Influence of visitants ‘ attitudes toward forestry, personal duty and Community ( engagement ) coherence factors on a quality diversion experience… a expression at three forest diversion countries Trinidad.
Influence of visitants ‘ attitudes toward forestry, their sense of personal duty and coherence factors of the Community on the quality of their diversion experience… a expression at three forest diversion countries Trinidad.
Carlton Sambury, University of the West Indies, Department of Agriculture Economics and Extension, Drs Sharon Hutchinson and David Dolly, Supervisors 2010 August
This survey attempts to make full the nothingness caused by the famine of cognition in respects to trial to forest diversion sites in Trinidad. The survey will set about an analysis of a high-quality diversion experience at three forest diversion park countries in different parts of the state. It is argued that a high-quality diversion experience is influenced by the perceptual experience of local community coherence, positive attitudes toward forest direction, and the visitant ‘s sense of personal duty. During the months of February to May 2011, questionnaire studies designed to roll up both quantitative informations and qualitative feedback will research such hypotheses at three forest diversion countries in Trinidad, each country with its ain alone diversion resources, communities, forest direction, issues and jobs. Issues include overcrowded installations on many yearss, a major refuse job, and looking overuse/misuse of community resources, including imbibing H2O. A separate questionnaire was tailored for each of the installations studied Questions to be asked will include those on basic biographical features, degrees of community engagement – nowadays and desired, options for forest direction intercessions, and the visitants ‘ apprehension of their ain duty. It is suggested that empirical surveies of this nature will help forest directors, contrivers and the State, in better planning and pull offing forest diversion countries, assistance in developing appropriate visitant instruction stuffs, and in supplying basic information for farther research.
3. Table of contents
4. Introduction / Background
The wood is an of import constituent of the resource base for out-of-door diversion and has been supplying recreational chances for eons. ( Pigram, and Jenkins 2003 )
Forest-based diversion is a cardinal factor to the economic wellbeing of many of our rural counties. The benefits of, and skyrocketing demand for choice out-of-door recreational experiences which public and private wood countries which may be considered comparatively safe from offense provide is good established. ( Pandolfi, 2009 ) Harmonizing to the US Bureau of Land Management ( BLM, 2003 ) , out-of-door diversion, nature, escapade and heritage touristry ( of which forest diversion is a major component ) are “ the fastest turning sections of the travel and touristry industry ” .
A cardinal aim of forest diversion planners/ directors is guaranting a satisfactory and carry throughing experience to the visitant such that he may once more see, and may promote others to see. Management ( whether populace or private ) benefits when their programs and systems, installations, characteristics and fortunes produce the most appropriate and enriching experience. ( Ragheb and Tate, 1993 ) Visitor satisfaction of the diversion experience has been studied extensively, whether it involves elements of behavior which comprises satisfaction ( Yan, 2007 ) , supervising satisfaction, or other facets of the experience. A high quality outdoor experience has been defined as “ one ( 1 ) which meets or exceeds the visitant ‘s outlooks, ( 2 ) in which the resource director exerts a critical influence on the quality of the visitant ‘s outlooks, and ( 3 ) in which the director ‘s influence is both direct, through interpersonal contact, and indirect through his influence on the diversion environment. ” ( LaPage, 1983 )
Pull offing increasing visitant usage expeditiously is indispensable to avoid the potency for overcrowding, struggles, by and large negative fortunes, and eventually bad experiences for visitants. ( Cole, 1996, Denniston 1995 ; Granum, 1982 ; Stanton, 1999 ) This is so the state of affairs in the countries under survey. Particularly after public vacations, and weekends, when visitants ‘ Numberss are really high, there is grounds of negative impacts on the environment, including increasing refuse, and menaces to the husbandmans and community supports, such as praedial theft, fecal matters in husbandmans ‘ secret plans, and most earnestly, pollution of imbibing supplies.
Designation of attitudes of the general public toward natural resource issues and specifically forest direction options relevant to diversion, has been found to be an indispensable precursor to seeking public support and having cardinal support and related support from State. ( Duda et al, 1997 )
Attitudes toward Forestry
Management of the forest resource includes a assortment of silvicultural options, which taken together as a system, has been defined as ‘the art and scientific discipline of commanding the constitution, growing, composing, and quality of forest flora for the full scope of forest resource aims ‘ ( Smith, 1986 ) . All such aims, nevertheless, will non lend to a satisfied diversion experience for most visitants, therefore the perceptual experiences of visitants affair when sing direction options. For illustration, research workers must find the grade of forest direction engagement preferred, whether an undisturbed natural woods or a plantation type wood with a assortment of assorted sizes and species.
Some major focal point of research rhenium “ attitudes toward forestry and forest direction ” have included:
the major wood mgt options such as timber direction or saving of “ virgin ” woods, or usage for a broad scope of utilizations ( “ multiple usage ” ) , and the willingness to pay for the chosen option. ( Hoen and Winther, 1993 ; Grado, S.C. , Measells, M. K. and R. B. Habig, Louis M. Capella, 2002 ) ; private landholders and the usage of their woods, particularly engagement in State assisted plans ( Riihinen,1970 ; Roche, 1981 ; Nagubadi et al. , 1996 ; Mehmood and Zhang, 2002 ; Stoltenberg and Gottsacker. 1967 )
Sustainable forestry and environmental concerns: McClary, 1997, found that visitants ‘ sentiments about environmental, ecological and esthetic affairs, “ while possibly non ever technically sound, are strongly held ” ; in add-on, most of our citizens have “ no baseline of understanding against which to graduate their attitudes toward forestry ” .
Young person and urban audiences: Engagement in forestry instruction plans lead to positive attitudes toward forestry – promoting ‘stewardship ‘ ( Broussard et al. , 2001 )
No literature has so far been found which trades with attitudes toward forestry as these impact on the experience, and besides as they correlate with personal duty
Communities are Important
Many forest diversion visitants look frontward to reconnecting with the rural countryside and with their ain rural roots within the context of a “ natural resource-community interface ” .
Communities are hence critical stakeholders in diversion direction, frequently equal spouses with the State, and sometimes holding the exclusive direction duty. The absence or presence of community engagement hence, can hold a profound influence on the diversion experience.
Degrees of Community engagement Researchers vary in their attacks to classification of community engagement. One proposal elaborated eight degrees get downing at the underside of the ladder with the least being non-engagement to the last three rounds – partnership, delegated power and eventually citizen control ( or citizen power ) at the top of the ladder, where true and meaningful engagement takes topographic point. ( Arnstein, 1969 ) . Others recognize four ( 4 ) degrees of engagement: Information proviso, Formal one-off audience, Collaborative procedures and partnerships, and eventually Community based decision-making ( New Zealand Gov’t Office, 2009 )
Community coherence has been described as synonymous with the sum of clip and money that occupants donate to their Parkss, or the economic value of community societal capital, which may be quantifiable. Considered as grounds of coherence has been voluntaries in diversion countries involved in activities including picking up rubbish, drawing weeds to seting flowers, keeping resort areas, learning about the environment, educating public functionaries, and lending in other ways to community park undertakings. ( Duda et al, 1997 )
While, it has besides been found that an of import subscriber to greater community
coherence has been agritourism or farm touristry ( Ilbery et al, 1998 ) , this survey will seek to demo that already bing community coherence must straight act upon the quality of the diversion experience.
Three indispensable characteristics which characterize the countries under survey, and which are critical to forest diversion are:
Visitors on a regular footing necessitating direction control/intervention
Interaction with, and enjoyment of Forests ( ) which provide for a major component of the diversion experience
Characterized by either a history of, and a potency for farther enlargement of community engagement
Communities ‘ Geographic and socioeconomic backgrounds
Caura is a vale that lies along the Northern Range, five stat mis north of Tacarigua, accessed from the Eastern Main Road via the Caura Royal Road. Assorted characteristics of this country underlines its importance for forest diversion, including its rich woods, much of it, though secondary, remain in a close pristine status leting for big fresh H2O streams – a beginning for enormous river diversion throughout the twelvemonth for much of the state. Its history is likewise rich – Arawakans, African slaves, and its disposal by past governors. Most of the community ‘s population of 800 are largely engaged in farming for their supports, supplemented by public plants programmes. The Caura River recreational country provides some villagers with limited income through peddling to the park visitant, ( Alamu, 2009 ) , Traditional agribusiness is practiced on about 70 agricultural allocations in the vale of approximately 5 estates each, with chiefly the planting of long to medium short term vegetable and tree harvests. The Caura Valley has had a long history of economic development through Government and non Government bureaus. The Caura Valley Farmers Association ( CVFA ) is the major conduit for extension aid supplying indispensable support and counsel to husbandmans and the community by and large.
Quinam is chiefly a beach country, situated at the terminal of a 4.5-mile thrust down the Coora Road/Penal Quinam Road on the south seashore, but besides includes exuberant natural and teak woods, and a cardinal diversion installation and park. The park therefore offers a rare mix of diversion – sea and forest based. The community is chiefly involved in paid employment at the diversion installation.
Lopinot is a small town of about 2,000 people, situated in the foothills of the woods of the Northern Range, merely North of the town of Arouca. This community has abundant resources for forest diversion, including its undulating forestry, chocolate estates, abundant watercourses and little rivers. In add-on, its rich Spanish history explains its ( TT FD, 2010 ) making as an historical site. The Lopinot community is closely involved in all facets of the available diversion chance spectrum.
Many forest diversion communities are more frequently negatively affected than in a positive manner – few entrepreneurial forest diversion based chances which similar resources offer in other parts of the universe are available to these communities, while the clean up duties are theirs to maintain.
Duty has been defined as the societal force or one ‘s sense of responsibility that binds one to positive classs of action demanded by that force. Integral to the construct is the belief that personal duty is non a load imposed or making conferred from without, but is a necessary first measure for large-scale alteration to takes topographic point by act uponing one individual after another. ( Ardue.org 2010 )
In respects to natural resources, such personal duty normally refers to actively caring for and protecting public resources for future coevals, and is frequently referred to as Stewardship. For illustration, visitants and others likewise are expected to esteem nature by non littering and by taking every safeguard against get downing fires, obey all relevant Torahs and ordinances, and ‘sporting traditions ‘ . ( SNAP, 2010 )
It has been considered a grave personal duty to “ utilize the land good ” , and by and large to be first-class stewards of the physical environment. ( President Bush, 2001 ) . So that the ‘culture ‘ of the visitant should extenuate against lending in a big manner to negative activities such as demonstrated at assorted forest diversion countries in Trinidad. Additionally, the visitants satisfaction, and the overall diversion experience will be influenced by the presence or absence of such negative activities. And ‘invoking ‘ personal duty is to be preferred as opposed to ‘direct controls ‘ , that is, enforcing signifiers of control or limitations on the user, which tends t o “ destruct the intentional diversion experience if non done carefully and w one T h some idea. ( Hoots, 1976 )
A common local ‘saying ‘ is that Trinidad citizens ( trinis ) on the ‘average ‘ are frequently discourteous and will interrupt many environmental Torahs and ordinances such littering, crouching, hooliganism, even at forest diversion countries and similar locations, while ‘falling in line ‘ when in other countries/ scenes. Any hunt of the Trinidad day-to-day newspapers will unearth such concerns. ( Trinidad Express, 2010 a ; B ; degree Celsius )
It has been found that cognition, internal venue of control ( positive control beliefs ) , personal duty, and perceived menaces to personal wellness were some factors impacting behaviour. Further research clear uping the procedure taking to environmentally responsible behavior has been emphasized. ( Franson and Garling, 1999 )
This survey will prove this common belief. Is at that place a sense of personal duty among forest diversion visitants? Does this sense of personal duty vary over demographic group? How much does this factor impact on negative activities at the forest park countries?
Lack of empirical informations of the features, attitudes, and penchants of visitants to parks in Trinidad leads to misinterpretation of the visitant, and loss of focal point in making the high value experience for which the which the visitant will be willing to pay. While Numberss of visitants addition, resource jobs are progressively apparent, while communities remain non really involved in the proviso of such experiences, nor receivers of wagess from the diversion merchandise. Alternatively, they are the receivers of many negative impacts from overexploitation and abuse of their environment. Is it as a consequence of the Trinidad civilization ( a trini thing ) to hold less than a strong sense of duty, and so demo small attention for the natural resource as compared to their actions in another state, taking to more negative impacts?
The deficiency of credible/ dependable information/ informations refering to users ‘ profiles within the context of the communities where they are situated, and in footings of the critical direction determination devising processes stymies the proviso of a quality experience to visitants and positive benefits to communities.
4.1 Background ( Significance of the job ) :
Whether the transporting capacity ( degree of usage which can be allowed before irreversible harm ) has been reached is built-in to the sustainability of the resource. However, the grounds at many Trinidad forest diversion sites, of looking overexploitation, seeable overcrowding, refuse, and pollution of community and husbandman H2O beginnings, and reported fecal matters infested husbandmans harvests particularly after weekends and public vacations, underlies the importance of the job.
Answers to the undermentioned inquiries are desperately required:
How many people really visit forest diversion sites? Who are the visitants? What are their features penchants, values? How do predominating fortunes, such as increasing offense impact on the forest diversion experience.
How does their life find the diversion pick, quality and overall value of the diversion merchandise? Do these factors impact upon the degree of community engagement in the provision/ management/ control of forest diversion? Do they presume some degree of personal duty for the harm left behind? How can this information help better direction of this resource? How does the perceptual experience of value of the experience differ from one visitant to the following? What is the visitant willing to pay for his experience? Is a degree of community engagement desirable
5. Thesis/ Problem Statement
Lack of empirical informations of the features, attitudes, and penchants of visitants to forest diversion countries in Trinidad leads to misinterpretation of the visitant, and loss of focal point in making the high value experience for which the visitant will be willing to pay. Few communities are involved in the proviso of such experiences, and receive direct benefits or wagess inspite of the assortment of entrepreneurial chances available, but alternatively are the receivers of a figure of negative impacts from overexploitation and abuse of their environment. It is believed that less than a strong sense of personal duty is Trinidad civilization ( a trini thing ) , and may be the more of import influence on the attendant diversion experience than either forest direction intercessions or community engagement.
H1: Percepts of community coherence positively influences visitants ‘ value of the experience.
H2: Positive attitudes to forestry and Forest direction in diversion areaspositively impacts the value of the visitants ‘ diversion experiences.
H3: A sense of personal duty to the environment more positively impacts the value of the diversion experience than a desire for a certain degree of community engagement and attitudes to forestry and Forest direction
H4: Ethnicity and instruction degree positively impacts the personal duty of the visitant and perceptual experience of the value of the diversion experience.
H5: The value of the diversion experience is positively influenced by a desire for community coherence
6.2 General aim:
The general aim or intent of this survey is to through empirical observation analyze the relationship that three cardinal elements – local community engagement, attitudes to forestry and Forest direction and the visitant ‘s ain personal duty have on the diversion experience of the visitant at three distinguishable regional forest Parks of the state.
To measure by agencies of a a strict but qualitative analysis of literature, website information and primary informations from interviews and postal questionnaires, the history of the communities juxtaposing three diverse forest diversion countries in Trinidad, and their engagement in its direction.
To measure by agencies of studies,
the visitant features, attitudes and the perceptual experiences of value of the diversion experience as these relate to the degree of community engagement, public bureau forest direction intercessions, and to the visitant ‘s ain personal duty at three forest Parkss in Trinidad.
other stakeholders ‘ ( community, direction bureaus, etc ) perceptual experiences of the composing of a quality ( incl value ) forest diversion experience, and the relationship to the degree of community engagement desired.
To measure by agencies of the single Travel Cost Method ( TCM ) and Contingent Valuation Method the recreational usage value of three forest diversion countries
To suggest ways in which these values to the visitant, forest diversion communities, and the national economic system could be optimized
Significance of the Study
Specific ways for which this survey will be utile will include
Public Agencies ‘ direction will be assisted to understand how public outlooks conflict with direction aims ( e.g. , lumber harvest home, agribusiness harvests ) ; to pull off resource allotment more expeditiously while sing visitant outlooks, and besides to pull off for the connexion between visitant usage and resource protection – Balance visitant pick and resource protection. In so making, there will be a better apprehension of institutional obstructions impacting visitant usage.
In a general manner, decision makers will be able to break petition budgets or funding to develop plans shows or accessible installations support installations and staff. Besides, better definition of satisfactory/unsatisfactory visitant experiences to better seamster wants and demands of visitants will be possible.
In footings of the community, better relationships with and credence by the local community is built-in to valuable experiences. Conflicts between users and communities will be minimized, and communities will by and large be encouraged to back up more State plans. More information will enable better apprehension of community values, community perceptual experience and cognition. With the national / international addition in offense, the community serves as an appropriate buffer against violent Acts of the Apostless against the visitant.
In add-on, cognition of community perceptual experiences of resource assets, existent or perceived benefits and jobs or negatives of the resource or undertaking to the community will help ; so will an apprehension of community demographics and tendencies, community values, attitudes, and behaviours.
More cognition of the range of Personal duty will break assist the visitant to understand the impact of their actions, and to extenuate struggles between users and communities
Secondary research ;
Theoretical research is being based on a reappraisal of relevant peer-reviewed literature about forest diversion and appropriate touristry countries, conference proceedings and related certification and web-based touristry stuffs.
The Target Population
The diversion experience, visitant satisfaction, and its value have long been a beginning of intensive research, and has been defined, analysed, monitored, measured, and categorised. ( Lee, 2003, and 2005 ; Lee et Al, 2004 ; Dorfman 1979 ; Chen 1998 ; Beard and ragheb, 1980, etc ) , The major footing for these surveies have been studies of visitants to assorted forest diversion countries. ( Ragheb and Tate, 1993 ; Kao et Al, 2003 ; Lee, 2006 ) It is proposed that structured questionnaires will be administered to at least 300 visitants at Caura ; 200 at Lopinot and 100 at Quinam over the study period.
Focus treatments will besides be undertaken within all three communities. groups will
In add-on, the inclusion of positions of other cardinal stakeholders of import to the diversion merchandise has been critical. These will include face to confront unfastened treatments with 15 forest directors at assorted degrees ‘
A combination of all of the above methods – structured and semistructured interviews, focal point and face to face treatments, will add deepness and profusion to the survey.
Data aggregation processs for the quantitative analyses
Data re-visitors ‘ attitudes and perceptual experiences will be collected through individual to individual questionnaires during the period January to May 31st 2011.
All visitants come ining the three park countries by vehicle will be offered a questionnaire – the presence of merely one major entryway point to each park country – by individual chief route – will ease efficient bringing of questionnaires.
Having distributed questionnaires, expected return will be when going the site
Features of questionnaires
Demographic information to be collected during face to confront interviews will include income, business, ethnicity, family size.
Quality Experience / value – inquiries will analyze the perceptual experience of the quality experience, ranking of constitutional elements in relation to the experience including safety, installations – bathrooms, etc, information, roads, trails and parking, and the forest landscape.
Community coherence – a series of inquiries will find respondent ‘s perceptual experience of the degree of community coherence nowadays as is evidenced by the engagement in their diversion experience.
Personal duty – Based on a likert graduated table, respondents ‘ perceptual experiences of the presentation of their ain and other users ‘ personal duty as lending to the experience.
attitudes to forestry and Forest direction – perceptual experiences as these contribute to the experience will be sought.
Thymine trials and qis square significance trials used to find if
differences exist between wildland influenced and non wildland influenced groups, etc
Alpha degree used for all significance trials will be.05
NGO/State/ Stakeholder Survey, Stakeholder representatives will be of import to the survey, as mentioned above. Through personal interviews, Focus treatments, face to confront unfastened treatments, cardinal stakeholders of import to the diversion merchandise, including community leaders, forest and other province and related bureaus, issues such as community positions and outlooks and degree of desirable engagement in forest diversion direction, community engagement including CEPEP, and perceptual experiences of the value of the diversion merchandise will be studied.
Research design and processs
Analytic attack and techniques to be used
A pretest preA·testA A
a. A preliminary trial administered to find a pupil ‘s baseline cognition or readiness for an educational experience or class of survey.
B. A trial taken for pattern.
2. A utilizing a sample of alumnus pupils will be conducted to analyze the cogency and dependability of these graduated tables. Responses to the points were measured on 7-point Likert-type graduated tables anchored by “ really hapless ” ( 1 ) and “ first-class ” ( 7 ) . A factor analysis on the pretest sample resulted in the figure of points being reduced from a sum of 30 to 25, and in some reassignment of points and re-tiding of the spheres.
In add-on, the study informations will be analysed utilizing logistic arrested development. As before indicated, informations will be sought on respondents ‘ personal and societal features, evaluations of properties of forest landscapes, frequence of trial, continuance of visit, activities while sing, and on socio-economic features ( sex, age, income etc ) .
Additionally, dummy variables will be created to bespeak for each respondent the influence of Public Agency forest direction intercessions, degrees of direction engagement, and personal duty.
Some surveies using TCM ( Alberini & A ; Longo, 2006 ; Bedate et al. , 2004 ; Poor & A ;
Smith, 2004 ) and HPM ( Ruijgrok, 2006 ) .
TCM is chiefly used to cipher the value of environmental resources and recreational
sites. TCM has, nevertheless besides been used in other scenes such as the rating of
cultural heritage ( Alberini & A ; Longo, 2006 ; Bedate et al. , 2004 ; Karen, Susan, & A ; Richard,
2007 ) . Normally the method is used where the resource is alone and trial occurs at multiple occasions ( Hellerstein, 1995 ) .
TCM constitutes a conventional householdaˆ?production map. Normally a TCM attack is used to look into in the usage values of a nonaˆ?priced service or merchandise. Although cultural establishments to some extent charge visitants the monetary value does non cover costs ( Poor & A ; Smith, 2004 ) . And even if the monetary value would cover costs as for merchandises and services traded on the market, the value of merchandises is rarely reflected by the monetary value. TCM determines the value of public goods by analysing the clip and travel disbursals that incur when sing e.g. cultural establishments. It is assumed that costs represent the monetary value of accessing the site for each person. TCM therefore uses study informations on figure of visits, travel costs and socioaˆ?economic features to cipher travel costs.
This survey uses zonary TCM ( ZTCM ) . ZTCM utilizations demand theoretical accounts that in many instances can
bring forth similar dependable consequences as can individual TC attacks and random public-service corporation
attacks ( Hellerstein, 1995 ) . The major advantages of ZTCM is that less datais
needed. Alternatively the frequence of trial from zones with changing populations by
spliting the figure of zonary visits by zonary population is used ( Ward and Loomis, 1986 ) .
Zones further from the sites typically have fewer visitants, leting for the reverse pricequantity demand relationships to be estimated ( Bergstrom & A ; Cordell, 1991 ) .
A major restriction of ZTCMs is the loss of informations fluctuation due to zonary averaging. As
noted, the loss of fluctuation may ensue in undistinguished demographic variables, which are so dropped from the demand theoretical account appraisal processs. This is nevertheless non the instance in this survey since the informations aggregation was random at both cultural establishments.
TCM assumes persons choose among options. One of them is to take where,
when and how frequently to devour civilization. The pick of sing a cultural establishment ( degree Celsius ) is similar to other consumptive behavior ( x ) . When analyzing persons ‘ behavior and picks costs are indispensable. This is besides true for cultural ingestion where monetary value P ( O ) in many instances influences consumer picks. At the same clip every consumer is capable to budget restraints. The purpose is accordingly to maximise public-service corporation U sing the budget restraints. This can be rewritten as: Maxx, V U ( x, V ) topic to budget restraints wL = x + Pov7
TCM to boot to the hard currency costs considers the clip spent to see a cultural establishment. If T is the entire sum of hours tt resembles the clip going whereas television is the clip spent in the establishment. An person is therefore constrained through
T = L ( tt + T V ) V
The maximization job is therefore
Maxx, V U ( x, V ) topic to wT = x + ( Po + tungsten ( tt + T V ) ) v = x + Pv
The travel cost TC is given: TC = Po + tungsten ( tt + T V ) = Pv
When work outing the maximization job a demand map for the mean visitant is
I: V Pi = degree Fahrenheit ( TCi ; Xli, aˆ¦. , Xni )
Procedures used for each of the result variables and forecasters applied in the statistical theoretical accounts
Measurement processs: study questionnaires will mensurate the research variables matching to the constructs outlined in the hypothesis as they apply to the three countries under survey.
The independent and dependent variables to be measured will depend on the peculiar hypothesis. Some of the cardinal inquiries to used are listed below: :
Forest diversion visitant types ( Biographical / demographical inquiries )
Percept of value of the diversion experience
Unique to each of the three diversion sites
Presence of Activities indispensable to see
Activities/ installations meeting outlooks
Repeat of visits
Outgo on visits
Willingness to pay
Attitudes to forestry and Forest direction
Personal duty degree
Likert graduated table with a four point semantic derived function has been used to coerce either a positive or negative response ( Sclove, 2001 )
10. Definition of Footings
stated penchant demand and appraisal methods:
theoretical and empirical attacks:
transporting capacity: sum of individuals which a given country can be sustain within natural resource bounds without degrading the natural societal, cultural and economic environment for present and future coevalss.
Visitor capacity: a measuring of the intersection point where people continue to have the experiences they desire within the landscapes ecological capablenesss. ( US Forest Service, 2005 )
‘bid curve ‘