This article presents the development and rating of a new topical preparation of diclofenac diethylamine ( DDA ) as a locally applied analgetic lotion. To this terminal, the lotion preparations were formulated with equal volume of changing concentrations ( 1 % , 2 % , 3 % , 4 % ; v/v ) of propene ethanediol ( PG ) and turpentine oil ( TO ) as pervasion foils. These lotions were subjected to physical surveies ( pH, viscousness, spreadability, homogeneousness, and accelerated stableness ) , in vitro pervasion, in vivo animate being surveies and sensatory perceptual experience proving. In vitro pervasion of DDA from lotion preparations was evaluated across coney and polydimethylsiloxane membrane utilizing Franz cells.
It was found that PG and TO content influenced the pervasion of DDA across theoretical account membranes with the lotion incorporating 4 % v/v PG and TO content showed maximal pervasion sweetening of DDA. In the in vivo animate being testing, lotion with 4 % v/v foil content showed maximal anti-inflammatory and analgetic consequence without bring oning any annoyance. Sensatory perceptual experience trials affecting healthy voluntaries rated the preparations between 3 and 4 ( values runing between -4 to +4, bespeaking really bad to excellent severally ) .
It was concluded that the DDA lotion incorporating 4 % v/v PG and TO exhibited the best public presentation overall and that this specific preparation should be the footing for farther clinical probe.
Keywords: Diclofenac diethylamine, lotion, propene ethanediol, transdermal soaking up, turpentine oil, topical.
Diclofenac is an of import member of a category of drugs known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAID ) which is widely used for the intervention of musculoskeletal upsets, arthritis, odontalgia, dysmenorrhea and symptomatically alleviation of hurting and redness [ 1 ] . Diclofenac diehtylamine ( DDA ) has limited bioavailability ( 40-60 % ) , a short half life ( 2-3 H ) and low curative dosage demand ( 25-50 milligram ) [ 1, 2 ] . The dose-dependent gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and nephritic unwanted effects following unwritten bringing of NSAID ‘s has promoted its transdermic bringing [ 3 ] which has several advantages over unwritten bringing to better patient conformity [ 4 ] . In recent old ages, extended research has been carried out to restrict the barrier belongingss of stratum horny layer which compromises the transdermal soaking up utilizing pervasion foils [ 5-9 ] . Research has been carried out to better transdermal soaking up of DDA affecting assorted techniques including gel [ 1, 10 ] , microemulsion [ 11 ] , liposomes [ 12, 13 ] , lyotropic liquid crystal [ 4 ] and drug-excipient combination [ 2, 14 ] based preparations.
Natural merchandises including indispensable oils [ 15-17 ] are deriving importance as pervasion foils in transdermic drug bringing owing to their good safety profile [ 18 ] . Turpentine oil ( TO ) has been used as incursion foil for a figure of hydrophilic and lipotropic drugs [ 19, 20 ] . TO incorporate terpenes which are less toxic and FDA has classified terpenes as ‘generally recognized as safe ‘ ( GRAS ) [ 21 ] . Propylene ethanediol ( PG ) has been widely used as dissolver and pervasion foil in assorted transdermic preparations [ 22, 23 ] .
In the present work we investigated transdermal bringing of a new topical DDA preparation incorporating PG and TO as pervasion foils. These preparations were characterized for its pH, viscousness, spreadability and homogeneousness, accelerated stableness, in vitro tegument pervasion across two theoretical account membranes, viz. polydimethylsiloxane membrane and coney tegument. In vivo ratings included carnal theoretical accounts and human voluntary ‘s sensatory perceptual experience trial.
Propylene ethanediol ( Merck, Germany ) ; ethanol ( Merck, Germany ) ; Na ethanoate ( Merck, Germany ) ; isopropyl intoxicant ( Fluka, Switzerland ) ; carbomer 980 ( Fisher, Germany ) ; E?-carrageenan No. 2249 ( Fluka Biochemika, Switzerland ) ; Turpentine oil ( MS Traders, China ) ; diclofenac diethylamine ( Novartis, Pakistan ) ; polydimethylsiloxane membranes with 400 I?m-thickness ( Samco, USA ) silicone lubricating oil ( Dow Corning, USA ) ; sodium chloride ( Merck, Germany ) .
Preparation of lotion preparations
All the lotion preparations were prepared as described in the Table I.
Table I. DDA incorporating lotion preparations
DDA ( g )
Carbomer 980 ( milligram )
Phosphate buffered saline ( milliliter )
( % v/v of entire lotion )
( % v/v of entire lotion )
Ethanol ( q.s. for 100 mL lotion )
Control ( LC )
Diclofenac diethylamine quantification
The sum of drug was quantified utilizing a Waters UV/Vis HPLC system installed with a symmetricalness C18 contrary stage column ( 5Aµm, 4.6 A- 25cm ) ( Waters, UK ) with UV sensing set at 276 nanometer. The samples were injected with a rheodyne injector holding a 20 AµL cringle volume. The elution was carried out at ambient temperature and an isocratic nomadic stage composed of methyl alcohol and 0.1M Na ethanoate ( 70:30 v/v ) with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min was used for separation. The nomadic stage was prepared on day-to-day bases and it was filtered and so degassed prior to utilize. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines with preciseness ( less than 1 % RSD ) and % truth ( % RSD 0.865 ) . The bound of sensing was 225.2 ng/mL and the bound of quantitation was 350.7 ng/mL for DDA. DDA solutions of known concentrations were used to obtain a standard standardization curve.
In vitro word picture of lotion preparation
pH and rheological measurings
Lotion pH was recording equipment with a digital pH metre ( Mettler & A ; Toledo, Giessen, Germany ) by infixing investigation into the lotion preparation and leting it to equilibrate for 1 minute. Viscosity measurings were conducted utilizing a Model RVTDV II Brookfield viscosimeter ( Stoughton, MA ) . A C-50 spindle was employed, with a rotary motion rate of 220 revolutions per minute. The spread value was set to 0.3 millimeter. Temperature was set at 25A°C A± 2 and these experiments were conducted in triplicate to obtain statistically important informations.
Spreadability and homogeneousness finding
The spreadability of each lotion was determined by the wooden block and glass slide method antecedently detailed someplace else [ 24 ] . Basically, a 5mL volume ( 100 milligram ) of lotion was added to a dedicated pan and the clip taken for a movable upper slide to divide wholly from the fixed slides was noted. Spreadability was determined harmonizing to the expression:
S = Spreadability expressed in mg.cm.sec-1.
M = Weight/Volumes tide to upper slide ( milligram )
L = Length of glass slide
T = Time taken to divide the slide wholly from each other
Again experiments were repeated three times to obtain a statistically important informations.
Each formulated lotion was evaluated for homogeneousness by bare oculus scrutiny. This involved a subjective appraisal of visual aspect including the presence of any sums.
Accelerated stableness surveies
All the formulated lotions were subjected to a 3 month-long protocol of accelerated stableness proving conducted at a temperature of 40 A± 2 °C, 75 % comparative humidness. At 12 H, 1 twenty-four hours, 7 yearss, 1 month and 3 months, each preparation was examined for alterations in visual aspect, pH, viscousness and drug content. Again, these experiments were performed in triplicate ( n=3 ) .
White New Zealand male coneies weighing between 3-4 kilograms were used for the readying of tegument. The tegument samples were excised from the venters part. Hairs were clipped short and adhering hypodermic fat was removed carefully from the stray full thickness tegument. Then, the tegument was cut into samples that were merely larger than the surface country of the Franz diffusion cells. To take immaterial dusts and any leachable enzyme, the cuticular side of the tegument was kept in contact with a normal saline solution for 1 hr prior to get down the diffusion experiments. For the polydimethylsiloxane membrane surveies, pieces of a size suited for mounting in Franz cells were cut out and so soaked nightlong in PBS ( pH 7.4 ) . This process was performed in order to let the remotion of excipients present within the membrane upon purchase [ 25 ] .
Permeation experiments were performed utilizing Franz cells manufactured ‘in house ‘ , exhibiting a diffusional country of 0.85cm2 and a receptor cell volume of 4.5 milliliter. Subsequently, the trial membrane ( either rabbit tegument or polydimethylsiloxane ) was inserted as a barrier between the giver and receiving system cells. Silicone lubricating oil was applied in order to make a good seal between the barrier and the two Franz compartments. To get down each pervasion experiment, 1 milliliter volume of each lotion preparation was deposited in the giver cell while receptor compartment was filled with PBS maintained at pH 7.4 which is near to the pH of blood [ 26 ] . The diffusion cells were placed on a stirring bed ( Variomag, US ) immersed in a H2O bath at 37 A± 5A°C to keep a temperature of ~32A°C at the membrane surface. At scheduled times, a 0.5 milliliter aliquot of receiving system fluid was withdrawn and the receiving system stage was replenished with 0.5 milliliters of fresh pre-thermostated PBS. Withdrawn aliquots were assayed instantly by HPLC for DDA quantification. Sink conditions existed throughout. Since tegument exhibits big sample-to-sample permeableness differences [ 27 ] , hence, each experiment consisted of 5 replicate tallies ( n=5 ) .
In vivo word picture
The in vivo research consisted of three separate types of surveies. All these were conducted under conditions that had been regulated and approved by the Animals Ethics Committee of Bahauddin Zakariya University ( Pakistan ) .
Each DDA-containing preparation was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory authority by agencies of the carrageenan-induced rat paw hydrops assay [ 28 ] . The check was run on male Wistar rats ( 150 A± 5g ) purchased from the Institute of Biotechnology of Bahauddin Zakariya University ( Multan, Pakistan ) . These rats were indiscriminately divided into five groups with three rats in each group. These rats were allowed free entree to nutrient and H2O. The protocol involved shooting a 0.1 milliliter volume of 1 % w/v carrageenin suspension in Normal saline into the sub-plantar tissue of each animate being ‘s right hind paw. This was instantly followed by using to the injection site 1mL of the DDA-containing lotion over a 2 cm2 country. The control group was administered with lotion without foil. After 3 H, the extent of tissue redness was quantified by merely mensurating the additive paw perimeter [ 29 ] .
In the following set of in vivo surveies, each analgesic-containing lotion was evaluated for its antinociception consequence by running a modified version of the established hot water-tail flick trial [ 30 ] on male Wistar rats ( a‰¤ 450 g weight ) . To this terminal, a 1 milliliter aliquot of trial preparation was applied to each animate being ‘s venters. The animate being was placed in a dedicated fabric restrainer that was specially designed for this version of the flick trial [ 31 ] . At 30, 45 and 60 min after lotion disposal, the animate being ‘s tail ( 2-5cm long ) was immersed in H2O maintained at 53 A± 1 A°C. The reaction clip was the clip taken for the rat to flick its tail. In pattern, the first reading was ignored and the reaction clip was taken as the mean of the subsequent two readings. Each analgetic preparation was tested on 3 rats of each group.
Last, each preparation was assessed for irritancy by carry oning modified Draize tegument annoyance trials [ 32 ] on male White New Zealand coneies ( 3-4 kilogram ) obtained from Novartis ( Jamshoroo, Pakistan ) . For this intent, a dorsal country on each restrained animate being was shaved and so tape stripped three times to detach several upper beds of the stratum horny layer. A 0.5mL aliquot of each trial lotion was applied to these countries, which were so covered with a fictile spot. After 4 H, the spot was removed and the coneies were observed over 14 yearss for marks of erythema, hydrops and ulceration. On yearss 1, 3, 7 and 14, visually-apparent cutaneal alterations were assigned tonss runing between 0 and 4 with higher Numberss meaning greater skin harm. Each DDA preparation was tested on 3 coneies.
Sensatory perceptual experience trial
Sensatory perceptual experience trial involved eleven untrained Caucasic voluntaries, both male and female, runing between 20 to 24 old ages in age. This survey was ethically approved by the Human Volunteers Ethics Committee of Bahauddin Zakariya University ( Pakistan ) . A little sum of trial preparation was applied to a 12 cm2 country on the dorsum of each voluntary ‘s manus and left on for 10 min. Each voluntary rated the trial lotion ‘s effects in footings of five different subjective sensatory classs. The classs were ; easiness of application, skin esthesis instantly after application, long-run tegument esthesis, skin ‘shine ‘ ( i.e. ocular visual aspect ) and perceptual experience of induced tegument softness. The evaluation graduated table used consisted of nine whole number values runing between -4 to +4, bespeaking really bad to excellent severally. In add-on, skin intervention sites were visually examined for marks of cutaneal irritancy. A assurance degree of 95 % was taken as important.
Consequences and Discussion
In vitro word picture
All the lotion preparations were clear, crystalline and homogenous solutions upon readying which exhibited a pH of 6.3 with no important difference among all the formulated lotions. However, increasing PG and TO content in the formulated lotions decreased the viscousness from 89 A- 10-4 dyn.s.cm-2 for L1 ; 83 A- 10-4 dyn.s.cm-2 for L2 ; 78 A- 10-4 dyn.s.cm-2 for L3 and 71 A- 10-4 dyn.s.cm-2 for L4. A similar to viscousness tendency was observed in the instance of spreadability of formulated lotions where spreadability was decreased upon subsequent addition in the PG and TO content i.e. 3.02 A± 0.12 mg.cm.s-1 for L1, 2.14 A± 0.17 mg.cm.s-1 for L2, 2.12 A± 0.21 mg.cm.s-1 for L3 and 2.01 A± 0.09 mg.cm.s-1 for L4. Statistical analysis revealed that there was a important difference between L1 and L4 spreadability. Overall, an addition in PG and TO content in the lotion preparation decreased the viscousness and spreadability.
During the three month accelerated stableness testing, none of the preparation showed any alterations to the visual aspect, colour and transparence. Furthermore, there was an undistinguished difference among all the formulated lotions in footings of pH, viscousness, spreadability and drug content over the class of accelerated stableness proving period proposing the formulated lotions were reasonably stable.
In vitro pervasion surveies
In vitro pervasion profile is an of import tool that predicts how drug will act in vivo. In vitro pervasion of DDA incorporating lotions were performed utilizing two theoretical account membranes, viz. polydimethylsiloxane and coney tegument. Equally far as we could determine, there is no published informations for DDA pervasion utilizing coney and polydimethylsiloxane membrane theoretical account. Figure 1 displays the cumulative sum of DDA permeated through polydimethylsiloxane membrane as a map of clip. The steady-state flux was determined from the incline of the additive part of the cumulative sum of drug pervasion versus clip secret plan. Permeability coefficients were calculated by using Fick ‘s Torahs of diffusion. Flux enhancement ratio ( ER ) was calculated from the proportion of flux in the presence and absence of foil in the lotion preparation.
Figure 1: Accumulative drug permeated through polydimethylsiloxane membrane ( n=5 )
It should be noted that the initial explosion in the drug pervasion exhibited a non-ideal behavior. This consequence was attributed to the polydimethylsiloxane membrane stuff undergoing disturbance due to interaction between polydimethylsiloxane membrane and vehicle system, accordingly, increasing the diffusion coefficient of the drug. Therefore, it was decided to choose period of 15 to 180 minute in order to cipher the steady-state flux. The cumulative sum of drug permeated as a map of clip revealed that increasing enhancer concentration in the lotion markedly increased the pervasion of DDA as compared to that of the control. Furthermore, there was no important difference observed in pervasion of DDA between all the formulated lotions proposing a concentration independent addition in the permeableness of DDA in instance of polydimethylsiloxane membrane. The flux and permeableness coefficient values were significantly different from that of the control. Furthermore, a gradual addition in the flux rates and permeableness coefficient values was observed with increasing concentration of PG and TO. Lag clip ( tlag ) is the clip taken by the drug to make its steady-state and informations revealed that L4 has the lowest tlag and DDA pervasion has reached to its steady-state quicker than the other preparations incorporating lower or no foil content. The pervasion profile and flux sweetening ratio are summarized in Table II.
Table II: Permeation profile of DDA across polydimethylsiloxane membrane
Flux ( Aµg/cm2/min )
Lag clip ( tlag )
( min )
( 10-4x Kp ) ( cm/min )
0.038 A± 0.006
47.23 A± 9.98
0.95 A± 0.14
0.863 A± 0.02
60.54 A± 2.00
21.58 A± 0.58
0.946 A± 0.02
51.83 A± 2.38
23.65 A± 0.49
1.013 A± 0.009
50.84 A± 1.22
25.32 A± 0.22
1.196 A± 0.02
42.09 A± 2.37
29.91 A± 0.48
Consequences are presented as average A± SD ( n = 5 ) .
Fluxs and permeableness coefficients were measured for all the DDA containing lotions across coney tegument and cumulative sum of DDA permeated across coney tegument as a map of clip is shown in Figure 2. The drug pervasion was more or less additive boulder clay 700 proceedingss of the survey after that it reached to the steady-state part where drug pervasion rate was changeless over the clip period from 700 to 1440 proceedingss. Therefore, the clip period after 700 proceedingss was intentionally ignored in order to cipher the steady-state flux.
Figure 2: Accumulative drug permeated through coney tegument ( n=5 )
It was notable that the pervasion rate was ceased after about ~700 proceedingss which could be attributed to the precipitation of DDA on the surface of coney tegument which reduced the effectual diffusion country, accordingly, droping the pervasion of DDA. There was a gradual addition in flux rate with increasing content of PG and TO in the lotions while a singular betterment in the permeableness coefficient was observed for all lotion preparations in comparing to that of control. Statistical analysis revealed a important difference ( P & lt ; 0.005 ) in permeableness coefficients as compared to command for all the formulated lotions. The pervasion informations of DDA across coney tegument is shown in the Table III. The enhancement ratio on the footing of flux was highest for the L4 ( 4.7 creases ) and lowest for the L1 ( 3.0 creases ) which was related to the foil concentration in DDA incorporating lotions. It was interesting to detect that the lag clip increased with the addition in foil concentration which might be attributed to the impact of foil on the evident permeableness of the DDA. The contrasting slowdown times for DDA pervasion through polydimethylsiloxane membrane and coney tegument could be due to the structural differences between both membranes and how the pervasion foil interacts with the membrane. It can be explained by the fact that TO can perforate quickly and sedimentation in the tegument owing to its physicochemical belongingss, therefore, doing a delayed pervasion which accordingly enhanced lag times with higher concentrations in the instance of DDA pervasion across coney tegument.
Table Three: Permeation profile of DDA across coney tegument
Flux ( Aµg/cm2/min )
Lag clip ( tlag )
( min )
( 10-8x Kp ) ( cm/min )
0.142 A± 0.001
37.53 A± 1.81
0.053 A± 0.003
0.428 A± 1.02
19.28 A± 0.67
20.34 A± 0.05
0.548 A± 2.913
67.31 A± 2.60
26.07 A± 0.014
0.621 A± 1.86
97.01 A± 2.30
29.85 A± 0.009
0.668 A± 3.13
142.73 A± 1.10
31.78 A± 0.015
Consequences are presented as average A± SD ( n = 5 ) .
In vivo surveies informations
The graph in Figure 3 shows the informations obtained from the carrageenin challenge anti-inflammatory trials. It can be seen that application of each of the DDA-containing preparations significantly reduced tissue redness in the rat theoretical account. In contrast, application of LC did non significantly affect redness because of its low pervasion into the tegument. Another notable point from statistical analysis is that while anti-inflammatory consequence of L1 was significantly different than L2, L3 and L4, the latter three preparations did non differ significantly from each other in anti-inflammatory authority which is interpretable on the footing of permeableness coefficient which was insignificantly different for L2, L3 and L4.
Figure 3: Bar graphs demoing the in vivo hydrops decrease induced by each DDA preparation in carrageenan-challenged coneies. Error bars represent SD values, with n=3.
Figure 4 displays the informations derived from the hot tail antinociception surveies. The graph clearly indicates that the reaction clip measured following intervention with a DDA-containing lotion was ever significantly longer than the reaction clip measured following intervention with the LC. Furthermore, the extent of induced antinociception followed the tendency ; L4 & gt ; L3 & gt ; L2 & gt ; L1, bespeaking that PG and TO content influenced antinociception authority of DDA by heightening its pervasion.
Figure 4: Bar graph diagram demoing the in vivo tail flick response times ( antinociception ) associated with each DDA preparation at 30, 45 and 60 mins after lotion application. Error bars represent SD values, with n=3.
With regard to the Draize annoyance trials, consequences indicated that application of all lotion preparation were constantly associated with no tegument annoyance throughout the full 14 twenty-four hours period. With regard to the L4 preparation, all tested coneies showed some mild erythema ( mark of 1 ) by twenty-four hours 14 although non at the earlier observation times ( informations non shown ) .
Sensatory perceptual experience informations
The voluntaries rated all the DDA incorporating lotions as hiting between 3 to 4 in footings of all classs: easiness of application, skin esthesis instantly after application, long-run tegument esthesis, skin ‘shine ‘ and induced tegument softness. No lotion caused any discernible cutaneal annoyance ( Data non shown ) .
Based on the consequences from this survey, it was possible to reason that PG and TO has efficaciously improved the permeableness of DDA. Although for all the preparations studied the best effectual in vitro pervasion and in vivo public presentation was achieved when the highest PG and TO concentration was used in the preparation, L4 in this instance.
The writers would wish to thank Bahauddin Zakariya University ( Multan, Pakistan ) for supplying fiscal support for this research.
Cite this A New Diclofenac Diehtylamine Topical Formulation Biology
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