29 ). The conduction is ab initio low in an oil-surfactant mixture but increases with addition in aqueous stage.

As the volume fraction of H2O additions, the electrical conduction of the system somewhat increases every bit good, until the critical Fw is reached. At this phase, a sudden addition in conduction is observed. This phenomenon is known as infiltration, and the critical Fw at which it occurs is known as infiltration threshold Fp ( 27 ).

The value of conduction below Fp suggests that the contrary droplets are distinct ( organizing w/o microemulsion ) and have small interaction. Above Fp the value of s additions linearly and steeply till it touches the value of Kb. The interaction between the aqueous spheres becomes increasingly more of import and forms a web of conductive channel ( bicontinuous microemulsion ) ( 30 ).

Rapid addition in conduction beyond the infiltration threshold ( Fp? 6 % ) up to come close value of 20 % of Fw indicates the being of web of conductive channels, which corresponds to the formation of H2O cylinders or channels in an oil stage due to the attractive interactions between the spherical micro-droplets of H2O stage in the w/o microemulsion.

Increasing H2O content above Fb ( Fw & gt ; 20 % ), the s shows a dip in the measured values which may be due to strong attractive forces as system becomes more syrupy ( 16, 30 ).Fig. 3 ( B ) depicts the fluctuation of log s V weight fraction of H2O ( Fw ). The alteration in the incline of log s can be attributed to the structural passage to bicontinuous from w/o ( 23 ), about at Fw = 6 %. The passage takes topographic point one time the aqueous stage becomes uninterrupted stage i.e. at Fb. This is in line with the observation made in stage survey. Figure 3 ( a ) illustrates happening of three different constructions ( viz. w/o, bicontinuous, o/w ). The conduction of the microemulsions incorporating more than 20 wt % H2O decreased significantly, likely due to the higher viscousness.

The infiltration threshold can be determined from the secret plan ( ds/dFw ), as a map of the H2O weight fraction, Fw ( % wt ) ( 30 ). A upper limit in the first derived function of conductance Fw at ~12wt % H2O is observed ( Fig. 4 ) corroborating the presence of infiltration behaviour ( bicontinuous microstructure ) in this part ( 31 ). The electric conduction of pure selected and drug loaded microemulsion ( 1.0 % ) is given in table II. A comparing of two systems shows that drug incorporation does non impact the microstructure of the microemulsion.

Viscosity Measurements

To avoid the ambiguity of non-Newtonian flow behaviour of microemulsion the flow clip has been used as an index of viscousness ( 32 ). Flow clip of oil, surfactant/cosurfactant mixture along the dilution line AB ( shown in Fig. 2 ), was measured as a map of weight fraction of H2O Fw ( wt % ) and is shown in Fig. 5.

Similar tendency has been observed for the viscousness of oil, surfactant/cosurfactant mixture as a map of Fw ( Fig. 6 ). The rapid alteration in the viscousness is likely due to the alteration in the microstructure of the microemulsion. The alteration in the internal construction could be due to either the alteration in the form of droplets or may be due to the passage from w/o to bicontinuous microemulsion. It is good known that addition of volume fraction of spread stage in microemulsion additions viscousness of the system ( 33 ). For the system studied viscousness additions with addition in Fw ( wt % of aqueous stage ).

Difference in the viscousnesss is more profound for lower H2O content values in comparing to the dilute system. The microemulsion system is turning to be more syrupy with add-on of H2O and therefore may assist in the slow diffusing of drug at infinite dilution. The microemulsion system therefore, shows a structural alteration from oil uninterrupted system to H2O uninterrupted, which has higher viscousnesss than the former ( 34 ). The secret plans of hk ( kinematic viscousness ), d2? /d2Fw and 1/ ? vitamin D? /dFw versus Fw reflect that the passage occurs at ~11 % weight fraction of aqueous stage ( Fig. 6 ). The passage point of surface tenseness, conduction and viscousness secret plans coincides good at ~11 % weight fraction of aqueous stage and confirms the presence of percolative behaviour.

Surface Tension

The surface tenseness additions linearly over the same scope of H2O content ( Fig. 7 ), but two interruptions ( at ~7.0 and ~20 wt % H2O ) suggest that construction alterations occur at these composings. The surface tenseness measurings showed increase, when measured as a map of weight fraction of aqueous constituent, except for the ~12 % weight fraction where the value all of a sudden decreased and thenceforth a regular addition was observed. This low surface tenseness value showed the presence of bicontinuous microemulsion between oil and H2O rich system, which is because of presence of self-assembled organize microstructure in it ( 14, 35 ). The consequences coincide good with the electric conduction and viscousness measurings. It can be assumed that the added intoxicant ( ethyl alcohol ) is incorporated in the interfacial construction in such a manner that more H2O is on the exterior of the “ oil beads ”, doing the addition in surface tenseness. Incorporation of drug showed a negligible alteration in the surface tenseness measurings, hence indicting the possibility of Feldene molecules into the palisade bed on the interior side of microemulsion.

Fluorescence Measurements

In the instance of oil-in-water microemulsions, the steady-state fluorescence technique was successfully applied ( 36 ). Fluorescence measurings of the hydrophobic investigation chiefly depend on the mutual opposition of the medium and hence in bicontinuous microemulsions it is a good indicant of the mutual opposition of the microenvironment in the microemulsion construction ( 37 ). The fluorescence spectra for pyrene molecule in H2O, single oil stage, in intoxicants, in ethanol/oil and in all the selected microemulsions are shown in Figure 8.

There are four chief vibronic sets in the fluorescence spectrum ( Fig. 8a ), labeled I to IV. The peak strength ratio I1/I3 in the steady-state fluorescence spectra is a measuring of the comparative mutual opposition of pyrene ‘s environment ( 17 ). Since pyrene reactant is well more soluble in oil stages, I1/I3 is expected to be lower in these stages ( 38 ). In the present work, for oil stage, the I1/I3 value is 0.68. In comparatively polar methyl alcohol and ethanol media, I1/I3 values were found to be 1.20 and 1.09 severally. Water is a extremely polar dissolver ; the solubility of pyrene in this dissolver is less than 2? M. Hence the possibility of formation of excimer taking to I3 signal is highly low in H2O. Experimentally I1/I3 value is 1.70 was obtained for this medium.

Plot of I1/I3 versus weight fraction of aqueous constituent composing in microemulsion is shown in Figure 9. The value of I1/I3 varies between 0.85 and 0.91, which is comparable to a alteration from oil to H2O ( 0.68 and 1.70, severally ).

The I1/I3 fluorescence ratios of pyrene strongly suggest that this investigation resides in microenvironments of mutual opposition much lower ( oil stage ) than that of H2O or intoxicant ( 39 ). The mutual oppositions of these microphases are similar to those of cosurfactant/oil mixtures ( 0.94 ). The undermentioned generalisations may be made sing the fluorescence investigation behaviour in bicontinuous microemulsions. The I1/I3 values obtained by fluorescence measurings for all the stable bicontinuous microemulsions are closer to 0.88. These consequences suggest that pyrene is expeditiously segregated from the H2O stage ( 40 ). The I1/I3 values in bicontinuous microemulsions systems are closer to the several pure oil stage. This is due to complete solubility of pyrene in oil stages of the bicontinuous microemulsions. We conclude that all the microemulsions have separate oil microphases, in which pyrene resides.

Fluorescence Behavior of Piroxicam

The fluorescence spectra for Feldene molecule in H2O, single oil stages, in surfactant/cosurfactant mixture ( 1:2 ) and in the optimal microemulsion system are shown in Figure 10.

For oil stage the emanation upper limit ( lunar excursion module ) is 465nm. In S/CoS ( 1:2 ) system lunar excursion module is 451nm. Water is a extremely polar dissolver ; the solubility of Feldene in this dissolver is low than 10? M. The lunar excursion module of Feldene in H2O is 442nm. The emanation upper limit in bicontinuous microemulsion system is ( 462nm ) closer to the several pure oil stage. The consequences showed that the Feldene was localized in the interfacial movie of microemulsion systems more profoundly in the palisade bed.

Partition Coefficient

Partition coefficients influence drug conveyance features which involve drug soaking up, keeping, distribution and riddance. Since drugs are distributed by the blood, they must perforate and track many cells to make the site of action. Hence, divider coefficients will find what tissues a given compound can make.

Oil/buffer Partition Coefficients

The divider coefficient ( log P ) of Feldene in oil/buffer is 5.03±0.20. The presence of ethyl alcohol ( 5 % in buffer ) does non impact the divider coefficient ( informations shown in table III ) whereas Tween 80 ( 5 % in buffer ) reduces the log p. The presence of surfactant reduces the concentration of drug in oil. Therefore, solubility and divider surveies indicate that Feldene may be present at interface. The drug is come ining into the palisade bed on the interior side of droplet which may assist to increase the solubility of Feldene. The divider coefficients were calculated utilizing equation 1 ( 41 ) ;

where A ( org ) is the optical density of the organic bed, A ( aq ) is the optical density of the aqueous bed, Vf ( org ) is the concluding volume of the sample from the organic bed, V ( org ) is the volume of the aliquot from the organic bed, Vf ( aq ) is the concluding volume of the sample from the aqueous bed, V ( aq ) is the volume of the aliquot of the aqueous bed.

Micelle/buffer Partition Coefficient

Figure 11 shows the differential soaking up spectra of drug ( Feldene ) in presence of assorted concentrations of Tween 80 holding changeless S/CoS ratio ( 1:2 ).

The buffer-micelle divider coefficient Kc ( dm3 mol-1 ), a utile parametric quantity to quantify the solubilization of Feldene in micellar media of Tween 80-Ethanol system, can be calculated by utilizing equation 2 ( 42 ).

Here Ca is the drug concentration ( 1.0-10-5M ), Csmo represents Cs-CMC0 ( CMC0 is the CMC of Tween 80 in H2O i.e. 11.0mM ), ? A? is the differential optical density at the eternity of Cs. Kc can be obtained through intercept and incline values of the consecutive line secret plan of 1/ ? A against 1/ ( Ca+ Csmo ), as shown in Figure 12. The value of Kc is given in table IV.

The dimensionless divider coefficient P is related to Kc as P = Kc.nw, where northwest is the figure of moles of H2O per dm3 ( 55.5 mol dm-3 ), and is reported in table IV. The standard free energy alteration of the transportation of linear, from bulk H2O to micelle can be calculated utilizing the undermentioned relation ( equation 3 ) :

Here T is absolute temperature and R is the gas invariable. The value of? G & A ; deg ; P for the Feldene, utilizing P is reported in table IV.

High negative value of indicates the easiness of incursion of drug inside the micelles. This is clearly exhibited by the higher values of P and more negative for Feldene, as shown in table IV. Tween 80 is nonionized wetting agent and there is no electrostatic interaction, the H bonding between the polyoxyethylene groups of Tween 80 and piroxicam makes the complex ( Tween 80-piroxicam ) more hydrophobic, which corresponds to high? G & A ; deg ; p value.


The pseudo-ternary stage diagram and country of being of microemulsion for Tween 80/ethanol/castor oil/buffer was delineated. The conduction and viscousness surveies along the dilution line ( in stage diagram ) depict the structural passage from w/o to o/w via bicontinuous stage at ~11 % ? tungsten ( wt % fraction of aqueous stage ). Among the eight selected microemulsions, ME was found to be optimal for the incorporation of Feldene. After the incorporation of the drug, microemulsion remained stable and optically clears with no stage separation. The surface tenseness and fluorescence surveies indicated that the drug may shack at the interface of oil and aqueous stage.

The drug is come ining into the palisade bed on the interior side of the droplet, ensuing in controlled release of drug. Therefore, we can reason that this microemulsion system helps in increasing the solubility of a extremely hydrophobic drug, with the aid of hydrophobic constituent of microemulsion and lipotropic portion of wetting agent. In add-on, the preparation can be explored with high concentration of drug. Pharmaceutically useable microemulsion system was prepared from H2O and Castor oil with a changeless sum of Tween-80 and ethyl alcohol at a mass ratio of 1:2. Its type and construction was examined by mensurating surface tenseness, viscousness, electric conduction, and the fluorescence techniques were assessed. Consequences of conduction, viscousness, denseness and surface tenseness measurings confirm the anticipation of a infiltration passage to a bicontinuous construction. In future, the ability to find type and construction of such microemulsion system could enable breakdown and release rates of drugs from microemulsion to be predicted.


The fiscal support of Quaid-i-Azam University and Higher Education Commission of Pakistan is punctually acknowledged.


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Formulation and Characterization of Microemulsion System. (2018, Apr 10). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/formulation-and-characterization-of-microemulsion-system/

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