Goldenhar Syndrome Airway And Anesthetic Management Biology

Goldenhar syndrome is a rare inborn upset and besides known as oculo-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia. The deformity of the face, oculus and ear were foremost recorded by the nineteenth-century German doctor Carl Ferdinand von Arlt ( 1812-1887 ) but was foremost described by Dr. Maurice Goldenhar in 1952. [ 1 ] The syndrome occurs indiscriminately, with no evident cause. Most instances of Goldenhar syndrome are non inherited, nevertheless few households showed heritage form. The male to female ratio is 2:1 and its happening is estimated from 1 in every 3,000 to 1 in every 5,000 unrecorded births. The syndrome largely involves face, ears, eyes and vertebrae and is characterized by a broad spectrum of symptoms and physical characteristics that range from mild to severe and is frequently associated with hard cannulation due to characteristic asymmetrical deformities of the face. There are many factors that lead to the unnatural development of the facial tissues which may be environmental or due to certain medicine taken during gestation. Normally kids with Goldenhar Syndrome have normal life span.


A female kid of 10 old ages, reported in ophthalmic outpatient section of our infirmary with history of decline of vision and painless puffiness of left oculus since birth. On ophthalmic scrutiny ocular sharp-sightedness in right oculus was 6/6 but best corrected ocular sharp-sightedness in left oculus was 6/60 which was non improved with refraction. There was inferolateral limbal dermoid of about 5×5 millimeters size with 30 to 35 degree divergent strabismus of left oculus [ Figure1 ] . Fundoscopic scrutiny and intraocular tenseness were normal in both eyes with restricted excess optic motions of left oculus. The physical scrutiny showed facial dissymmetry due to under development of left upper jaw with usually appeared mandible. Airway rating showed Mallampatti category II and restricted motions of caput and cervix, which suggested possibility of hard laryngoscopy and cannulation. On ENT scrutiny, the miss had multiple pre otic tegument tickets in forepart of left ear, lying in line connection tragus and angle of oral cavity [ Figure2 ] . The external ears were normal in form and size. She had no ailment of hearing loss. The cardiovascular and cardinal nervous system scrutinies were normal with no other associated inborn anomalousness. The X-ray cervical spinal column sidelong position has shown amalgamate organic structures of 3rd to fifth cervical vertebrae with loss of intervertebral phonograph record [ Figure3 ] . X ray thorax, skull and computed imaging of caput were normal. Haemogram, shed blooding clip and clotting clip were within normal bounds.

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Airway and Anesthetic Technique

In preanesthetic appraisal, she was evaluated for airway scrutiny by mouth opening- Mallampatti categorization which was MP-II, thyromental distance, and neck motion. Nasal patency was checked for both anterior nariss. The fiber-optic cannulation technique under sedation was selected for airway direction during surgery. A written informed parental consent was taken after discoursing airway jobs and their direction with parents and ophthalmic sawbones. Local anaesthetic, lignocaine sensitiveness trial was done. The ‘difficult airway cart ‘ with transdermal tracheotomy set, was kept ready.

The endovenous extract of toller lactate was started at 6 to 8 milliliters kg -1 and standard proctors for bosom rate, systemic arterial blood force per unit area, pulse oximetry and O impregnation ( SpO2 ) , electrocardiography ( ECG ) , capnography and temperature were attached. The topical anaesthesia was achieved by rhinal packing with lignocaine 4 % and xylometazoline 0.1 % rhinal beads, instilled in both anterior nariss 15 proceedingss prior to process. The Pharynx was sprayed with 4 to 6 whiffs of lignocaine 10 % aerosol. She was premedicated with endovenous glycopyrrolate ( .01mg kg-1 ) , fentanyl ( 1?g kg-1 ) and midazolam ( .05mg kg-1 ) . After preoxygenation with 100 % O for three proceedingss, awake fiber-optic cannulation ( Pentax -PMS, FI 10P2, Pentex Corporation, Medical instrument division, Japan ) was performed under sedation, by rhinal path with 5.5 millimeters portex cuffed endotracheal tubing. During process the sedation was supplemented with Fentanyl in titrated doses. The right placement of tracheal tubing was confirmed with capnograph and was steadfastly secured after corroborating the equal bilateral air entry by auscultation. Anaesthesia was induced with endovenous propofol ( 1 % ) in a dosage of 2 mg kg-1, sufficient to get rid of the oculus cilium physiological reaction and was maintained with vecuronium.08 mg kg-1, halothane 0.5-1 % and azotic oxide 60 % in O on controlled airing via paediatric Bain ‘s circuit. The surgical process was smooth, uneventful and lasted for 60 proceedingss. Residual neuromuscular encirclement was reversed with neostigmine 0.05mg kg-1 and glycopyrrolate, given in titrated doses. She was extubated, when to the full awake and take a breathing spontaneously with equal tidal volume. The station operative period was besides uneventful.


Goldenhar syndrome is a rare inborn upset and consists of optic, otic and skeletal anomalousnesss with variable presentation. Although, in most of instances, such deformities affect one side of the organic structure ( hemifacia microsomia ) but in 10 to 33 % of instances, it may be bilateral. Ocular abnormalcies include epibulbar dermoids and lipodermoids, coloboma, microphthalmia, palpebral crevices, blepharophimosis, strabsmis, vision defects including double vision of assorted grades and/or other oculus abnormalcies, seen in 60 % of instances. Amongst optic characteristics, epibulbar dermoids are the commonest ( 75 % ) and are classically located in inferio-temporal quarter-circle. Amongst otic afflictions, preauricular tegument tickets and accoutrement are common. Hearing defect of assorted grades from near normal to severe hearing loss ( conductive type ) may happen. Involvement of axial skeleton ( vertebrae and ribs ) has been observed in 24 % of the patients. The spina bifida is the commonest and least terrible of all anomalousnesss. Craniofacial abnormalcies may include malar hypoplasia, maxillary, inframaxillary and temporal hypoplasia, macrostomia, cleft lip and/ or roof of the mouth. Many affected persons may hold extra skeletal, neurological, cardiac, pneumonic, nephritic, and/or GI abnormalcies including feeding trouble. [ 2 to 4 ] Feingold and Baun listed standards for Goldenhar syndrome, of which at least two are required for the diagnosing of the syndrome. [ 5 ]

Familial Profile-Goldenhar syndrome is caused by break of normal facial development which is formed between 8th and 12th hebdomads of intrauterine gestational life of gestation. Its etiology may be environmental or due to certain medicine taken during gestation. In some instances of positive household history, suggested autosomal dominant or recessionary heritage. There may be interaction of many cistrons perchance in combination with environmental factors ( multifactorial heritage ) . [ 6 ]

Our patient showed inferolateral limbal dermoid of left oculus with 30-35 degree divergent strabismus and restricted excess optic motions on abduction, preauricular tegument tickets, maxillary hypoplasia of left side and amalgamate organic structures of 3rd to fifth cervical vertebrae with loss of intervertebral phonograph record, therefore fulfilled needed standards ( oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum ) for diagnosing of Goldenhar syndrome [ Figure1to 3 ] .

The presence of inframaxillary abnormalcies had 100 % sensitiveness and 96 % specificity for foretelling hard laryngoscopy. As the figure of associated craniofacial anomalousnesss of Goldenhar syndrome increased, the opportunities of hard cannulation would besides be increased. [ 7 ] Sometimes even careful scrutiny did non foretell every instance of hard cannulation. Her air passage and anaesthetic direction was disputing as the preoperative appraisal of her air passage revealed the presence of maxillary hypoplasia, fused cervical vertebrae and limited caput and cervix motions with Mallampatti category II. Various anaesthetic attacks for airway direction were discussed.

Flexible fiber-optic cannulation under local anaesthesia with sedation is the technique of pick for direction of the awaited hard air passage with restricted oral cavity gap in the patient undergoing an elected process. It is by and large regarded as a gilded criterion method for endotracheal cannulation in patients with cervical spinal column instability or stationariness. [ 8,9 ] Madan et Al found that endovenous initiation was preferred to the gaseous 1. [ 10 ] Other alternate method for such patient was lighted stylet guided cannulation under general anaesthesia. Tracheostomy should be performed merely in exigency or when other options failed.

Treatment of Goldenhar Gorlin syndrome is normally confined to surgical intercession that may be necessary to let the kid to develop usually e.g. jaw distractions/bone transplants, optic dermoid debulking, mending cleft palate/lip, mending bosom deformity and spinal surgery. [ 11, 12 ] In our patient, deletion of limbal dermoid of left oculus was performed successfully under general anesthesia. Surgery was smooth, uneventful and lasted for 60 proceedingss.


Goldenhar syndrome is rare inborn upset of unknown etiology, associated with craniofacial vertebral abnormalcies and characterized by a broad spectrum of physical characteristics that vary in scope and badness. No individual airway trial can supply a high index of sensitiveness and specificity for anticipation of hard air passage in patients of Goldenhar syndrome. The air passage and anaesthetic direction for such patients depend on the type, extent and badness of craniofacial-vertebral anomalousnesss, associated cardiovascular jobs and nature of surgery. Awareness of this status will assist in naming more of such instances.

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Goldenhar Syndrome Airway And Anesthetic Management Biology. (2017, Jul 07). Retrieved from