NFC – Near Field Communication

Near Field Communication is a new and short range wireless connectivity technology.

It is evolved from a combination of existing contact less identification and interconnection

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Technologies. NFC is widely used in mobile phones  with  high speed connections and signal clarity. Comparing to other technologies it is very small and compact in size. NFC is also used in other  electronic devices.  Most of the companies do  research and development(R&D) in the field of NFC.  It transfers data up to 424 bits/second and it’s operating speed is 13.56 Mhz. Using this technology is more simple  and safe than any other technologies. NFC-compatible devices will work only if they are brought close to each other. The minimum distance is four  centimeters  for each device. Comparing to other technologies like wi-fi, and blue tooth technologies NFC transmission range is very short.  A simple wave or touch will activate  NFC-compatible device.  But, NFC technology also work with wi-fi and blue tooth technology after the activation process is complete.  NFC-enabled tranasactions are inherently secure for secure payments. Receiving and sending information through  NFC  is  high in   speed than any other device. Electronic devices like Television,  Compact disc players, Mobile phones,  Digital Camera etc use this technology  for better performance and better accuracy. Comparing with other technologies using  NFC-enabled devices eliminates the complexities of other traditional electronic device.  Most of the mobile have internet connectivity, with inbuilt camera which can capture images and motion. In order to compete with these technologies   the R & D team of NFC  designed  and implemented  these concepts with more  precision  and  speed than any other technologies. Three G mobiles with NFC technology is internet savvy. Data can easily be shared with two different devices, for example, mobile phone data can be transferred to  desktop computer and vice versa.  NFC is designed for shorter distance wireless communications, it is complementary to blue tooth, It works in any kind of environment and it does no require line of sight, it is easy and simple to connect, provides communication method to non-self powered device. Active and passive NFC mode has different transfer speeds from 106 to 424 kbps. NFC allows communication between two powered device and passive device. NFC makes life easier – it’s easier to get information, easier to pay for goods and services, easier to use public transport, and easier to share data between devices. You simply bring NFC-compatible devices close to one another, typically less than four centimeters apart. The benefits of NFC technology are so attractive that many branded service providers are using NFC technology to enhance their services and customer experience. NFC-enabled services are fast and easy to use without compromising existing service security.  With an NFC enabled mobile device, its user can easily access services or operate his/her device functions, e.g. different connectivity options. The user just needs to touch a tag or share information or an object by bringing two devices close to each other.

When the user touches the tag, his/her device reads the content of the tag and executes it into action. The user only accepts the execution, e.g. opening a web page, calling a favorite number, or sending an SMS. Similarly, by touching an enabled device such as a TV, the mobile device can send a picture to it simply as a result of the touch. NFC (Near Field Communication) is for very short range two-way wireless connectivity, and is a short-range radio frequency (RF) technology that allows a reader to read small amounts of data from other devices or tags when brought next to each other. In Nokia’s solution, the reading distance is a few centimeters. NFC technology evolved from a combination of contactless identification or RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and interconnection technologies. Touch-based interactions offer mobile phone users an intuitive and easy way to connect, collect and share with mobile devices.

Communication between various of kind of devices, For example, making a reservation could be as simple as possible by holding your mobile close to a advertising bill board. Without dialing or speaking to anyone we can buy tickets to film, book tickets for travel by using the credit card account information stored  in mobile phone. This transaction is done without any user configuration.  NFC is most successful because of its peer-to-peer communication [a communication model in which devices link directly to each other, without any intervention of any intermediary device or system]. Increased revenue from interactive services, mobile operators and content creators earn more revenue when users choose to use value added service  NFC surrounds the user with advertisement and valuable information within easy reach. Consumer prefers for NFC-enabled services since users may have no choice about which ticket they use for a service, but they typically can choose how they pay.

A wide range of devices and machines are likely to become NFC enabled. Here are some examples:

Mobile phones
Turnstiles
Parking meters
Check-out cash registers or “point-of-sale” equipment
ATMs
Office, house and garage doors
Personal computers
Posters, street signs, bus stops, local points of interest (with NFC-readable tags only)
Product packaging
Manufacturers of NFC chips would include the same companies that currently make RFID tags, labels or chips, including Philips, Sony. ABI Research produce NFC-enabled cell phones as the initial driver in the market. By 2009 ABI Research estimates that up to 50% of cell phones will use NFC technologies. In Japan NFC 212 kbps passive mode contactless technology has already been implemented with payment as a killer application. Near field communication is based on inductive- coupling, where loosely coupled inductive circuits share power and data over a distance of few centimeters. NFC devices shares the basic technology with proximity (13.56.Mhz) RFID tags and contactless smart cards, but number of key new features. NFC devices are naturally interoperable as NFC is based on pre existing contact less payment and ticketing standards that are used on  daily basis  by millions of people and devices world wide, such as the physical requirements of the antennas, but also the format of the data to be transferred and the data rates for the transfer. NFC devices are unique in that they can change their mode of operation to be in reader/writer mode, peer-to-peer mode, or card emulation mode. The different operating modes are based on the ISO/IEC 18092 NFC IP-1 and ISO/IEC 14443 contactless smart card standards. In reader/writer mode, the NFC device is capable of reading NFC Forum mandated tag types, such as in the scenario of reading an NFC Smart poster tag. The reader/writer mode is on the RF interface compliant to the ISO 14443 and FeliCa schemes. In Peer-to-Peer mode, two NFC devices can exchange data. For example, you can share Bluetooth or WiFi link set up parameters, and exchange data such as virtual business cards or digital photos. Peer-to-Peer mode is standardized on the ISO/IEC 18092 standard. In Card Emulation mode, the NFC device itself acts as an NFC tag, appearing to an external reader much the same as a traditional contactless smart card. This enables contactless payments and eticketing.

These are the various wireless technologies, which are adopted by major electronic companies, and comparing the cost NFC is lower than any other wireless technologies. Here is a list of various wireless technologies. Field Communication (NFC) is a standards-based, short-range (a few centimeters) wireless connectivity technology that enables simple and safe two-way interactions among electronic devices, allowing consumers to perform contact less transactions, access digital content and connect electronic devices with a single touch.

Bluetooth wireless technology was designed to replace cables between cell phones, laptops, and other computing and communication devices within a 10-meter range.

Wi-Fi technology was designed and optimized for Local Area Networks (LAN); it provides an extension or replacement of wired networks for dozens of computing devices within a +100-meter range.

ZigBee wireless technology is a standard enabling control and monitoring capabilities for industrial and residential applications within a +100-meter range.

IrDA is a short range (< 1 meter), line-of-sight communication standard for exchange of data over infrared light. IrDA interfaces are frequently used in computers and mobile phones.

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags. An RFID tag is a small object that can be attached to or incorporated into a product. RFID tags contain silicon chips to enable them to receive and respond to queries from an RFID reader/writer.

Contactless smart cards incorporate a chip (microprocessor) that communicates with a card reader through RFID technology. Examples of contactless smart card communications are ISO/IEC 14443 and FeliCa, which allow communications at distances up to 10 cm.

NFC devices are unique in that they can change their mode of operation to be in reader/writer mode, peer-to-peer mode, or card emulation mode. The different operating modes are based on the ISO/IEC 18092 NFC IP-1 and ISO/IEC 14443 contactless smart card standards.
In reader/writer mode, the NFC device is capable of reading NFC Forum mandated tag types, such as in the scenario of reading an NFC Smartposter tag. The reader/writer mode is on the RF interface compliant to the ISO 14443 and FeliCa schemes. In Peer-to-Peer mode, two NFC devices can exchange data. For example, you can share Bluetooth or WiFi link set up parameters, and exchange data such as virtual business cards or digital photos. Peer-to-Peer mode is standardized on the ISO/IEC 18092 standard. In Card Emulation mode, the NFC device itself acts as an NFC tag, appearing to an external reader much the same as a traditional contactless smart card. This enables contactless payments and eticketing, for example. Recent study performed by ABI Research projects that 50% of all cell phones would support Near Field Communication (NFC) technology by 2009, with NFC-enabled handset shipments of 500+ million by 2010. The study states that by 2007, higher-volume NFC deployments will be common, first in wireless handsets, then in other kinds of consumer electronics, from PCs to cameras, printers, set-top boxes and more. ABI Research concludes that the five-year implications of NFC technology – from NFC cellular handsets to NFC consumer electronics – show tremendous promise of enhancing end user experiences while reshaping communications, content and payment business models.

In Japan, NFC 212 kbps passive mode contactless technology has already been implemented with payment as a killer application.

In its latest analysis of the Near Field Communication market, ABI Research forecasts that by 2012, some 292 million handsets — just over 20 percent of the global mobile handset market — will ship with built in NFC capabilities. 2007 will be critical for NFC technology as key standards and operator trials complete the foundations for the first real deployments. “NFC in mobile phones promises a quicker and easier way to execute a host of key tasks by just waving the phone,” says senior analyst Jonathan Collins. “Making payments, unlocking doors, downloading content, even setting up wireless networks and many other applications, can all be enabled from an NFC handset.” But early enthusiasm for NFC adoption in handsets — fuelled by its functionality and flexibility — has been tempered by the complexity of the ecosystem required to support multiple, revenue-generating NFC applications.  ABI Research believes that NFC will not become widely available in the handset market until wireless operators are confident they will see a clear return from specifying NFC in their latest handsets. “As the dominant mobile handset purchasers in the world, mobile operators stand as the gatekeepers of NFC’s entry into new handsets,” notes Collins, “and until they are comfortable with getting a return on the investment in those handsets, NFC will not reach a mass market.” While the simplicity of NFC use reflects its lineage in already-deployed contactless payment, ticketing and access control technologies, the multiple applications NFC facilitates bring a host of complexities and interoperability issues when it comes to creating the business relationships required to enable and manage NFC applications on each handset. Success in developing NFC relationships, primarily between card issuers, contactless transportation ticketing providers and mobile operators, will determine the speed and shape of deployment and consumer availability of NFC in handsets.

In December 2002, a group comprised of communication giants like Nokia, Philips and Sony had a conference at ECMA International [an industry association dedicated to the standardization in information technology and telecommunication, adopted NFC overseeing the new technology emergence of NFC. NFC Standards are acknowledged by ISO/IEC (International Organization for Standardization / International Electrotechnical Commission), ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute), and ECMA (European association for standardizing information and communication systems). NFC Forum compliant devices in NFC Forum Reader/Writer mode must support the RF requirements for ISO/IEC 14443A, ISO/IEC 14443 B and FeliCa as outlined in the relevant parts in the ISO 18092. NFC data transmission is measured in Kilo Bits Per Second (kbps). The NFC standard supports varying data rates, again to ensure interoperability between pre-existing infrastructures. The current data rates are 106kbps, 212kbps and 424kbps.

80C51 microcontroller core with 32 KB ROM and 1 KB RAM
Highly integrated analog circuitry to demodulate and decode card response
Buffered output drivers to connect an antenna with minimum number of external components
Integrated RF level detector
Integrated card mode detector
Integrated hardware and embedded firmware support for:
ISO 14443A reader/writer mode
MIFARE® Classic encryption and MIFARE® higher baudrate communication up to 424 kbit/s
contactless communication according to the FeliCa™ scheme at 212 kbit/s and 424 kbit/s
NFC standard ECMA 340: NFC IP-1 interface and protocol
Supported host interfaces
USB 2.0 full speed device
SPI interface
I²C interface
2.5 – 3.3 V power supply
The underlying layers of NFC technology are ISO, ECMA, and ETSI standards. NFC applications can be split into the following four basic categories:

The PN531 IC uses an 80C51 processor with 32 Kbytes ROM and 1 Kbytes RAM. It fully supports ISO 18092, MIFARE® and FeliCa™ read/write modes. It can also act as a smart card in combination with a security controller IC. Furthermore the embedded firmware and the internal hardware support the handling and the host protocols for USB 2.0, I2C, SPI and serial UART interfaces.

NFC is fully compatible with both NXP’s MIFARE® and Sony’s Felica contactless smart card platforms. These proven systems provide a solid foundation for the introduction of NFC-enabled devices. This enables NFC devices, like your mobile phone or PDA, to act as an electronic key to access your home, office, or car, or to pay for – as well as to act as – your transport ticket.

NFC applications can be split into four basic categories.

Touch and Go
Applications such as access control or transport/event ticketing, where the user only needs to bring the device storing the ticket or access code close to the reader. Also, for simple data capture applications, such as picking up an Internet URL from a smart label on a poster.
Touch and Confirm
Applications such as mobile payment where the user has to confirm the interaction by entering a password or just accepting the transaction.
Touch and Connect
Linking two NFC-enabled devices to enable peer-to-peer transfer of data such as downloading music, exchanging images or synchronizing address books.
Touch and Explore
NFC devices may offer more than one possible function. The consumer will be able to explore a device’s capabilities to find out which functionalities and services are offered.
This NFC technology cost is very low comparing to other technologies. In future each and every electronic device will have NFC technology. At present NFC technology is extensively used in mobile phones and other consumer products.

In future small and medium sized companies may utilize this technology for their products since the cost for implementing near field communication technology will be much lower than now.

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NFC – Near Field Communication. (2017, Apr 17). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/nfc-near-field-communication/