Laddering Technique as an In-Depth

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This work is based on an interview conducted utilizing the Laddering technique. ( Gutman, 1982, cited in Reynolds and Gutman, 1988 ) describes the Laddering technique as an in-depth, one-on-one interview technique used to understand how consumers relate merchandise properties to self. The purpose of this survey is to arouse merchandise properties, effects and values from the respondent and demo the relationship among them. The decision discusses the findings of the survey in relation to selling. The respondent is a 23-year old male pupil from London. The Laddering interview was analysed utilizing the Mean-End Chain analysis by building a Hierarchical Value Map.


Interviewer: Could you list at least four features of apparels that would do you purchase them.

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Respondent: For the Polo tops it would be the coloring material. Like I said I like bright, I do n’t wish dull colorss. When it comes to polos, I like them bright. So first of all, when I ‘m choosing a Polo top it would be based on the coloring material. If I see like a ruddy or bluish or something like that, so I ‘ll travel for that. And so secondly besides, you have to look at the quality every bit good. You want something that ‘s… gon na last. You know, you do n’t desire something that ‘s gon na start rending after two… or three hebdomads so you ‘re looking for the quality every bit good. Well, you can state by merely experiencing it if it ‘s a good quality. And, good, sometimes to an extent based on if you ‘re seeing, you know, adverts on telecasting about that peculiar point of vesture, for illustration, you know, like say they ‘ve done like a few adverts stating this the latest thing for immature people so based on that I might travel and purchase it every bit good. So, yeah I think these are the chief features that make me take my vesture.

Interviewer: You mentioned coloring materials. So why is color of import to you?

Respondent: Because at the minute the more colorful you are, it ‘s… coloring material is used to find, you know, like person ‘s personality. It ‘s largely younger people who go for colourful, you know, bright things whereas older people want to be more reserved, they go for like, you know, sort of like brown, Grey or black so that they ‘re non truly… noticed but younger people want to be noticed so they wear like truly bright and colorful… things so that ‘s… why I go for it.

Interviewer: Why do you compare personality to color?

Respondent: It ‘s merely the manner society is at the minute. If you ‘re immature and vivacious so you want… to stand out from the crowd and, I mean as you see most people wear, you know, things that make them intermix in, like I said, like Grey and black and you merely intermix into the crowd and you look like… every other individual. But if you wear something bright, you know, ruddy, tap, and so you stand out and people, I mean… if you want to stand out, that means… you have… a vivacious personality.

Interviewer: Why do you desire to stand out from the crowd?

Respondent: It ‘s merely, I mean you know… when you dress up… sometimes you ‘re non merely dressing up for other people… you ‘re making it for yourself. You want to experience good about yourself… You want to cognize that you look good. So if you dress up like everybody else, no 1, I mean, sometimes you besides want to be noticed as good and… like I said if you merely dress up to intermix in with everybody else so no 1 ‘s gon na truly detect you until you wear something that distinguishes you… from these people.

Interviewer: Why would people detecting you be of import to you?

Respondent: It ‘s non truly of high importance but it ‘s merely to do me experience good about myself, you know, you besides get remarks from people stating, oh yeah, “that top is truly nice” or “those denims are truly nice” and you feel good about yourself, merely to look good and so acquire this remarks from people… it ‘s non truly of high importance but it ‘s something you like to hear from clip to clip.



The Hierarchical Value Map ( HVM ) in this survey differs a small from the format recommended by Gengler et Al, ( Gengler et al, 1995 cited in Wagner, 2007 ) which shows the frequence of each component in add-on to the figure of the relevant cognitive relationships and structural connexions among the cognitive elements. Due to the restriction of sample size, the HVM in this survey focuses on bespeaking the relationships that exist among the cognitive elements- properties, effects and values.

In Laddering, attributes refer to the distinguishable characteristics of merchandises that are offered to consumers. The effects refer to the direct or indirect results associated with the properties ( Wagner, 2007 ) . For the intent of this survey, the property is colour of vesture. ( Vinson et al 1977 cited in Wagner, 2007 ) describes values as cognitive elements that influence behavior.

From the Hierarchical Value Map ( HVM ) , it can be seen that the respondent stores for apparels based on coloring material. Colour is of import to him because it defines his personality and besides provides him with acknowledgment from his equals. Recognition, in bend, leads to a feeling of wellbeing or satisfaction which he values. Recognition besides creates chance for positive feedback from his friends. The proviso of positive feedback from friends is besides straight related to the feeling of wellbeing which, as has been mentioned, constitutes his value. The interview infusions and the HVM show that the respondent is concerned about the feeling he makes in the heads of people. He desires the limelight and will be willing to pay more for merchandises that help him to achieve his value.

Selling Deduction

The informations derived from the respondent ‘s HVM provides utile information for sellers. The HVM would be an priceless tool for sorting the respondent into certain mark sections. This cleavage would enable the sellers to aim the respondent with the appropriate merchandises therefore switching from a mass selling attack to a mark selling attack.

The HVM is besides an of import tool for taking an advertisement scheme ( Reynolds and Gutman, 1988 ) . Using the information on the HVM constructed in this survey, sellers would be able to understand the drive forces that influence the respondent ‘s purchasing forms and the type of merchandises he prefers. With this information, they would be able to develop suited advertizements with which to pass on their merchandise offerings to the respondent.


The Laddering interview technique is a utile tool for deducing the values that shape the shopping wonts of consumers. In the custodies of an expert, it can arouse values from consumers which they ne’er had cognition of. By reacting continuously to the interviewer ‘s inquiries, the consumer inadvertently discloses his values, and in the procedures conveys to the interviewer his penchants in relation to merchandise offerings. Therefore, the consumer plays an of import function in the design and development of new merchandise offerings which consequences in the creative activity of added value for both the consumer and the selling organisation- the consumer receives merchandises that satisfy his values while the administration benefits in the signifier of client trueness and net income.


Malhotra, Naresh ( 2007 ) Marketing Research: an Applied Orientation Fifth Edition London: Pearson International

Malhotra, Naresh and David Birks ( 2007 ) Marketing Research: An Applied Approach Third European Edition, Harlow: Prentice Hall

Reynolds, J. Thomas and Gutman Jonathan ( 1988 ) ‘Laddering Theory, Method, Analysis, and Interpretation ‘ Journal of Advertising Research.

Wagner, Tillmann ( 2007 ) ‘Shopping motive revised: a means-end concatenation analytical position ‘ International Journal of Retail & A ; Distribution Management 35 ( 7 ) pp569-582

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