Gangs and Terrorism

This research paper provides a wide range of perspectives on the issue of security threats associated with gangs and terrorists. Combating gangs and terrorists requires similar methods from law enforcement agencies given the similarities between gangs and terrorist organizations.

The paper assesses gangs and terrorist operations, group types, difference/similarities, methods of combating against heinous activities of these groups, and issues involving gangs and terrorists. This paper spells-out recommendations that should be carried out to mitigate or solve the prevailing problems on gangs and terrorisms.

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The fight against gangs and terrorists has been a concern of the United States for several decades. Gangs and terrorists have brought fear and uncertainties to the people that affect socio-economic and political activities within the United States and even in other countries. It is therefore imperative that appropriate strategic solutions should be instituted by U.S law enforcement agencies to eliminate disturbing incidents caused by gangs and terrorists that brought fear to the public.

Gangs and terrorist groups have existed in society for years. Most people, however, have treated these groups as separate entities. Gangs are regarded as local or domestic menace participated by local lawless individuals grouped together with the main purpose of sowing fear to the people in order to gain popularity. Terrorists, on the other hand, are individuals or group of individuals who are doing criminal acts with massive destruction with the purpose sowing fear to the people to advance their own ideologies on political, economic, and religious issues. Though this perception might be true in most instances, the effects of gang and terrorist activities to the innocent public are oftentimes the same.

Gangs and terrorists are similar in many ways; hence, appropriate law enforcement agencies require similar tactics and methods in combating these groups.  The succeeding discussions will show the distinct differences and similarities of gang and terrorist groups in terms of fear they brought to the people, the money spent by the U.S government in fighting their heinous crimes, and the way the people regarded them.

Further, gangs are indeed domestic terrorists in which the National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations (2005) affirmed that both groups (gangs and terrorists) are now more sophisticated to use technology for easy communication, access of illegal activities, tremendous increased in membership corresponding the number of crimes, and that they migrate to expand territories and connections.

An in depth understanding about these groups requires an extensive research and study.   It is necessary to define basic terms to provide the readers vital information or an idea on gang and terrorism.

Terrorism

Terrorism has several definitions, depending on an individual point of view, but this paper defines terrorism as “the deliberate creation and exploitation of fear for bringing about political change.” (Encyclopedia Articles Microsoft Corporation, 2007). A person involved with terrorism is called a terrorist, one who brings fear to civilians and intimidates wider audience to advance personal or group ideologies; religious, economic or socio-political like changing a government system and/or political leaders. Under Section 2331, Title 18 of the United States Code, terrorism is further defined as the “activities that involve violent acts or acts dangerous to human life that are a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any State, or that would be a criminal violation if committed within the jurisdiction of the United States or of any State” (The U.S. Code Collection as quoted by Cornell Law School).

The most infamous terrorist group is al Qaeda, led by Osama bin Laden, who made terrorist attacks that inflicted enormous destruction of lives and properties paralyzing the national economy and security of the United States.

Gangs are defined as “group of criminals or group of people who work together for some criminal or antisocial purposes” (Microsoft Corporation, 2007). This definition best describes the kind of gang groups doing criminal activities in the streets and in the neighborhoods. The succeeding discussions anchor from the abovementioned definition of gang and terrorism.

Fighting against gangs and terrorists requires similar methods of law enforcement. Criminal incidents caused by gangs and terrorists are happening until these days; some have been reported in televisions, newspapers, and radio but some remain undisclosed to the public. Although the strategies and the way these two groups are conducting their criminal activities have different and distinct methods, but they have the same impact to the public; fear of being the next victims and/or fear of losing properties and livelihood or job. This has prompted the government and other concern individuals and institutions to treat gangs and terrorist to be the same public menace, thus fighting against these groups requires similar methods of law enforcement.

Operations of Gangs and Terrorists

Gangs and Terrorists operate in almost all parts of the world. Their main purpose is to inflict fear of the people through killings, destruction of properties, and other activities that will destroy the peace and order of the area and disturb the socio-economic and political stability of the target area/place. They both doing heinous crimes locally and internationally, to support their activities, especially in generating funds which include kidnapping for ransom, extortion, burglary, and many more. But, these are just secondary to their main motives of advancing their ideologies, especially on political reforms and religious issues.

Usually, gangs seek public acceptance in the state or area where they are staying because most of their leaders and members are migrants settling (legally and illegally) from other countries. Gangs usually demands policies and programs from the government that please and protect them, and lift their dignity and economic stability.  While terrorists, are seeking for independence and freedom of external interference from their own political, social, economic and religious activities and governance.

Gangs are considered as organized crime groups doing criminal activities in a particular place, oftentimes in the streets.  According to Stephen Johnson, Senior Policy Analyst for Latin America, youth gangs have flourished throughout history wherever there have been population shifts and unstable neighborhoods.

Presently, gangs become global that has grown rapidly and gain worldwide affiliation and some have links with international terrorists.  In the 1960s, gangs flourished in Los Angeles and currently maintain “fraternal links to some 130,000 to 300,000 members in Mexico and Central America and have expanded across the United States to both major Cities and rural communities.” (Johnson, 2005).

On the other hand, terrorist activities happen in any part of the world, especially in the United States of America depending on the target location which are intentionally undertaken by criminals who are considered as “one state’s terrorist but another state’s freedom fighter” (UNODC, 2006).

Gangs and terrorists are dependent on their respective operations from their self-sustaining activities.  Funds are generated mainly from kidnapping for ransom, extortion, and the like.

In Latin America, Steve Macko, ERRI Crime Analyst, disclosed that kidnapping or abduction of business executives is a growth industry, which is attributed to weak law enforcement. The highly respected New York-based Kroll Associates security firm, “there were at least 6,000 kidnappings in Latin America” (Macko 1997) in which business executives are the main target of kidnappers.

Terrorists act the same with Gangs where they kidnap wealthy men and ask for ransom to raise funds for their continued operation. Faye Bowers of The Christian Science Monitor (2004) reported that al Qaeda undertakes kidnapping activities to raise funds and in fact they have websites where instructions can be read online on how to abduct and hide the victims and the negotiation process up to the release of the kidnap victim. However, al Qaeda, known as the most popular and treacherous terrorist group nowadays, “relies on four main funding sources to finance recruitment, training and operations.  They include the inheritances and investments of Osama bin Laden, direct funding from Arab supporters of al Qaeda, contributions through Islamic charitable organizations, and criminal activity.” (CDI Primer, October 2002).

Group Types

Gang membership diversity has contributed a lot to its continuous existence and the proliferation of its criminal activities.  The Hybrid and Other Modern Gangs Juvenile Justice Bulletin (December 2001) stated that although many gangs continue to be based on race or ethnicity, gangs are increasingly diverse in racial/ethnic composition, backgrounds “European, American, African American, Asian American, Native American, and Hispanic and other ethnicities.” (Hill, et. al., 2001). The said bulletin further reveals that 36% of youth gangs had a significant mixture of two or more racial/ethnic groups, usually found in small cities.

Accordingly, there is more membership diversity of gangs in suburban areas, small towns, and rural areas than in large cities. Gang members include “females, Caucasians, and younger members-younger than age 15.” (Howell, et. al., 2002).  This situation shows that gangs in suburban areas are more diverse than in large cities and at a younger age. Lack of opportunities to proper education, economic instability, and family problems are among of the many reasons why young people are involved in gangs.

Among the gang groups who proliferated its criminal activities in the United States, as mentioned by the Bureau of Justice Assistance (1999), are the following:

  1. Black Gangster Disciples (BGD’s) and Vicelords from Detroit, Chicago, and other Midwestern cities;
  2. Crisps and Bloods (San Diego, Kansas City, Los Angeles and Tucson), one of the oldest, largest, and most notorious street gangs in the U.S., according to the Educational Broadcasting Corporation (2007);
  3. MS-13 or the Mara Salvatrucha, a violent street gang with origins in Central American countries;
  4. 18th Street or Calle 18;
  5. Dominican and Puerto Rican gangs (New York County (Manhattan);
  6. Jamaican posses (Kansas City, New York County (Manhattan), and Kings County (Brooklyn);
  7. Local African-American gangs (Atlanta and Ft. Wayne);
  8. Local Hispanic gangs (San Diego, Tucson, and Ft. Wayne.

It is noticed that the abovementioned gang groups are non-Americans in origin where leaders and most of the members are not natives in America. They belong in deprived communities of non-Americans within the United States of America.  The entrance of these people in the United States is usually illegal.

Membership of Terrorist Organizations is obviously based on individual or group ideologies with a common purpose of advancing their interests on political, economic, and/or religious.  Members could be male or female and regardless of marital status; single, married, widow, or widower and they could be at any age as long as they can understand simple instruction on how to perform their respective works or assignments.

There are several groups of terrorists known worldwide to be dangerous using unanticipated tactics in their operation like utilizing children and women as human bombs.  The Counter Terrorist Financing Network (2006), mentioned some of the well-known terrorist groups, most of them are Muslim extremists.  The top 100 terrorist groups are shown in the attached list (Appendix A).

Differences/Similarities Between Both Groups

The Bureau of Justice Assistance (1999) and the Encyclopedia Articles Microsoft corporation (2007) confirm that both groups are involved in trafficking illegal drugs, bombing, kidnapping, assassination, stealing, bank robbery, and human trafficking. Both groups commit violent crimes that intimidate civilians and pose global threat to security and economic.

There are significant differences between gangs and terrorist groups. According to the contributors of the book entitled, Teen Gangs: A Global View (2004), the age range of the typical youth gang is from 12 to 24, obviously includes young adults (Duffy, Maureen P.& Gillig, Scott Edward, 2004).  They spent most of their times in streets singing, shouting, bullying passersby. Most of the gang members live in depressed areas with individual rebellion against their parents or guardians and even other family members.

This pushes them to seek sympathy from other people, usually from their peers, and ultimately join gangs to satisfy their needs for enough food, clothing, and financial need. While their needs for food, sympathy, care, understanding, and belongings are provided and satisfied, they are required by their leaders to get involve in their activities; kidnapping for ransom, holdup, robbery, extortion, etc. with the mission of generating funds for their needs and activities. Accordingly, gang members are afraid of losing their lives in accomplishing their mission (Ikram Sehgal, 1995). However, they are forced to execute their mission because they are afraid of their leaders being tortured or punish to death.

On the other hand, the Comprehensive Databank of Global Terrorist Incidents and Organizations (2007) disclosed that terrorist groups are mostly Muslims, but there are some guerillas or lost command military elements (others are female suicide bomber originated from Chechnya, Russia) with different ethnicities that are now converted into Islam. Terrorists vary in their religious beliefs and ideologies, but they have the same aim to do criminal activities publicly to display their crusade of having changes in the current political system (Hoffman, 2006). Terrorists have the conviction of doing their mission even at the expense of their lives.  Accordingly, they “put forward their lives as a weapon in the success of their objectives” (Ikram Sehgal, 1995).

Current Methods of Combating

A coordinated interagency process has been adopted by the United States in its efforts to combat international terrorism. However, after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, President Bush declared the war on terrorism and prompted the increase in military operations, economic measures and political pressure on groups accused as terrorists, as well as on governments and countries accused of sheltering terrorists and criminals.

Many governments have accorded law enforcement authorities special powers of arrest and detention at times of extraordinarily serious security threats. Bruce Hoffman reveals that though these powers seem to be temporary, but the government intends to have it as an aid in capturing and prosecuting terrorists and gangs and eliminating extremist threats to society (Hoffman, 2006). These special powers protect the law enforcers from harassments or accusation for violation of civil rights and civil liberties that may result to the unjust imposition of severe punishment against the law enforcers.

The enforcement of laws against criminal acts perpetrated by gangs and terrorists is treated the same with the methodical strategies applied to a specific crime committed.

The National Institute of Justice (NIJ0 of the U.S. Department of Justice, reveals that “law enforcement agencies in the United States are confronted with the presence of more than 4,800 gangs with 250,000 gang members” (Bureau of Justice Assistance, August 1999). Accordingly, to help enforcement agencies combat this menace, a program model called strategies for urban gang enforcement (model strategies) should be adopted. This helps create processes and strategies that are useful in many jurisdictions.  There was no one method identified to solve gang and terrorism problem, but, there are some innovative methods that are more effective and better suited to certain situations.

The Online NewsHour (2006) reported that the Bush Administration has used military force and allows wiretapping of suspected terrorists even without court approval after the incidents of September 11, 2001 attacks. However, the proposed wiretapping of suspected terrorists has prompted public debates questioning the legality of authority of President Bush. This, accordingly, violates the right of every citizen to privacy.

The U.S judiciary and legislative bodies had further questioned the President’s authority in using the military and wiretapping of suspected terrorists without court approval. But the argument ended with the favorable decision on the President’s move based on the constitutionality of authority, precedence of previous U.S Presidents’ unquestionable related authority, and the urgency to fight against terrorism.

Gangs are likewise dealt with equal attention with that of terrorist groups. Domestic law enforcement agencies also intensified their efforts in eradicating gangs which are considered as  domestic terrorists who deny every U.S. citizen the constitutionally guaranteed rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness” (Letters to the Editor/Gangs are Domestic Terrorists, 2002).

The U.S. Constitution has provided provisions specifying sanctions imposed on terrorism acts like credit card fraud, computer fraud, mail fraud, wire fraud, or financial institution fraud. “These federal offenses are felonies that carry substantial penalties in some cases, as high as 30 years imprisonment, fines, and criminal forfeiture.” (Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act of 1988).

Appropriate injunctions/sanctions on crime committed by gangs and terrorists are determined by the U.S Court depending on the facts and evidences presented in Court.

The call to fight terrorism has prompted U.S. President Bush to “sign a law in 2002 that created a new executive department, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The department’s mission is to protect the United States against terrorist attacks, to reduce the country’s vulnerability to terrorism, and to minimize damage and aid recovery in case of attack.” (Minutaglio, 2005). The DHS combined several federal agencies into one department, believed to be the largest reorganization in the federal government since the Department of Defense was created in 1947.

The creation of DHS has strengthened the law enforcement against gangs and terrorist groups.  However, DHS should not be complacent in their work and in what they have (resources) so that gangs and terrorist groups could no longer make any disastrous attack within the American territory.

  1. Vision, Mission, and Strategic Goals. The Department of Homeland Security is mandated with a mission to lead a unified effort to secure America with the vision of preserving the freedom, protecting the Americans, thus secure the homeland. Please refer to Appendix B. This mission and vision will be made possible through the implementation of pre-identified strategic goals that include among others;  awareness, prevention, protection, etc. Please refer to Appendix B.
  2. Leadership. The leadership of the DHS has been strengthened through the assignment of experienced and highly qualified officers, headed by its new Secretary, Michael Chertoff.  The complete list of DHS officers is attached herewith as Appendix C.
  3. Organizational Chart. An organizational set-up of the DHS is designed to show the hierarchy of command where the terms of reference of each officer are defined.  Please refer to Appendix D. The different components of the DHS has been created and tasked to do specific functions to realize its mission and vision.
  4. Funding. With the unforgettable painful experience brought by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the government of the United States has prioritized its programs in securing the homeland from any further terrorist attacks.

The website of the U.S DHS has disclosed a remarkable budgetary allocation as provided by the President of the United States for its operation with 7% to 10% annual increase since its creation in 2002. Last year (2006) a total of $41.1 billion was allocated, but this year, definite figure is yet to disclose. “The Department of Homeland Security, Performance and Accountability Reports provide financial and performance information that enables the President, the Congress and the public to assess the effectiveness of the Department relative to its mission performance, program management, and stewardship of resources.” (Homeland Security, April 2007).

The creation of DHS was mainly to fight against international terrorists. Nonetheless, criminal activities of gangs had likewise brought the same danger with that of international terrorists; hence, gangs are considered as domestic terrorists. The U.S government is dealing special attention to eliminate gangs through the intensification of DHS operation.

Update and Other Issues

It is imperative to know the latest update of activities and other issues regarding the operations and criminal activities of gangs and terrorists to appraise all readers on the present condition of U.S security and in order to equip the people with the necessary strategies to help eradicate gangs and terrorist groups. The following facts and events are recounted by persons who have experience or indirect connection and personal information about gangs and terrorist groups as disclosed by press/media practitioners.

Zach Werner of the NewsHour Extra (2007) emphasized that Mara Salvatrucha or MS-13 gang is a street gang originated in Central American countries with 2,000 members in Northern Virginia, and 10,000 network members operating in 33 states of America. They are known for their “burglaries, drug sales, weapon smuggling, extortion, illegal firearm sales, auto thefts, murder and rape” (Werner, 2007). There are speculations from different sources including El Salvador’s President linking MS-13 with al Qaeda.

However, Robert Clifford, director of U.S-Justice Department created task force says that MS-13 has no connection with al Qaeda (Harman, 2005). According to Clifford, the FBI with the U.S. Intelligence community and governments of several Central American republics have determined that there is no basis in fact to support the allegation of al Qaeda or even radical Islamic ties to MS-13. Nonetheless, with or without the alleged connection, the FBI says that MS-13 is a threat to domestic security (Harman, 2005).

During the 60-minute live interview in CBS News (2005), gang members Brenda Paz and Ismael Cisneros revealed that MS-13 has operated in five countries and now expanding in Europe. Accordingly, MS-13 is a very dangerous gang with fearless members and no mercy to kill people even co-members if found guilty of breaking their rules. The public revelation of Brenda Paz in CBS News has caused her death, she was brutally killed by fellow members, Oscar Grande (her boyfriend) and Ismael Cisneros (her close friend). It was later known that Brenda was pregnant (60 Minutes of CBS News, 2005).

Ismael Cisneros reveals in the CBS News that suspected gang members who are breaking or about to break their rules like disclosure of their activities, are brutally executed. He felt too much anxiety to lose his life, though he is now serving a lifetime imprisonment in jail because he could be exterminated by co-prisoner who is a member or has connection with MS-13. The revelation of Ismael prompted the FBI to implement the Operation Community Shield that resulted to the “capture of 800 MS-13 members” (CBS News, 2005).

On the other hand, Max Manwaring (2006) stated that gang operation is transnational with international networks to facilitate smooth flow of their operation such as human trafficking, kidnapping, extortion, assassination and other criminal activities (Washington, D.C.: USAID Bureau for Latin America and Caribbean Affairs, 2006).

Besides al Qaeda, Abu Sayyaf (Muslim extremists operating in Mindanao, Philippines) comes into a worldwide view through its recent heinous criminal act, beheading seven (7) abducted Filipinos after the Philippine government refused to pull-out its military offensive killing 70 Abu Sayyaf members, and failure to negotiate and provide the demanded ransom money around $105,000 (Reuters News Articles Online, 2007).

During the interview conducted by Ray Suarez of the PBS Online News Hour (2000), Larry Parkinson, a General Counsel for FBI, answers some criticisms in using the Electronic Privacy Information. “The FBI uses this tool for fighting new crimes spawned in cyberspace.” (Online NewsHour, 2000). The program, called Carnivore, taps data flowing from an Internet Service Provider (ISP) to a client, and then sends the filtered information from an e-mail or a visit to a web site into the carnivore system for further FBI analysis that will serve as basis for further appropriate course of action.

There had been a lot of interviews with the gang and terrorist experts including LAPD detective, Tony Moreno, popularly known by gangsters as “Pac-Man”, who wrote several books depicting real gangs’ experiences, and proven strategies how to deal with gang members.

Examine Sensitive Issues from Both Gangs and Terrorism

Millions of illegal aliens are entering the United States of America crossing the borders and bringing with them drugs and do illegal activities in the U.S. (Jon Kyl, 2007). Illegal entry of aliens yields socio-economic problems and security threats. The U.S government is now instituting actions to combat these problems and allocate huge funds for the operation in curbing criminal activities of both organized gangs and international terrorists.

About 600,000 to 800,000 people, mostly women and children, are brought to the U.S soils illegally crossing the borders (The World Facts, 2007).  It is estimated that at least 80% of the victims are female; 75% of all victims are brought to commercial sexual exploitation.

Restriction of illegal migration especially for suspected gang members will help a lot in resolving internal problems involving gangs and terrorist groups. The concerned government law enforcement agency should always observe strict enforcement of migration law, and increase the number of police officers to be assigned in strategic locations or in hotspots area along the borders.

The White House emphasizes that terrorists want political changes to advance their interests to the extent of using religious ideologies as a tool to circumvent worldwide indictment of their heinous criminal activities.  Moreover, the White House reveals online that terrorists introduce radical ideology and false belief that the United States is the cause of problems affecting Muslims worldwide.

These Muslim extremist terrorists gain supports from different Muslim countries and exploit Islam to realize the so-called caliphate. “The Caliphate is a unique political system from the ideology of Islam that bears no resemblance to any of the Muslim Governments today. It is a government built upon a concept of citizenship regardless of ethnicity, gender or creed and is totally opposed to the oppression of any religious or ethnic grouping.” (Life as a non-Muslim (dhimmi) in the Caliphate (n.d). This group distorts the idea of Jihad into a call for violence and murder against non-Muslims believing that the latter are threats to their religious beliefs. These harsh actions created a gap between Muslim and Christian believers.

Urban or Domestic terrorism refers to a “violent act or an act dangerous to human life, occurring primarily within the United States, that is a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or that would be a criminal violation if committed within the jurisdiction of the United States and appears to be intended to: Intimidate or coerce a civilian population; Influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion; or Affect the conduct of a government by assassination or kidnapping.” (18 U.S.C. §3077).

According to Tom Ridge, Director of Homeland Security (2002), the community of Arlington, Virginia was terrorized by urban terrorists when a woman was shot and killed in a parking lot. The Online News Hour (2002) also reported that a sniper has killed eight other people in Washington D.C. and the surrounding suburbs in Maryland and Virginia. Another crime happened in the nearby Montgomery County that killed five caused by sniper single shots. These incidents brought enormous fear among community residents with the apprehension of being the next possible victims.

The Homeland Security Department responded this domestic security concern by assuring the community in its campaign to strengthen security measures.  One of the steps made, as reported in the PBS Online News Hour (2003), is the allocation of more funds for the Secret Service of the DHS amounting to $6.8 billion with 43,639 members. This department coordinates federal agencies and tracks the network of terrorism and illegal drug trafficking and possible terrorist attacks.

 Assessment of Contemporary Gangs and Terrorists

The spread of gangs and terrorists across the world is fast through migration and illegal entry to and from the United States. The expansion of networks has been quick or speedy with the use of Internet. The existence and operation of gangs and terrorists are alarming with the rising rate of uncertainties in the part of the populace.  The government should act vigilantly on this before another horrible incident will happen, just like what happened in September 11, 2001 and even worst than that.

The White House Website online has given top priority to continue waging a global war against terrorism and prepare for other challenges in the 21st century using its law enforcement agencies particularly the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).

The on-going initiatives of the U.S government involve a wide range of offensive and defensive actions that while “the military fights the Global War on Terror, DOD is reconstructing the forces engaged in those operations, and to respond to evolving and adaptive enemies, it is building the irregular and joint war fighting capabilities needed to meet future threats to the Nation’s security.” (White House Website, 2007). The White House further assure the Americans that the Department also takes care of U.S. most valuable asset, its people, that support members of the all-volunteer force and their families.

The Office of Management and Budget (2007) reveals that the President of the United States has allocated more budgets for counter-terrorism programs and projects to further ensure security. Below are the enacted annual budgets including the requested additional budgets for year 2007 and the projected budget for year 2008.

On the other hand the Department of Justice (2006) announced the release of $200 million in anti-crime funding to every state and territory through the Edward Byrne Justice Assistance Grant (JAG) Program. Accordingly, the funds will be used by state and local governments to support a broad range of activities to prevent and control crime and improve the criminal justice system.

The Congress, however, do the same effort in allocating huge funds for anti-crime activities and assistance to the victims (Miko and Park, 2003).

Besides the allocation of huge funds, massive recruitment of law enforcers is being promoted by the U.S. government especially in the U.S. Army.  After falling short of its recruiting target for 2005, the U.S. Army has set new recruitment guidelines to expand the pool of potential recruits, raising the maximum recruiting age for new soldiers by five years to 39, and doubling the salaries to $40,000.00 Aljazeera Magazine (2006). According to Aljazeera Magazine, an editorial on Sweden’s Göteborgs Posten states that the turmoil in Iraq is the reason behind the recent military changes.

The recruiting problem could probably affect the war against terror because the number of casualties in the on-going war particularly in Iraq is increasing. The recruitment strategies should be enhanced; increase the present salaries and benefits, intensify public information drive and solicitation of commitments to serve the country through serving the Arm Forces of the U.S., and the use of upgraded sophisticated weapons.

In respond to national security the White House has supported the Defense Department and allocating big amount of budget for the development of arm to protect the interest of the government. The allocations according to Office of Management and Budget, in  “2008, DOD will field more Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, with the Predator force increasing to 170 aircraft, eventually supporting 21 simultaneous surveillance orbits. Funds will also be provided for the first CVN-21 aircraft carrier. In the previous years, budgets were approved three other classes of transformational warships; SSGN cruise missile submarines, Littoral Combat Ships, and DDG-1000 destroyers. The 2008 Budget also supports new global capabilities for the Air Force, for the navy, and for other law enforcers. The realization of these plans will strengthen the capabilities of law enforcers in securing the United States of America.

Moreover, the DOD is now active in “developing efficient equipment like the chemical and biological suits and other protective gear for protection in the future” (Office of the Management and Budget, 2007). Thus, appropriating a $1.6 billion for research and development in acquiring high-tech equipment needed to combat the war.

The White House Websites (2002), mentioned that the President of the United States was able to gather multilateral organizations from all regions across the globe to wage war against terrorism that include the following:

  • The Organization of American States
  • The European Union
  • The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • The G-8, the Association of South East Asian Nations
  • The ANZUS Treaty
  • The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
  • African Union.

The unification of forces of the abovementioned organizations to secure the world from terrorist attacks would mean a lot in observing worldwide peace and order.

Considering the premises mentioned above, it is very clear that there is a need to immediately address the current security problems caused by gangs and terrorist groups.  The criminal activities of gangs and terrorist groups have the same impact to the general public where properties and lives had perished, hence they posed enormous fear to the people not only in the United States of America but also in other parts of the world especially those pro-U.S.A countries.

It is therefore concluded that the methods of fighting against gangs and terrorist groups should be similar.  They should be treated the same in terms of designing plans to stop their criminal activities and in terms of penalizing. However, they both need the same conventional strategies or methods involving domestic and international dialogues and symposia to gain worldwide understanding on the real situation of each country especially those who pursue misleading ideologies.

Further, allocation of funds intended to deal with the pressing issues and problems attributed by gangs and terrorist groups should be equally appropriated so that they will be both addressed.

The uncertainty of domestic and international security caused by gangs and terrorists is being experienced by any country in the world.  In man’s point of view, it seems that it is next to impossible to solve this problem, but with the divine’s intervention, peace of the world is possible.

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