The security issues featuring in Canada are not new, such issues were undertaken so as to make Canada a peaceful, orderly and to provide quality leadership to all Canadian citizens. Canada has faced a lot of threats hence finding it necessary to have a good National Security Policies. In the early 1919 Canada was faced with the influenza epidemic and after that, they faced the threat of the Soviet bombers (Smith, 2003). This led to the creation of NORAD. Canada National Security also has many occasions contributed to international peace keeping, which has taken place in countries like Afghanistan and also in the Vimy Ridge. This issue and threats have been addressed by the Canadian security in an open nature. This involves being open even to the immigrants from other countries. http://www.pm.gc.ca/eng/media.asp?id=1275.
But this openness has caused so much threat to the Canadian security due to the events, which took place in the September 11, 2001. This event was a great reminder to the tragic loss of 330 Canadian citizens who were traveling in an Air Indian plane. This has caused a lot of concern in the ways of addressing these issues. Also the 2003 black out and the outbreaks of SARS can really impact negatively on the lives of Canadian and also to the Canada economy. Other threats still exist in terms of crime and the natural disasters. http://www.carleton.ca/jmc/cnews/010220021/connections/c3.html
The Canadian government has taken other measure in responding to those increasing threats. In the recent years, Canada has added over $8billion investments in order to fill all the gaps that existed in the Canada’s security. This approach will help in developing frameworks that will help in preventing any kind of security threat that might arise.
Past border security arrangement
Canada is also involved in most of the international security affairs. Canada has been involved in various international duties. This involves the services they provided during the cold war disarmament initiative, their involvement in the United Nations peacekeeping and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). http://www.canadafreepress.com/207/cover092807.html
After the September 11, the government of Canada confirmed that Canada will 100% commit its services to United Nations and also to NATO. They also announced that they are ready to counter any external threats especially terrorism. They are also helping in preventing the manufacturing of weapons of mass destruction and also in assisting falling and failed states (Munton, Do, 2003).
- International Terrorism.
Canada has been actively involved in campaigns against both Taliban and al-Qaeda regimes that has support terrorism practices over the years. The Canadian government announced in 2001 that it would use JTF2 to counter the terrorism. Also Canada has ensured that even developing countries are free from any terrorist activities. They do this by assisting these nations (Planning, strategic 2000).
- Weapon of mass Destruction
Canada has played a key role in ensuring that no state in the world creates, acquire or process any material, which are associated with such weapons. (Watson, 1990).
In 2004 Canada announced its involvement in the security initiative, which is aimed at preventing any weapons of mass destruction. In supporting this move the Canadian government was licensed to prevent and control any move dealing with importation or exportation of materials associated with weapons of mass destruction. Canada’s budget of 2001 provided funds to the creation of nuclear, biological and chemical response team in order to support any cases of chemical, nuclear or biological threats domestically and also abroad. (CBC News, 2007).
- Falling and failed state conflicts:
Canada has also been involved in ensuring that there is peace in failed and falling states. Canada’s diplomats, aid workers and arm are currently participating in various peacekeeping missions around the globe. Canada is involved in peacekeeping missions in Afghanistan, Haiti and Balkans. They have also promised $600million spread over several years to build Afghans lives. (Cimbala, 1984).
- How National and boarder security is currently defined and viewed in Canada today
The government of Canada has devised three core national security interests.
- Protecting Canada and its citizens at home and abroad.
This involves government involvement in protecting the security of Canadians, their institutions and defending the threats, which are directed towards Canadian Sovereignty, illegal entry, or even crossing into the Canadian waters. The Canadian government also has responsibilities of ensuring that its citizens are safe and sound while working or traveling abroad. The government also provides protection to the Canadian diplomats and workers, which are working in other countries abroad. (Lannan, Tim, Major. 2004)
- Ensuring that Canada is not a base for threat to their allies.
Just like Canada is expecting other countries to prevent activities in their countries, which are aimed at destroying Canadians, Canada also is responsible in managing and preventing threat that might have serious impacts to their allies. The relationships, which exists in various nations today makes it impossible for Canada to escape from effects incase her neighboring country is attacked. This was clearly demonstrated when USA was attacked in September 11 when Canada has a few share of the negative effects caused by the bombing (Irwin, 1989).
- Contributing to International Security.
Canada has been involved in contributing and providing solutions to various nations over the years. But of late Canada has experienced a number of international threats that can seriously harm their security. For example, Terrorists can seek refuge in countries that are not very stable. This poses a risk to the Canadian security especially when they visit those countries to conduct peacekeeping mission. This may need deployment of the security assets when they are delivering their services of strengthening falling states. (Goodwin, 1991).
Canada’s border security was improvised after the events, which took place on September 11. The Canadian government immediately allocated $646 million in 2001 to equip and deploy more security personnel and also to improvise their intelligence around the border (Klatson, 1990).
Canada is currently considering building a 21st century border. (Riechmann, Deb.2007). The Canadian government is therefore ensuring that the measures, which are taken in ensuring the border security, are followed. These measures involves:
- Issues concerning the domestic border security should be continually focused.
- The smart Border Action plan, which was launched in 2001, should be completed.
- The next generation Smart border agenda with the United States and Mexico should be developed.
- The Smart borders principles should be applied throughout the world. (Muller, K 1986).
Domestic border security initiative.
This involves study the emerging technological issues that could allow the screening of passengers and goods, which are destined to Canada. This involves the development of a program that will enable the screening of passengers while they are making their reservations abroad. This would then enable the Canadian authorities to detect any flight that is suspected to be carrying suspected culprits. Currently, there is an increased use of biometric, which scans the travelers and reduces the risk of higher risk travelers. (Campbell, 2007).
Completing the Smart Borders Action Plan.
Canada has ensured that they will make sure what is contained in 32- point plan action goes through. This involves the implementation of the safe Third Party Agreement, which was signed in 2002. It is supposed to better manage and deal with issues concerning the refugees in the borders. It also includes the sharing of information concerning passengers traveling into the country. (Bland, Douglas, 2003).
Applying Smart Borders Principles
In order build Canada’s history internationally. Canada has to contribute in the security of internationally system of trade. This is done by working with their partners through partnership such as G8 (MacDonald, G, & liutenant G. 2005).
- Mitigation procedures involve.
- Use of biometric to allow for low risk traveling.
- Using the RCMP to scan finger prints so as to identify criminals
- By using awareness in the country about the presence of terrorists
- Installing the wide area surveillance across the border. (Tritten, 1992).
- The melting has created a pass way for ships, which are avoiding Canadian border.
In order to ensure that ships pass through Canadian border, Canadian government should deploy navy personnel so as to direct ships to the boundary.
The polar ice caps melting in the northern passage has brought a number of losses as a result of global warming according to studies by scientists (Lamb1995). One this would have an effect on the Northwest Passage over (Canada level may rise whereby a massive amount of fresh water entering the polar seas could produce disasters effect. It may slow or stop the cheep ocean convert for US Ester seaboard toward Green land and Western Europe that moderates their water temperature (Kingery, 1963).
The measures that Canada might implement to ensure international commercial passing through Northwest Passage going through Canadian border Security include the following: one was mandatory reporting for all vessels to Canadian authorities 24 hours prior to anticipated entry into Canadian Great lakes sports (Johansen, 2002). Second, all vessels intending to operate in the great lakes region be equipped with transponders to permit electronic travail by Canadian authorities. Third is mandatory daily reporting to Canadian authorities for all vessels, operating in Canadian national waters. (Harper, 1939).
- The current rule is not sufficient because deploying the CF in the area might expose National Security. The Canadian government should therefore invest on CF for their domestic operations.
- The lessons that can be learnt from previous incidents within our cross borders are that tight law should be enforced to control illegal migration, goods and gun trafficking that might cause issues of terrorism. The domestic security of a country should be given priority and external issues come second. (Golob, 2002)
We must maintain domestic operations. In order to be effective in a large country with our current limited numbers in terms of domestically based CF members, we need to maintain a multifaceted F capable of responding to security intrusions. What the government should actually do is to maintain domestic operations. In order to be exertive in a large country with our currently limited numbers in terms of domestically based CF members, we need in maintain a mitigated CF capable of responding to security intrusion.
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