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Human-elephant conflict

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Chapter 1

Introduction

Many species face increasing competition with people for infinite and resources ( Pimm et al. , 1995 ; Balmford et al. , 2001 ) . As human population bit by bit increased in recent decennaries, human-animal struggle jobs are acquiring serious. These jobs occur due to the invasion of human existences on animate being home grounds for agribusiness or poaching activities.

Many woods have been developed into agricultural countries or industrial countries because of economic involvements and this has led to many animate beings lost their home ground.

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Therefore, human-elephant struggle is triggered by habitat loss and atomization and the deficiency of suited wildlife home ground. Large animate beings such as rhinoceros, elephants and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelams frequently bear most of the effects. In extra of that, animate beings which lost their home ground would run into agribusiness countries or small towns for nutrient resources. Crop busting jobs happen due to that fact.

It is hard to restrict elephants to a little topographic point because they move in great distances.

Even with fencings, farms adjacent to the park boundary are likely to be raided, particularly during seasons when favoured nutrients are at the optimum phase of growing. Elephants leave woods and travel into croplands, groves, farm to feed for nutrient. Hence, they would damage the harvests and plantation and besides belongings of husbandmans or villagers. Furthermore, hurt or decease of people or elephants might be happen.

Although husbandmans had tried to cut down elephant harm by guarding Fieldss, delving trenches between the wood and Fieldss, and modifying their cropping forms, it did non cut down the human-elephants struggle. Most of these methods are non efficiency to maintain the elephants off from their cultivated Fieldss.

The most serious issues now confronting elephants are habitat loss, habitat atomization, tusk poaching and persecution as harvest plunderers ( Armbruster & A ; Lande, 1993 ; Barnes, 1999 ; FFI, 2002a ; Nyhus et al. , 2000 ; Parker & A ; Graham, 1989 ; Sukumar, 1991 ) . Harmonizing to Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Peninsula Malaysia, between 1998 and 2006, there were a sum of 6,873 instances ( 764 instances a twelvemonth on norm ) of elephant perturbation ( Anonymous, 2010 ) .

Despite the ubiquitousness of human-elephant struggle and the comparatively high cost of assorted elephant control schemes now employed, few surveies have analyzed the grounds for their success or failure, or the impact of different protected country boundary and land-use types next to elephant home ground on harvest raiding ( Seidensticker, 1984 ; Sukumar, 1989 ; Newmark et al. , 1994 ; Thouless & A ; Sakwa, 1995 ; Hill, 1998 ; Naughton-Treves, 1998 ) .

Therefore this survey was undertaken to understand the species about human-elephant struggle and its preservation deductions in Perak. Many surveies which had been done before in Malaysia are non much particular for elephant and their methods of survey largely are expensive and clip devouring land and aerial studies. In this survey, geographical information system ( GIS ) will be usage to analyze the factors that lead to human-elephant struggles and investigate factors that influence elephants ‘ spacial distribution and place scope in Perak.

Definition of human-wildlife struggle

Human-wildlife struggle arises from a scope of direct and indirect negative interactions between human and wildlife. These can climax in possible injury to all involved, and lead to negative human attitudes, with a lessening in human grasp of wildlife and potentially terrible damaging effects for preservation ( De Boer & A ; Baquete, 1998 ; Nyhus et al. , 2000 ) .

Conflict frequently occurs over entree to H2O and competition for infinite and nutrient. Economic losingss happened due to agriculture devastation or loss of cowss during predation. Conflict state of affairss can originate anyplace, but they are often concentrated at the peripheries of militias where wildlife enjoys protection and land is frequently fertile, taking to a wealth of agribusiness ( Nelson et al. , 2003 ) .

A broad scope of species are responsible for struggle, with the chief perpetrators being Primatess, gnawers, hoofed mammals ( including antelope, bushpig, elephant, Hippo, American bison and zebra ) , king of beastss, leopards and hyenas ( Hill, 2000 ; Naughton-Treves, 1998 ; Naughton-Treves et al. , 1998 ; O’Connell-Rodwell et al. , 2000 ; Saj et al. , 2001 ) .

Problem statement and significance of survey

Shriveling of elephant home grounds is one of the grounds that elephants need to travel outside woods to seek for nutrients. It causes the Human-Elephant Conflict ( HEC ) . The favourite plantations which elephants ever disturb are oil thenar and banana. It causes the fiscal losingss for the husbandmans.

Harmonizing to Department of Wildlife and National Parks, the highest Numberss of human-elephant struggle were recorded in Johor ( 203 instances per twelvemonth on norm ) . The seven provinces which record human-elephant struggle are Kelantan, Johor, Terengganu, Perak, Pahang, Kedah and Negeri Sembilan. Critical countries with elephant perturbation are Kelantan – Jeli, Gua Musang ; Perak- Sungai Siput, Hulu Perak ; Johor – Kluang, Mersing, Kota Tinggi, Segamat ; Pahang – Lipis, Rompin, Pekan, Kuantan ; Terengganu – Hulu Terengganu, Dungun, Kemaman ; Kedah- Baling, Padang Terap ( Department of Wildlife and National Parks, 2010 ) .

Although the husbandmans had done some preventative steps such as brand trenches, ticker towers, patrol with tractors, firing tyres and logs ; it non successful and some methods are illegal. The most effectual manner is electrical fencings. However it needs expensive cost and high care fees. Therefore, it is a large job to the husbandmans to forbid the plunderers.

There have few surveies about human-elephant struggle in Malaysia so it is necessary to develop schemes to decide human-elephant struggle and increase public consciousness about the importance of conserving wild elephants. As a consequence, this survey can supply informations of place scope of elephants and map of susceptibleness of elephants in harvest raiding for future research.

With GIS function, we can easy understand HEC jobs which happen in Perak. It can besides supply us the information of harvest busting susceptibleness in Perak and we can find the spacial forms of harvest raiding by elephants. Furthermore, this survey will supply a more prognostic account of harvest busting to assist preservation governments and local people to cut down human-elephant struggle and advance a better human-elephant relationship.

Research inquiries

Mentioning to the job statement, some research inquiries were formulated. They were besides outlined in order to clear up the subjects under probe, every bit good as to steer the flow of this survey. The inquiries are as follows:

  1. Which countries have extremely susceptibleness of harvest raiding by elephants in Perak?
  2. What are the different between anticipation of harvest busting susceptibleness comparison with land informations?

Research aims

The chief aim of this survey is to utilize Geographical Information System ( GIS ) to foretell harvest busting susceptibleness by elephants in Perak.

The corollary aim is to compare the GIS anticipation of harvest busting susceptibleness with land informations.

Thesis Organization

Overall, this thesis consist of five chapters which intentionally to help in understanding and easy to form though composing procedure. The chapters in this thesis have been organized as follows:

Chapter 1 introduce about rubric of this research. Furthermore, it besides mention about aims, job statements and significance of this survey.

Chapter 2 discuss about ecology of elephants including its behavior, diet, and home ground. In this chapter, it besides has detailed account about human-elephant struggle, harm which brings by elephants to agriculture, method to extenuate this struggle and besides preservation actions to protect this animate being. Besides, geographical information systems and its importance are by and large discussed in this portion.

Chapter 3 more focal points on research methodological analysis. For this portion, research methodological analysis is based on the geographical information system. It is discussed about the manner to obtain informations from GIS and ways to analyze informations into map.

Chapter 4 is concentrating on consequences and treatment of land usage map and harvest busting susceptibleness map. GIS anticipation of harvest busting susceptibleness in Perak with harvest ranking table discuss in this chapter. Therefore, comparing between GIS informations with land informations discuss besides discuss in this chapter. Furthermore, it besides discuss about the preservation deduction of elephants.

Chapter 5 as a last chapter maps as a decision to the whole chapter in the thesis. It focuses more on human-elephant struggle including the recommendation of extenuating methods.

Chapter 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Elephants

The scientific categorization of elephant is listed as below ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) :

Kingdom

Animal kingdoms

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Mammalia

Order

Proboscidea

Family

Elephantidae

Genus

Elephas

Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) is besides known by its races name, Indian elephant. It is the largest life land animate being in Asia. This species can be found in India, Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, China, Bhutan, Nepal, Sumatra and besides Malaysia. It is consideredendangered, with between 41,410 and 52,345 persons left in the natural state.

This animate being is widely domesticated and has been used in forestry in South and Southeast Asia for centuries and besides in ceremonial intents. Historical beginnings indicate that they were sometimes used during the harvest season chiefly for milling. Wild elephants attracttouristmoney to the countries where they can most readily be seen, but damagecrops, and may come in small towns to bust gardens.

The Asiatic Elephant is somewhat smaller than itsAfricanrelatives ; the easiest manner to separate the two is that the Asian elephant has smaller ears. The Asiatic Elephant tends to turn to around 2 to 3.6 meters in tallness and 3,000-5,000 kgs in weight.

The Asian Elephant has other differences from its African relations, including a more arched back than the African, one semi-prehensile “ finger ” at the tip of its bole as opposed to two, four nails on each back pes alternatively of three, and 19 braces of ribs alternatively of 21. Besides, unlike the African Elephant, the female Asiatic Elephant normally lackstusks ; if ivories are present, they are hardly seeable, and merely seen when the female opens her oral cavity. Theenamel platesof themolarsare greater in figure and closer together in Asiatic elephants. Some males may besides miss ivories ; these persons are called “ makhnas ” , and are particularly common among the Sri Lankan elephant population. Furthermore, the brow has two hemispherical bumps, unlike the level forepart of the African elephant. Unlike African elephants which seldom use their forefeet for anything other than delving or grating dirt, Asiatic elephants are more nimble at utilizing their pess in concurrence with the bole for pull stringsing objects. The Asiatic elephant besides has really thin eyes and a xanthous fell in the summer.

Asiatic elephants by and large live in hot climes. Their tegument is around 3-4 centimeter midst. Elephants eat up to 150-170 kilogram of flora a twenty-four hours. The sizes of elephants in the natural states have been exaggerated in the yesteryear. However, record of elephants may hold measured every bit high as 3.7metres at the shoulder. Height is frequently estimated utilizing therule of thumbof twice the forefoot perimeter ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) .

Diet

As a mega-herbivore, the Asian elephant consumes more than 110 works species, while the day-to-day mass of its diet may be every bit much as 1.5 % -1.9 % of its organic structure weight in dry weight fresh fish. Previous surveies have suggested that Asiatic elephants ‘ eating penchants may be related to the workss ‘ palatableness, phenophase, texture and protein content. Sukumar ( 1992 ) has besides suggested that the elephants ‘ eating choices were made harmonizing to certain alimentary demands, such as petroleum protein, Ca and Na.

Elephants need to eat big measures of nutrient per twenty-four hours because of their physiology and energy demands. They are good in shoping and they graze on a assortment of workss. Their diet is changing in the proportions of different works types depend upon the home ground and season. During dry season in southern India, 70 % of the elephant ‘s diet was browse, while in moisture season ; grasses form about 55 % ( Sukumar, 1992 ) . However, in an next country, Baskaran ( 2002 ) observed that browse make up merely 15 % of the diet in dry deciduous wood and 47 % of the diet in the thorn wood during the dry season, while the one-year diet was dominated by grass ( 84 % ) .

In Sri Lanka, elephants may feed on more than 60 species of workss which belong to 30 households ( McKay, 1973 ) . In southern India, Baskaran ( 2002 ) observed that elephants fed on 82 species of workss which 59 were woody works species and 23 were grass species ) . Harmonizing to Vancuylenberg ( 1977 ) , elephants may pass up to 14-19 hours on feeding a twenty-four hours and they can devour up to 150 kilograms of wet weight. They defecate about 16-18 times per twenty-four hours and bring forth about 100 kilograms of droppings. Dung can assist in disperse germinating seeds.

Asiatic elephants are frequently considered to be the flagship species in their home grounds, and attempts have been made to conserve them. However, increasing struggles between worlds and elephants occur in many parts of Asia. The elephants come out of their protective home grounds, destroy farming area, and even injure people. An apprehension of the composing of the diet and the scrounging ecology of Asiatic elephants in may assist to develop proper schemes refering the human-elephant struggle ( Chen Jin et al. , 2006 )

Ecology

Elephants are found in a broad assortment of tellurian home grounds, runing from comeuppances ( Lindeque & A ; Lindeque 1991 ) , savannahs ( Thouless 1995 ) , tropical coastlines ( de Boer et Al. 2000 ) , and tropical and montane woods ( Fay & A ; Agnagna 1991 ) . Their unspecialised diet ( Laws et al. , 1975 ) and high mobility ( Lindeque & A ; Lindeque 1991 ) let elephants to use many different home grounds and survive under a broad assortment of conditions.

Asiatic elephants are Renaissance mans and they appear in grassland, half-evergreen wood, tropical evergreen forest, dry deciduous forested, moist deciduous wood and dry irritant forest, by manner of add-on to cultivated and secondary woods and scrublands. Elephants are founded from sea degree to over 3,000 m above sea degree over this scope of home ground types. Choudhury ( 1999 ) province that elephants in northeast India and the Eastern Himalaya on a regular basis move up above 3,000 m above sea degree in summer.

The Asiatic elephant consumes a big assortment of works species. Well over 100 different species to be exact. They typically prefer to eat grasses, but besides like roots, foliages, vines, bushs, stems, and bark ( Sukumar, 1990 ) . They eat in the forenoons, late afternoons, and dark. They take interruptions from feeding during the hottest parts of the twenty-four hours. On norm an grownup elephant consumes 330 lbs of flora and drinks 140 litres of H2O a twenty-four hours. However, 55 % of what they consume is non digested ( Animal Diversity Web, 2005 ) .

Asiatic elephants use many originative methods to recover their nutrient. To eat long grasses they pluck a package and lodge it inside their oral cavities utilizing their short pantss. Short grasses are eaten by stamping and kicking up the land, and so catching the grass utilizing their short pantss. To eat bushs they break off branchlets with their short pantss ( Animal Diversity Web, 2005 ) .

In Asia, place scope sizes reported ( males:160-400 kmA? ; females: 40-650 kmA? ) are much lower due to the elephants populating in chiefly forested home grounds with higher rainfall than recorded across many of the African surveies sites ( Joshua & A ; Johnsingh 1995, Baskaran et Al. 1995 ) . Elephants have home scopes over big countries and in surplus of 600 kmA? have been recorded for female elephants in south India ( Baskaranet al. , 1995 ) . In north India, female place scopes of 184-326 kmA? and Williams ( 2002 ) recorded that place scopes of male are 188-407 kmA? . However, smaller place scope sizes, 30-160 kmA? for females and 53-345 kmA? for males have been recorded in Sri Lanka ( Fernandoet al. , 2005 ) .

In Malaysia, They move largely in secondary woods with an one-year place scope of about 300 sq kilometer. Elephants are known as an “ umbrella species ” because their preservation can protect many species to busy at the same country. They are besides known as Prime Minister “ flagship species ” and sometimes they besides regarded as a “ anchor species ” because of their have of import impact on our environment and their function as ecological function are important.

Life span of Asiatic elephants is about 60 to seventy old ages. Male elephants reach sexual adulthood about ten to 15 old ages of age. On the other manus, first gestation of females normally happens in 15 or 16 old ages old ( Shoshani and Eisenberg, 1982 ) .

Menaces to elephants

The major menaces to the Asian elephant today are debasement, habitat loss, and atomization ( Sukumar, 2003 ; Leimgruberet al. , 2003 ; Hedges, 2006, cited by Choudhury et al. , 2008 ) , which are caused by an increasing in human population. These jobs are increasing the struggles between worlds and elephants when elephants eat or measure over harvests. Many people and elephants are killed because these struggles. The long-run hereafter of elephants should be emphasize in mitigate human-elephant struggles outside the protected countries, every bit good as in some protected countries, The largest preservation challenges in Asia today is to cut down human-elephant struggle ( Sukumar, 1992, 2003 ; Hedges, 2006 ) .

Asiatic elephants live in the assorted parts of the universe with high human population denseness with turning rate of between 1-3 % per twelvemonth. As a consequence, elephants need much countries of natural home ground than other tellurian mammals in Asia ; they are one of the species to endure the effects of devastation and habitat atomization. Due to the fact that elephants are larger in size and they have big nutrient demands ; so they can non co-exist with people in countries where agribusiness is the chief signifier of land. In some instances, elephants have been defined ‘pocketed herds ‘ in little wood where landscapes are dominated by adult male. These ‘pocketed herds ‘ represent an utmost phase in the human-elephant struggle ( Olivier, 1978 ) . Besides that, elephants have been caught and taken to Elephant Training Centres where do them lost energy and lost to the wild population ( Hedgeset al. , 2005, 2006 ) .

In Asia, poaching is a major menace to elephants excessively, although dependable estimations of the figure of decease and the measures of tusk and other organic structure parts collected and traded are lacking ( Sukumaret al. , 1998 ; Milliken, 2005 ) . Poaching activities has been argued that non a major menace to Asiatic elephant because some males and all females do non hold ivories ( Dawson and Blackburn, 1991 ) . However, the world is that elephants are poached for other utilizations like many sorts of merchandises ( including leather and meat ) besides to acquire tusk, and poaching is now recognized as a menace for some Asiatic elephant populations in the long-run endurance ( Kemf and Santiapillai, 2000 ; Menon, 2002 ) . Furthermore, in some parts of Asia, poaching of elephants for tusk is a serious job ( Sukumar, 1992 ; Menonet al. , 1997 ) . Large-scale hunting of elephants for tusk, fells, bushmeat, and other merchandises has reduced their populations significantly over a broad country from Myanmar to Indonesia ( Menonet al. , 1997 ; Duckworth and Hedges, 1998 ; Kemf and Santiapillai, 2000 ; Menon, 2002 ; Hedgeset al. , 2005 ) .

Conservation actions

The most of import preservation actions for the Asiatic elephant are to conserve elephant ‘s home ground and keep their home ground connectivity by procuring corridors ; Integrate land usage policy into direction of human-elephant struggles that can assist local people get some benefits or at least no suffer ; better protection to the species through purely statute law and jurisprudence enforcement, field patrolling should be improved and enhanced, and trade in tusk and other elephant merchandises must be regulated. Monitoring of preservation intercessions is besides needed to measure the success or failure of the intercessions so that accommodations can be made as necessary ( i.e. adaptative direction ) . Reliable appraisal of population size and tendencies will be needed as portion of this monitoring and adaptative direction attack ( Choudhury et al. , 2008 ) .

Human-elephant struggle ( HEC )

Human-elephant struggle ( HEC ) may take many signifiers, from harvest raiding and infrastructural harm, though perturbation of normal activities such as travel to work and school, to injury or decease of people and elephants ( Hoare, 2000 ) . HEC is a job that poses serious challenges to wildlife directors, local communities and elephants likewise.

The issue of HEC has become progressively important as human populations have expanded and encroached upon elephant home ground ( Dublin et al. , 1997 ; Hoare & A ; du Toit, 1999 ) , peculiarly where people pattern cultivation. Crop raiding is possibly the most common signifier of HEC. Although neither the lone harvest pest nor the most detrimental overall, elephants may do terrible localized harm within affected countries and can destruct full Fieldss of harvests ( Barnes, Asika & A ; Asamoah-Boateng, 1995 ; Hillman-Smith et al. , 1995 ; Lahm, 1996 ; Naughton- Treves, 1998, cited by Sitiati et al. , 2003 ) . Furthermore, elephants are besides unsafe to people. As a consequence, elephants have a higher profile than other wildlife species and are by and large less easy tolerated ( Naughton-Treves et al. , 2000 ; Hoare, 2001 ) .

It is critical, hence, to derive a thorough apprehension of the job in order to develop and direct extenuation schemes. Recent reappraisals of HEC ( Hoare, 1999, 2000 ) have identified some tendencies. Conflict normally takes topographic point between twilight and morning, and for harvest raiding in peculiar is frequently strongly seasonal. Spatial forms have been more hard to place. Conflict is by and large highest in close propinquity to protected countries that act as elephant safeties ( Barnes, Asika & A ; Asamoah-Boateng, 1995 ; Bhima, 1998 ; Parker & A ; Osborne, 2001, cited by Sitati, 2003 ) . However, few systematic surveies of HEC distribution have been conducted.

Other plague species, including carnivores ( Stahl et al. , 2002 ) and birds ( Tourenq et al. , 2001 ; Somers & A ; Morris, 2002 ) , have exhibited considerable spacial predictability in their forms of harvest and farm animal raiding, enabling appropriate direction and extenuation methods to be applied strategically. The most comprehensive published survey of HEC, nevertheless, failed to place any strong spacial correlatives ( Hoare, 1999 ) . This ‘male behavior hypothesis ‘ reflects the fact that male elephants may be more willing to take hazards for the higher nutritionary wagess of mature harvests than female elephants, as has been shown for Asiatic elephants ( Sukumar & A ; Gadgil, 1988 ; Sukumar, 1989,1991 ) .

The nature of harm caused by elephants to agriculture

Most of the harvest harm by elephants is in the signifier of harvest busting. More or less all elephants indulge on harvest busting whenever they get an chance. It is non wholly understood why wild animate beings raid harvests but it is believed they prefer the gustatory sensation of cultivated workss to that of wild workss. Crops are higher in sugars and lower in fiber and secondary defense mechanism chemicals than their wild counter parts. When their preferable diet of grass diminutions after the rains, they supplement their diets with harvests ( Joel et al. , 2005 ) .

Crop harm besides occurs when elephants move from one country to another in hunt of H2O or wild nutrient. Degradation of forests caused by elephants, fire and over graze, can do impermanent deficit of nutrient handiness for elephants. This may be a factor in actuating them to come in agricultural countries ( Joel et al. , 2005 )

Elephants and other big herbivore attractive force to harvests is said to increase by alterations in H2O handiness, which is comparatively scarce in dry seasons. Elephants may indulge in house breakage for assorted grounds such as seeking for nutrient grains, salt or state spirits or to deliver their calves if they have ventured inside a house. In Northern Bengal, most of the break-in instances take topographic point in tea gardens. It is besides suggested that some despairing lone elephants may go accustomed cat burglars. Cases of elephant killing farm animal are non really common but do occur because of clangs at the shared resource points such as lacrimation and salt licks ( Joel et al. , 2005 ) .

The nature of harm caused by each wild carnal varies. For illustration depredation by elephants is believed to be really big. In North Bengal ( India ) , the figure of human causalities in approximately ten old ages clip from 1986-1995 was 4000. On mean 100-200 people are killed in India by elephants yearly. An estimated 4000-4500 hecters of agricultural land is destroyed by elephants every twelvemonth. In add-on, about 1000-2000 houses are demolished yearly. In 1985 at Syamtalira Bayu ( Indonesia ) elephants reportedly destroyed 270,000 gum elastic tree seedlings andb140,000 immature trees in one plantation. The cost of the harm from three hebdomads of harvest raiding was estimated at US $ 12,000 ( Blouch & A ; Simbolon, 1985 ) .

Methods to extenuate human-elephant struggle

The methods of extenuation runing from simple, traditional methods used by villagers to modern, expensive engineerings implemented by province bureaus have been described and classified by many old writers ( Nelson et al. , 2003 ; Osborn & A ; Anstey, 2007 ; de Silva & A ; de Silva, 2007 ; Fernando et al. , 2008, cited by Perera, 2009 ) . A brief overview of the assorted methods is given below.

  1. Physical barriers
  1. Electric fencings – expensive and hard to keep, some elephants become ‘fence surfs ‘ . Small community type fencings enveloping small towns and croplands with care by the community can be effectual ;
  2. Non-electric fencings – demand strong stuff, normally uneffective ;
  3. Live fencings – thorny workss ( e.g. cactus, agave ) and trees planted in a stopping point ( sometimes triangular ) form. Other steps ( e.g. electric fencing ) are needed to forestall harm to the workss until they mature ;
  4. Trenches – jobs in care due to eroding during rains and elephants make fulling them by kicking in the sides.
  1. Vigilance methods
  1. Buffer zones – glade of a five meters broad strip around Fieldss or small towns ;
  2. Watch-towers – at strategic points or at half kilometre intervals along invasion boundary lines, with communicating to alarm other husbandmans ( e.g. whistlings ) ;
  3. Stringing fencings – with metal or glass objects ( tins, bottles, bells, etc. ) that make a sound ;
  4. Detection and dismay systems utilizing tripwire fencings, seismal, optical, laser or infrasound engineerings ;
  5. Lights or fires – at strategic entry points.
  1. Deterrent methods
  1. Buffer zones of unpalatable harvests – e.g. chili, benne, tea, baccy, citrous fruit ;
  2. Making noise ( acoustic ) – slaming on metal, bangers, thunder-flashes, fire-arms, checking whips, trip-wire dismaies, recorded sounds ( e.g. African honey-bees, elephant hurt calls, infrasound ) ;
  3. Fires and visible radiations – firing chili or chili seeds and droppings, strong flashing visible radiations, light reflecting on compact discs hung on twine ;
  4. Stringing fencings – with application of lubricating oil and chili, hot Piper nigrum oil, acetum or other thorns ;
  5. Nails and spikes – sometimes with toxicant.
  1. Repulsion methods
  1. Use of noise ( as above ) and irritants – Piper nigrum spray ( oleo-resin pepper ) and pepper-crackers ;
  2. Elephant Response Units or “ Flying Squads ” – squads of people with or without confined elephants ;
  3. Causing hurting and hurt – fire-arms, lances.
  1. Elephant thrusts
  1. To drive herds or single job animate beings to other forest home grounds that will hopefully go their new place scope ; utilizing people, sometimes with trained elephants, vehicles or aircraft.
  2. Low success rate, due to some elephants interrupting back from the driven herd, or to those driven returning to their former home ground.
  1. Capture, followed by translocation or taming
  1. Normally done for job animate being control ( PAC ) affecting grownup males, which take more hazards than engendering herds and hence become accustomed harvest plunderers.
  2. Translocation requires a high grade of expertness and logistics, and the animate beings may return to the original site or make jobs in the new location.
  3. Success with chastening depends on the age of the captured animate being and expertness of the tamers, and has non been really assuring in some state of affairss.
  1. Culling ( killing or deadly control )
  1. A extremely controversial and affectional issue, ethically and culturally unacceptable in most Asiatic states.
  2. Has been used in Africa to command overpopulation and prevent harm to home grounds. When employed for PAC, the culled animate being may be replaced by another job animate being.
  1. Compensation strategies
  1. Can do people more tolerant to amendss caused by elephants, but most are frequently unequal, extremely bureaucratic and unfastened to jobs such as deceitful claims and corruptness.
  1. Land-use planning
  1. Lack of proper planning has resulted in a pronounced addition in competition between worlds and wildlife for land, provender and H2O resources and is the root cause of increasing HEC in most states ( Nelson et al. 2003 ) .
  2. The chief factors that bring worlds and elephant into state of affairss of increasing confrontation are:
  1. Expansion of human colonies and agribusiness into forest countries ;
  2. Loss of elephant home grounds and blocking of traditional migration paths ;
  3. Human activities that attract elephants, such as seting harvests in old elephant home grounds, logging in woods ensuing in secondary flora, and making H2O reservoirs for irrigation or power coevals.

These confrontations constantly lead to aggressive behavior in both worlds and elephants, therefore intensifying HEC. Traditional land usage forms such as the slash-and-burn cultivation practiced in some Asiatic states have proven to be elephant-friendly, and could be appropriately adapted for extenuating HEC in some locations.

Geographic Information Systems

Geographic information systems ( GIS ) are designed to hive away, recover, pull strings, analyze, and map geographical informations. The cardinal component of a GIS is the usage of a location citing system so that information about a specific location can be analyzed in its relationship to other locations. Both plane and planetary co-ordinate systems are normally used. A system may be capable of easy transforming one citing system to some other citing system. This makes it possible to take informations that has been stored in one signifier and unite it with informations that has been entered and stored in some other signifier ( Church, 2002 )

A Geographical Information System is a computerized system for input, storage, direction, show and analysis of informations that can be exactly linked to a geographic location. Typically, GIS datasets come as beds – there can be a bed for rivers, a bed for roads, and a bed for nothing codifications – all within a peculiar geographical boundary. A bed may dwell of one or more characteristics, which include points, lines, or boundaries. Assorted beds are superimposed to make a meaningful map. Each GIS bed has two positions: a map position and a information position. The map Acts of the Apostless as a ocular representation of informations, and a peculiar property of the dataset can be displayed on the map. The informations position can be used to make a smaller dataset ( or map ) from a big dataset utilizing a question tool ( Rob, 2003 )

The chief benefits of GIS are that GIS introduced sophisticated techniques for the analyzing and screening of informations in a mode non antecedently available. Large volumes of information are stored and accessed digitally via GIS, which besides automates many time-consuming undertakings and reduces the man-hours involved in seeking for and recovering information. In add-on, GIS encourages multi-disciplinary interaction in undertakings, leting datasets from different subjects to be combined and analyze ( Xie et al. , 2006 )

Importance of GIS

The importance of GIS can be summarized as below:

  1. Help concerns research retail markets. By come ining client study informations into a GIS database, selling research staff can see where clients are coming from, and make up one’s mind where their selling attempts will hold the most impact.
  2. The Sandwich Analogy. Using GIS is a small like doing a multidecker sandwich. The individual wanting the “ sandwich ” can utilize any type of bed or figure of beds required. The toothpick keeping the sandwich together is the co-ordinate system that guarantees the beds.
  3. To allow us cognize how suited different countries of the town are for development. GIS can be used to bring forth maps demoing where assorted conditions exist: premier agricultural land, surface H2O, high inundation frequence, and extremely erodible land. Planners can utilize this information to do determinations about districting appellations and edifice licenses.
  4. 4. To compare that information with informations demoing where development is already happening. GIS could bring forth another map or series of maps demoing where licenses have been issued, when, and for what sorts of development.

Applications of GIS in landscape ecology

Geographic Information Systems ( GIS ) are progressively being used as the chief ‘tool ‘ for such digital geographic expedition of fluctuation in landscapes, as they provide the necessary maps for spacial informations aggregation, direction, analysis and representation ( Turner et al. , 2001 ; Longley et al. , 2005 ; Steiniger and Weibel, 2009, cited by Steiniger & A ; Hay, 2009 ) .

In order to execute landscape ecological surveies, several elements need to be considered: the survey of constituents ( e.g. figure and type of spacial elements and species ) , the survey of forms ( e.g. ecological relationships that help set up and prolong species ) and the survey of procedures ( e.g. ecological maps over clip ) .We argue that the three constituents ( constituents of the landscape, forms and procedures ) are interconnected and interrelated and should represent the chief elements of an incorporate modeling procedure to back up metropolitan planning. Landscape ecology is based on the premiss that there are strong links between ecological forms and ecological maps and procedures ( Blaschke, 2006 ; Burgi, Hersperger & A ; Schneeberger, 2004 ; Dramstad, Olson & A ; Forman, 1996 ; Geneletti, 2008 ; Gustafson, 1998 ; Leitao, Miller, Ahern & A ; McGarigal, 2006 ; Ligmann-Zielinska, Church & A ; Jankowski, 2008 ; Marull, Pino, Mallarach & A ; Crodobilla, 2007 ; Risser, 1987 ; Turner, 1987 ; Turner & A ; Gardner, 1991, cited by Silva et al. , 2008 ) .

Ecological systems are spatially heterogenous, exhibiting considerable complexness and variableness in clip and infinite. Landscape ecology besides represents the survey of persons, from microscopic elements to full landscapes with multiple dealingss and restraints. Planners are progressively looking towards landscape ecology for constructs and rules that support sustainability, loosely defined ( Forman, 1995 ; Geneletti, 2008 ; Hersperger, 1994 ; Leitao, Miller, Ahern & A ; McGarigal, 2006 ; Ndubisi, 1997 ; Swaffield & A ; Primdahl, 2004, cited by Silva et al. , 2008 ) .

Landscape be aftering hence becomes a common term to denominate activities that integrate both natural ecological demands and human-socioeconomic demands. Landscape be aftering argues for the sustainable usage of physical, biological and cultural resources. It seeks the protection of alone and scarce resources, the turning away of jeopardies, the protection of limited resources for controlled usage, and aims to suit development in appropriate locations ( Fabos, 1985 ) . The landscape program offers specific recommendations sing land usage allotment and appellation of degrees of protection and direction. It frequently includes puting a scheme to ‘undo ‘ negative alterations in the landscape from the yesteryear ( Ahern, 1998 ) .

Chapter 3

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Descriptions of Study Area

Perak is the 2nd largest province in Peninsula Malaysia. PerakmeanssilverinMalay. They named it most likely because of silvern coloring material of Sn. However, some say the name comes from the “ gleam of fish in the H2O ” that sparkled like Ag. The Arab honorific of the State isDarul Ridzuan, the Land of Grace.

Perak ‘s population is about 2.28 million in 2006 ( Department of Statistics, 2007 ) . It is one of the most popular provinces in Malaysia. Despite this, Perak has yet to retrieve from an economic lag which caused by tin-mining industry slack. Harmonizing to the Department of Statistic, Malaysia, the cultural composing in Perak in 2001 was, Malay ( 1, 101, 105 or 53.68 % ) , Chinese ( 643, 129 or 31.35 % ) , Indian ( 262, 121 or 12.78 % ) , others ( 6,536 or 0.32 % ) and non-citizen ( 38,345 or 1.87 % ) .

Ipoh is the province capital of Perak. It is well-known for its tin-mining industry until the value of Sn in a slack which has badly affected the province economic system. Nevertheless, the royal capital is set in Kuala Kangsar, where the castle of the Sultan of Perak is located.

Perak covers an country of 21,006kmA? , doing up 6.4 per centum of entire land Bankss in Malaysia.It is the 2nd largest Malayan province in the Malay Peninsula, and the 4th in the whole of Malaysia.

Perak ‘s yearss are warm and cheery, while its darks are cool the whole twelvemonth through, with occasional rains in the eventides. Temperature is reasonably changeless, that is, from 23A°C to 33A°C, with humidness frequently more than 82.3 per centum. Annual rainfall steps at 3,218mm ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) .

Belum and Temenggor forest in Perak is the 2nd largest staying block of virgin forest in Peninsular Malaysia and the largest illustration of the northern monsoonal Burnese-Thai forest flora zone in Malaysia. Belum and Temenggor wood has a big landscape ecosystem. As a consequence it can back up big mammal populations such as Asiatic Elephant, Malayan Tiger, Sumatran Rhinoceros, Malayan Gaur, Leopard and Tapir. These populations need big country like Belum and Temenggor forest for them to last.

Description of Study species

Malaysia has two of sub species of elephants. Peninsula Malaysia is place to mainland Asiatic elephant ( Maximus elephas indicus ) and Borneo is home to pygmy elephants ( Maximus elephas borneensis ) .

The figure of entire wild elephants is about 2,351-3,066. Around 1.251-1,466 in Peninsula Malaysia while around 1,100-1,600 at Borneo ( Sukumar, 2006 ) .

Asiatic elephants live in or near scrub-forested countries, although their home ground may be vary. They manage to be mobile in nature and do non remain in one topographic point more than a few yearss. They can populate in jungles but more likely to populate in countries that contain unfastened infinite and grass.

Prior to 1980s, lowland woods were premier elephant home ground but afterwards converted into oil thenar and gum elastic plantations. Habitat loss and atomization are the chief menaces to elephants in Peninsula Malaysia. Since the late 1990s, forest glade for little scale plantation continues to do forest atomization where the state of affairs acquiring worse by logging activities.

Data Acquisition

In this survey, a 2006 land-use map of Perak were utilised. The graduated table of the 2006 map is 1:250,000. The maps were developed by the Soil Resource Management and Conservation Division, Department of Agriculture, Malaysia. The 2006 map was based on a topographic map ( 1:50,000 ) of series figure L7030 and developed through the reading of orbiter images and the project of land studies for confirmation.

There have two chief types of informations gaining control. Primary informations beginnings are collected in digital format while secondary informations beginnings are digital and linear datasets that were originally captured for another intent and demand to be converted into a suited digital format for usage in GIS undertaking.

For this survey, informations utilizing all are secondary informations. The map used to digitize by utilizing Geographical Information System, ArcGis 9.3. All spacial and temporal analysis was performed utilizing ArcGis and spacial statistics were calculated utilizing Patch Analyst 4, which is an extension of ArcGIS, and besides by utilizing assorted expressions and landscape prosodies.

Data Input

Data input is the operation of encoding informations for inclusion into a database. The creative activity of accurate databases is a really of import portion of GIS. This may be accomplished through the usage of a keyboard, digitizer, and scanner from already existingdata sets.

A database direction system ( DBMS ) is a computing machine programme for making, keeping and accessing digital databases. There are a big figure of commercial bundles available for making this. The DBMS provides the indispensable nexus between the GIS package, external information beginnings or artworks heightening bundles and any operations which the user might wish to execute. DBMS can work with different informations types such as characters, numbers or day of the months ; they have linguistic communications for depicting or pull stringsing the information or for questioning the database for peculiar pieces of information ; they provide programming tools and they have peculiar file constructions.

The chief applications that use in this thesis are ArcView 3.3 and ArcGis 9.2. The unfastened of database files was done by ArcCatalog which can assist to form and pull off the geographical information and information.

Georeferencing

Georeferencing is the referencing in infinite of the location of a point utilizing a predefined co-ordinate system such as a national grid or latitude/longitude ( Burrough, 1986 ) .

Georeferencing of map was done with entered the co-ordinate of map for 4 points into ArcGis. Then, the co-ordinate system was selected to Malaysia GDM 2000 MRSO while created a form file.

Digitizing

Shape file was dragged from ArcCatalog to ArcMap for digitising. Shape of polygon or polyline was traced out after start redaction and salvage edits after finish redaction. The bed type of land usage property is utilizing the polygon ( Booth, 1999 ) .

Data use

The information in ArcGis represented as property tabular array which contained rows and columns. To open property tabular array, right click the bed name and take unfastened property tabular array. Area and margin can be calculate by right chink column name in property tabular array and take calculate geometry. Besides, field can be added due to different of land usage types. The same polygon in property tabular array can fall in together by unifying. Attribute tabular array can assist data direction and work easy when the full Fieldss from same polygon are appended. In add-on, different class of land usage can be distinguished with different colour.

Datas Analysis

The analysis of information was taken in signifier of mold, transforming and depicting informations. The entire country value was calculated by adding field in attribute tabular array. Each entire country of different land usage types was calculated excessively.

The ranking of land usage spots for harvest busting potency was made based on the elephant dietetic penchants ( Turnage et al. , 2010 ; World Wide Fund ; Environment Protection Department ; Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife ; SeaWorld Parks & A ; Entertainment ) . Areas with harvests that elephants prefer were rank high while countries with no harvests were ranked low.

A buffer zone of forest periphery for 5 kilometers breadth was done to find the type of environing land usage countries. After that, a map with 5km buffer zone was overlaid with the land usage map to make a susceptibleness map.

End product and visual image

Concluding work in GIS application is end product show and visual image. Map was exported in layout position with added on rubric, legend, north pointer, scale saloon and other else. The maps generated are land use map of Perak and harvest busting susceptibleness map. Land usage map of Perak shown us about land usage spots in Perak with different classs. The harvest busting susceptibleness map involves ranking of susceptibleness of harvest and land usage types.

Chapter 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Crop busting ranking

The land usage type and entire country of each spot of land usage was shown in Table 4.1. The major land uses in Perak in twelvemonth 2006 was forest, oil thenar, swamps, fens and wetlands, gum elastic, Paddy, other agribusiness or gardening and secondary wood and urban colony and associated countries. Entire countries of wood in Perak have 10106.485 km2 which are the biggest land usage countries and follow by oil thenar ( 4079.679 km2 ) and swamps, fens and wetlands ( 794.759 km2 ) . On the contrary, tea and banana have the smallest land usage countries which are 2.118 km2 and 3.617 km2.

In countries where cultivated by harvests which elephants like to eat, there will hold higher susceptibleness to harvest raiding by elephants. While on the contrary, the countries where did non contained any harvests were ranked low. Crop lands where nearby the wood will besides hold higher susceptibleness than harvest land where nearby residential countries.

The diet of elephants includes grasses, foliages, bamboo, bark, roots. When elephants forage in countries near plantations they will readily feed on cultivated harvests such as bananas, Paddy, and sugar cane, oil thenar, gum elastic, fruits, veggies, coconut foliages and wild Mangifera indica. As a consequence, the countries planted with elephant ‘s front-runners harvests were ranked higher than others. In contrast, land usage countries such as swamps, fens and wetlands, tin-mining and quarrying countries and urban colony and associated countries were ranked low because it do non hold harvests for elephants to devour.

The susceptibleness map in Perak for twelvemonth 2006 was shown in Figure 4.2. The ranking of susceptibleness were ranked by figure 1 to 9. The higher of figure indicates higher susceptibleness of harvest raiding.

A sum of 7231 land usage spots excepting wood and secondary wood. 1983 out of 7231 of land usage spots are high susceptibleness ( or 27.42 % ) whereas 4996 of land usage spots ( or 69.09 % ) were category as least susceptibleness and 252 of land usage spots ( or 3.49 % ) were in moderate susceptible class.

From Susceptibility rank map ( Figure 4.2 ) can detect that most of the high susceptibleness countries are located near to large woods compare to little wood. It is because elephants need a large place scope for them to last, so their populations are higher in large woods.

The location of human-elephant struggle are ground informations which stated by Salman & A ; Nasharuddin ( 2006 ) . The countries which happened human-elephant struggle are about in the scope of anticipation in susceptibleness rank map of this survey. Most of those countries are autumn in high susceptibleness ranks which are rank 7 and rank 8.

Elephants are cited as the most of import plunderers in most of their scope ( Dubklley et.al. , 1992 ; Hill, 1993 ; Hoare, 1992 ; Tchamba and Seme, 1993 ; Omondi, 1994 ; cited by Joel et al. , 2005 ) . Crop countries where cultivate harvest type of elephants ‘ front-runners such as banana, Paddy, oil thenar, gum elastic and fruits have higher susceptibleness of harvest raiding.

The presence of forest screen adjacent to agricultural countries appears to be a good forecaster of heavy harvest busting ( Nyhus et al. , 2000 ) . In Perak, oil thenar countries have largest entire countries of harvest types ( 4079.679 km2 ) and most of the lands are around the forest periphery. So it was the most likely topographic points where harvest busting instances happened. Rubber plantation which has 2nd larger entire countries ( 1922.900 km2 ) was besides one of the likely topographic points which happened harvest busting instances by elephants.

Oil thenar and rubber plantations may have biggest impacts from human-elephants struggle because they have big spots around forest periphery. Hulu Perak, Selama, Larut Matang, Sungai Siput, Lenggong and Gerik are estimated as high susceptible countries because it located near wood and cultivated by many sorts of harvests like oil thenar and gum elastic.

Conservation deduction of elephants

Elephants are generalist feeders and rapacious feeders, devouring between 6 and 8 per centum of their organic structure weight each twenty-four hours ( Sukumar, 1989 ) . The handiness of high nutrition workss in cultivated countries is a major factor explicating why elephants leave the safety of forest countries to bust harvests ( McKay, 1973 ; Sukumar, 1989 ; Santiapillai & A ; Widodo, 1993b ; cited by Nyhus et al. , 2000 ) .

In Perak, deforestation to alter forest into agribusiness land like oil thenar and rubber plantation due to high commercial value of these workss. This had affected home ground of elephants. Habitat loss is likely one of the chief proximate causes of harvest raiding ( Sukumar 2008 ) . Loss of uninterrupted woods due to forest atomization and deforestation are serious menace to elephants. Deforestation and forest atomization by anthropogenetic activities make elephants more vulnerable to extinction. Elephants have big organic structure size and they need big place scope and eating land for them to last. Fragmentation of home grounds by commercial plantations like oil thenar and gum elastic has isolated elephants groups from each other and lower densenesss in the resulting of smaller spots of home ground. Habitat atomization increases the opportunities of elephants to acquire nearer the cultivated land.

Deforestation for cultivates commercial harvests and tree plantation has given a new nutrient resource for elephants. Most of the harvest harm by elephants is in the signifier of harvest busting. More or less all elephants indulge on harvest busting whenever they get an chance ( Joel et al. , 2005 ) . In 2004, a herd of 12 elephants had raided in gum elastic plantation countries in Kampung Luat because their graze land had been taken over by logging activities. They had to feed on bark of immature gum elastic trees ( Baharom, The Star, 29 October 2004 ) .

Human-elephant struggles give rise to harvests destroyed, edifices damaged and injured or killed of people. Time, resources and money are spent to extenuate these struggles. Therefore, negative attitudes of people to elephants can do force while response to struggles. Elephants might be killed by peoples. In 2009, a female elephant which reported to be doing harm in several oil thenar plantations was found dead in Gerik because have been poisoned by smallholder. ( Chiew, The Star, 27 May 2009 )

Suggestion to extenuate human-elephant struggle

There have several methods that might be able to cut down human-elephant struggle in Perak. It included physical barriers like electric fencings or trenches that can prohibit elephants occupy to cultivated countries.

Furthermore, husbandmans can make a buffer zone with uncluttering a five to ten meter of broad strip around plantation countries. After that a ticker tower can be built to inspect harvest plunderers that intrude to harvest countries through buffer zone.

Another method to cut down harvest busting jobs is making a buffer zone with plantation of unpalatable harvests like chili or baccy. Elephants are non interested to these sorts of harvests so they would non irrupt to plantation countries.

Translocation by authorities organisation like Department of Wildlife and National Parks is an efficient manner to cut down harvest busting elephants. Farmers who face jobs can do study to that section and officers will track the elephants and capture them. The elephants will be transfer to National Park such as Belum-Temeggor Forest. Culling must be forbidden by authorities to do certain elephants are non threatened to decease.

Chapter 5

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Recommendations

Sustainable population growing in Perak increases the demand for infinite in land usage. This had led to competition between homo and wildlife every bit good as elephants. In the absence of rigorous direction scheme of land usage planning, human-elephant struggle will acquiring worse. All staying forest which support wild elephants should be protected under natural forest direction but non turn it into plantation.

Furthermore, rating of park boundaries with consideration of elephant ‘s place scope can assist to cut down human-elephant struggle. Knowledge of biological science and ecology of elephants can assist in the development of a prognostic system to cut down struggle.

“ Low tech ” hindrance can be usage for harvest Fieldss to forestall invasion of elephants. In Zimbabwe, the usage of chili ( Capsicum sp. ) as an elephant repellant was pioneered and has been apply successfully to discourage elephants from harvest lands ( Osborn 2002 ) . By firing mixture of pepper pulverization and elephant droppings can efficaciously drive away the elephants. It is a utile manner to maintain elephants off from harvests without brings injury to them.

Apart from that, gaining control and translocation is one of the solutions to cut down human-elephant struggle. Military officers from Department of Wildlife and National Park have responsible to capture the harvest plunderers and translocate them into protected forest like Belum-Temenggor Forest in Perak where far off from cultivated countries.

Local and non-government organisation should form some runs in urban and rural countries to educate them about elephant ecology and importance of preservation of elephants. Furthermore, the runs should state the villagers or Texas Rangers that determination to kill elephant should be made officially but non one-sidedly.

Government should better jurisprudence enforcement. Peoples who involve in activities of poaching tusk and killing elephants for bushmeat should hold heavier penalty. Enforcement of bing jurisprudence to prohibit land clearance and illegal logging activities would cut down perturbation to elephant home ground and nutrient resources. It besides can assist forestall habitat impairment.

Decision

In this survey, geographical information systems have been used to obtain land usage map and harvest busting susceptibleness map in Perak. Human-elephant struggles particularly harvest busting are emphasize in this survey.

From the anticipation, countries which cultivated as oil thenar and gum elastic have received biggest impacts of human-elephants struggles because most of the plantation countries are near to forest or around forest periphery. The comparing consequence of GIS informations with land informations is about same because the countries which stated as location of HEC are included inside extremely susceptibility country which predict with harvest ranking tabular array. Cultivated countries near large spots woods have high susceptibleness harvest busting rank compared to little spots woods.

As human population growing continues to increase and elephant home ground continues to diminish, it is of import for us to conserve elephant population. Human should halt to change over elephant home ground for agribusiness and compress elephant population.

Local authorities should direct staffs or officers to teach accomplishments for cut down negative attitudes toward elephants with affected husbandmans. Governments and non-government organisation should research ways to do a community benefit by populating with elephants.

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